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Endemism
Endemism
Endemism
is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people".[1] The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists,[a] and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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Socotra
Socotra
Socotra
(Arabic: سُقُطْرَى‎ Suquṭra), also spelled Soqotra, is an archipelago of four islands located in the Arabian Sea, the largest island of which is also known as Socotra. The territory is part of Yemen, and had long been a subdivision of the Aden Governorate. In 2004, it became attached to the Hadhramaut Governorate, which is much closer to the island than Aden
Aden
(although the nearest governorate was the Al Mahrah Governorate). In 2013, the archipelago became its own governorate, the Socotra
Socotra
Governorate. The island of Socotra
Socotra
constitutes around 95% of the landmass of the Socotra
Socotra
archipelago
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Endangered
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct. Endangered (EN), as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered (CR). In 2012, the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
featured 3079 animal and 2655 plant species as endangered (EN) worldwide.[1] The figures for 1998 were, respectively, 1102 and 1197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves
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Extinct Species
This page features lists of extinct species, organisms that have become extinct, either in the wild life or completely disappeared from Earth
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Introduced Species
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species
Introduced species
that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species. The impact of introduced species is highly variable. Some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem, while other introduced species may have no negative effect or only minor impact. Some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests. They are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example
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Bermuda Petrel
The Bermuda
Bermuda
petrel ( Pterodroma
Pterodroma
cahow) is a gadfly petrel. Commonly known in Bermuda
Bermuda
as the cahow, a name derived from its eerie cries, this nocturnal ground-nesting seabird is the national bird of Bermuda and can be found on Bermudian money. It is the second rarest seabird on the planet and a symbol of hope for nature conservation. They are known for their medium-sized body and long wings. The Bermuda
Bermuda
petrel has a greyish-black crown and collar, dark grey upper-wings and tail, white upper-tail coverts and white under-wings edged with black, and the underparts are completely white. For 300 years, it was thought to be extinct. The dramatic rediscovery in 1951 of eighteen nesting pairs made this a "Lazarus species", that is, a species found to be alive after having been considered extinct. This has inspired a book and two documentary films
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Ethiopian Highlands
The Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa. It forms the largest continuous area of its altitude in the continent, with little of its surface falling below 1500 m (4,921 ft), while the summits reach heights of up to 4550 m (14,928 ft)
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Juniperus Bermudiana
Juniperus
Juniperus
bermudiana is a species of juniper endemic to Bermuda. This species is most commonly known as Bermuda
Bermuda
cedar, but is also referred to as Bermuda
Bermuda
juniper. Historically, this tree formed woodland that covered much of Bermuda. Settlers cleared part of the forest and the tree was used for many purposes including building construction and was especially prized for shipbuilding. However scale insects introduced during World War II devastated the forests, killing over 99% of the Bermuda
Bermuda
cedar. Since then, the salt tolerant casuarina has been planted as a replacement species, and a small number of Bermuda cedars have been found to be resistant to the scale insects. Populations of certain endemic birds which had co-evolved with the tree, have plummeted as a result of its demise
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Galápagos Islands
The Galápagos
Galápagos
Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos, Spanish pronunciation: [las ˈiʱla ɣaˈlapaɣo]), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the Equator
Equator
in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, 906 km (563 mi) west of continental Ecuador
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Polyploidy
Polyploid
Polyploid
cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most species whose cells have nuclei (eukaryotes) are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes—one set inherited from each parent. However, polyploidy is found in some organisms and is especially common in plants. In addition, polyploidy occurs in some tissues of animals that are otherwise diploid, such as human muscle tissues.[1] This is known as endopolyploidy. Species
Species
whose cells do not have nuclei, that is, prokaryotes, may be polyploid, as seen in the large bacterium Epulopiscium fishelsoni.[2] Hence ploidy is defined with respect to a cell. Most eukaryotes have diploid somatic cells, but produce haploid gametes (eggs and sperm) by meiosis. A monoploid has only one set of chromosomes, and the term is usually only applied to cells or organisms that are normally diploid
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Logging
Logging
Logging
is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks[1] or skeleton cars. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, however, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging
Illegal logging
refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft by the timber mafia.[2][3] It can also refer to the harvesting, transportation, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws
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Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
(from the Latin
Latin
ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In federations like the United States, areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area to which such authority applies, e.g. the court has jurisdiction over all of Colorado
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Southeast Alaska
Southeast Alaska, sometimes referred to as the Alaska Panhandle, is the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Alaska, bordered to the east by the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia
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Glacier Bear
The glacier bear (Ursus americanus emmonsii), sometimes referred to as the blue bear, is a subspecies of American black bear
American black bear
with silver-blue or gray hair endemic to Southeast Alaska. Little scientific knowledge exists of their total extent and the cause of their unique coloration. Most of the other black bears in southeast Alaska are listed under the subspecies Ursus americanus pugnax.[2][3] The USDA Forest Service lists U. a. emmonsii as one of several subspecies of black bears, although no evidence supports the subspecies designation other than hair coloration.[4]Contents1 Unique features 2 Habitat and range 3 Diet 4 Reproduction 5 Research 6 ReferencesUnique features[edit]U. a. emmonsiiThe chief feature distinguishing the glacier bear from other black bears is its pelage (hair coloration), which ranges from silvery blue to gray
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South Africa
[Note 1]11 languagesAfrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa ZuluEthnic groups (2014[3])80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% AsianReligion See Religion in South AfricaDemonym South AfricanGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentCyril Ramaphosa• Deputy PresidentDavid Mabuza• Chairperson of the National Council of ProvincesThandi Modise• Speaker of the National AssemblyBaleka Mbete• Chief JusticeMogoeng MogoengLegislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council• Lower houseNational AssemblyIndependence from the United Kingdom• Union31 May 1910• Self-governance11 December 1931• Republic31 May 1961•
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Chorus Cicada
The chorus cicada, Amphipsalta
Amphipsalta
zelandica, is the most common species of cicada in New Zealand
New Zealand
where it is endemic and found in most areas. They typically live in forests and areas with open bush, where their left-over nymph skins can be seen on tree trunks and branches during the summer months. The males produce their cicada sound in unison, which can reach deafening proportions at the height of their population around February
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