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Empennage
The EMPENNAGE (/ˌɑːmpᵻˈnɑːʒ/ or /ˈɛmpᵻnɪdʒ/ ), also known as the TAIL or TAIL ASSEMBLY, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow . The term derives from the French language word _empenner_ which means "to feather an arrow". Most aircraft feature an empennage incorporating vertical and horizontal stabilising surfaces which stabilise the flight dynamics of yaw and pitch , as well as housing control surfaces . In spite of effective control surfaces, many early aircraft that lacked a stabilising empennage were virtually unflyable. Even so-called "tailless aircraft " usually have a tail fin (usually a vertical stabiliser ). Heavier-than-air aircraft without any kind of empennage (such as the Northrop B-2 ) are rare. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Trim * 3 Tail configurations * 3.1 Tailplanes * 3.2 Fins * 3.3 V and X tails * 3.4 Box kite tails * 3.5 Tailless * 4 See also * 5 References STRUCTUREStructurally, the empennage consists of the entire tail assembly, including the tailfin , the tailplane and the part of the fuselage to which these are attached. On an airliner this would be all the flying and control surfaces behind the rear pressure bulkhead . The front (usually fixed) section of the tailplane is called the tailplane or horizontal stabiliser and is used to provide pitch stability
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Boeing 747-200
The Boeing
Boeing
747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet. Its distinctive "hump" upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft makes it among the world's most recognizable aircraft,[5] and it was the first wide-body produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the original version of the 747 was envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing
Boeing
707,[6] one of the common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years.[7] The four-engine 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length. It is available in passenger, freighter and other versions. Boeing
Boeing
designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first class lounge or extra seating, and to allow the aircraft to be easily converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door
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Arrow
An ARROW is a shafted projectile that is shot with a bow . It predates recorded history and is common to most cultures . An arrow usually consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the other. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Size * 2.1 Shaft * 2.1.1 GPI rating * 2.1.2 Footed arrows * 2.2 Arrowhead * 2.3 Fletchings * 2.4 Nocks * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 External links HISTORY Main article: History of archery The oldest evidence of stone-tipped projectiles, which may or may not have been propelled by a bow (c.f. atlatl ), dating to c. 64,000 years ago, were found in Sibudu Cave , current South Africa . The oldest evidence of the use of bows to shoot arrows dates to about 10,000 years ago; it is based on pinewood arrows found in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg . They had shallow grooves on the base, indicating that they were shot from a bow. The oldest bow so far recovered is about 8,000 years old, found in the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Archery seems to have arrived in the Americas with the Arctic small tool tradition , about 4,500 years ago. SIZE Schematic of an arrow with many parts. Arrow sizes vary greatly across cultures, ranging from eighteen inches to five feet (45 cm to 150 cm)
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Flight Dynamics
FLIGHT DYNAMICS is the study of the performance, stability, and control of vehicles flying through the air or in outer space . It is concerned with how forces acting on the vehicle influence its speed and attitude with respect to time. In fixed-wing aircraft, the changing orientation of the vehicle with respect to the local air flow is represented by two critical parameters, angle of attack ("alpha") and angle of sideslip ("beta"). These angles describe the vector direction of airspeed, important because they are the principal source of modulations in the aerodynamic forces and moments applied to the aircraft. Spacecraft flight dynamics involve three forces: propulsive (rocket engine), gravitational, and lift and drag (when traveling through the earth's or any other atmosphere). Because aerodynamic forces involved with spacecraft flight are very small, this leaves gravity as the dominant force. Aircraft
Aircraft
and spacecraft share a critical interest in their orientation with respect to the earth horizon and heading, and this is represented by another set of angles, "yaw", "pitch", and "roll", which angles match their colloquial meaning, but also have formal definition as an Euler sequence. These angles are the product of the rotational equations of motion, where orientation responds to torque, just as the velocity of a vehicle responds to forces
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Yaw (rotation)
A YAW ROTATION is a movement around the yaw axis of a rigid body that changes the direction it is pointing, to the left or right of its direction of motion. The YAW RATE or YAW VELOCITY of a car, aircraft, projectile or other rigid body is the angular velocity of this rotation, or rate of change of the heading angle when the aircraft is horizontal. It is commonly measured in degrees per second or radians per second. Another important concept is the yaw moment , or yawing moment, which is the component of a torque about the yaw axis. CONTENTS * 1 Measurement * 2 Yaw rate control * 3 Road vehicles * 4 Relationship with other rotation systems * 5 History * 6 See also * 7 References MEASUREMENTYaw velocity can be measured by measuring the ground velocity at two geometrically separated points on the body, or by a gyroscope , or it can be synthesized from accelerometers and the like. It is the primary measure of how drivers sense a car's turning visually. Axes of a ship and rotations around them It is important in electronic stabilized vehicles. The yaw rate is directly related to the lateral acceleration of the vehicle turning at constant speed around a constant radius, by the relationship tangential speed*yaw velocity = lateral acceleration = tangential speed^2/radius of turn, in appropriate units The sign convention can be established by rigorous attention to coordinate systems
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Pitch (flight)
An aircraft in flight is free to rotate in three dimensions: pitch, nose up or down about an axis running from wing to wing; yaw, nose left or right about an axis running up and down; and roll, rotation about an axis running from nose to tail. The axes are alternatively designated as lateral, vertical, and longitudinal. These axes move with the vehicle and rotate relative to the Earth along with the craft. These definitions were analogously applied to spacecraft when the first manned spacecraft were designed in the late 1950s. These rotations are produced by torques (or moments ) about the principal axes. On an aircraft, these are intentionally produced by means of moving control surfaces, which vary the distribution of the net aerodynamic force about the vehicle's center of mass . Elevators (moving flaps on the horizontal tail) produce pitch, a rudder on the vertical tail produces yaw, and ailerons (flaps on the wings that move in opposing directions) produce roll. On a spacecraft, the moments are usually produced by a reaction control system consisting of small rocket thrusters used to apply asymmetrical thrust on the vehicle
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Flight Control Surface
Aircraft FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES are aerodynamic devices allowing a pilot to adjust and control the aircraft's flight attitude . Development of an effective set of flight control surfaces was a critical advance in the development of aircraft. Early efforts at fixed-wing aircraft design succeeded in generating sufficient lift to get the aircraft off the ground, but once aloft, the aircraft proved uncontrollable, often with disastrous results. The development of effective flight controls is what allowed stable flight. This article describes the control surfaces used on a fixed-wing aircraft of conventional design. Other fixed-wing aircraft configurations may use different control surfaces but the basic principles remain. The controls (stick and rudder ) for rotary wing aircraft (helicopter or autogyro ) accomplish the same motions about the three axes of rotation , but manipulate the rotating flight controls (main rotor disk and tail rotor disk) in a completely different manner
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Tailless Aircraft
A TAILLESS AIRCRAFT has no tail assembly and no other horizontal surface besides its main wing. The aerodynamic control and stabilisation functions in both pitch and roll are incorporated into the main wing. A tailless type may still have a conventional vertical fin (vertical stabilizer ) and rudder . Theoretical advantages of the tailless configuration include low parasitic drag as on the Horten H.IV soaring glider and good stealth characteristics as on the Northrop B-2 Spirit bomber. The most successful tailless configuration has been the tailless delta , especially for combat aircraft, though the most familiar tailless delta is the Concorde
Concorde
airliner. NASA
NASA
has recently used the 'tailless' description for the novel X-36 research aircraft which has a canard foreplane but no vertical fin. CONTENTS * 1 Flying wings * 2 Aerodynamics * 2.1 Drag * 2.2 Longitudinal stability * 2.3 Pitch control * 3 History * 3.1 J. W. Dunne * 3.2 Inter-war and WWII * 3.3 Postwar * 4 List of tailless aircraft * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Inline citations * 6.2 General references * 7 External links FLYING WINGS Main article: Flying wing
Flying wing
A FLYING WING is a tailless design which also lacks a distinct fuselage , having the pilot, engines, etc. located directly in or on the wing
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Vertical Stabiliser
The VERTICAL STABILIZERS, VERTICAL STABILISERS, or FINS, of aircraft , missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide direction stability. It is analogous to a skeg on boats and ships. On aircraft, vertical stabilizers generally point upwards. These are also known as the vertical tail, and are part of an aircraft's empennage . This upright mounting position has two major benefits: The drag of the stabilizer increases at speed, which creates a nose-up moment that help to slow down the aircraft that prevent dangerous overspeed, and when the aircraft banks the stabilizer produces lift which counters the banking moment and keeps the aircraft upright at the absence of control input. If the vertical stabilizer was mounted on the underside, it would produce a positive feedback whenever the aircraft dove or banked, which is inherently unstable . The trailing end of the stabilizer is typically movable, and called the rudder ; this allows the aircraft pilot to control yaw . Often navigational radio or airband transceiver antennas are placed on or inside the vertical tail. In all known trijets (jet aircraft with 3 engines), the vertical stabilizer houses the central engine or engine inlet duct
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Northrop B-2
The NORTHROP (later NORTHROP GRUMMAN) B-2 SPIRIT, also known as the STEALTH BOMBER, is an American heavy penetration strategic bomber , featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses ; it is a flying wing design with a crew of two. The bomber can deploy both conventional and thermonuclear weapons , such as eighty 500 lb (230 kg)-class (Mk 82 ) JDAM Global Positioning System -guided bombs, or sixteen 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs . The B-2 is the only acknowledged aircraft that can carry large air-to-surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration. Development originally started under the "Advanced Technology Bomber" (ATB) project during the Carter administration
Carter administration
; its expected performance was one of his reasons for the cancellation of the supersonic B-1A bomber . The ATB project continued during the Reagan administration , but worries about delays in its introduction led to the reinstatement of the B-1 program, as well. Program costs rose throughout development. Designed and manufactured by Northrop , later Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
, the cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million (in 1997 dollars). Total procurement costs averaged $929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support
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Tailplane
A TAILPLANE, also known as a HORIZONTAL STABILISER , is a small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage ) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes . Not all fixed-wing aircraft have tailplanes. Canards , tailless and flying wing aircraft have no separate tailplane, while in v-tail aircraft the vertical stabilizer, rudder, and the tail-plane and elevator are combined to form two diagonal surfaces in a V layout. The function of the tailplane is to provide stability and control. In particular, the tailplane helps adjust for changes in the center of pressure or center of gravity caused by changes in speed and attitude, fuel consumption, or dropping cargo or payload. CONTENTS * 1 Tailplane
Tailplane
types * 2 Stability * 2.1 Damping * 2.2 Lift * 2.3 Active stability * 2.4 Mach tuck * 3 Control * 4 See also * 5 References TAILPLANE TYPESThe tailplane comprises the tail-mounted fixed horizontal stabiliser and movable elevator. Besides its planform , it is characterised by: * Number of tailplanes - from 0 (tailless or canard ) to 3 (Roe triplane ) * Location of tailplane - mounted high, mid or low on the fuselage, fin or tail booms. * Fixed stabilizer and movable elevator surfaces, or a single combined stabilator or (all) flying tail
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Fuselage
The FUSELAGE (/ˈfjuːzəlɑːʒ/ ; from the French _fuselé_ "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft 's main body section. It holds crew, passengers, and cargo . In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull . The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, which is required for aircraft stability and maneuverability. CONTENTS* 1 Types of structures * 1.1 Truss
Truss
structure * 1.2 Geodesic construction * 1.3 Monocoque
Monocoque
shell * 1.4 Semi-monocoque * 2 Materials * 3 Windows * 4 Wing integration * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links TYPES OF STRUCTURES Piper PA-18welded tube truss fuselage structure TRUSS STRUCTURE Main article: Truss
Truss
This type of structure is still in use in many lightweight aircraft using welded steel tube trusses. A box truss fuselage structure can also be built out of wood—often covered with plywood. Simple box structures may be rounded by the addition of supported lightweight stringers, allowing the fabric covering to form a more aerodynamic shape, or one more pleasing to the eye
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Rear Pressure Bulkhead
The AFT PRESSURE BULKHEAD or REAR PRESSURE BULKHEAD is the rear component of the pressure seal in all aircraft that cruise in a tropopause zone in the earth's atmosphere. It helps maintain pressure when stratocruising and protects the aircraft from bursting due to the higher internal pressure. Aft pressure bulkheads can either be curved, which reduces the amount of metal needed at the cost of reducing the usable space in the airliner, or flat, which gives more internal space but also more weight. FAILURE INCIDENTSIn 1971 British European Airways Flight 706
British European Airways Flight 706
crashed in Belgium, killing all 63 on board; the cause was determined to be corrosion of the rear pressure bulkhead by fluid contamination, perhaps from the lavatory. The corrosion was not detectable by the inspection techniques at the time. In 1985 Japan Airlines Flight 123
Japan Airlines Flight 123
crashed after a catastrophic failure of the aft pressure bulkhead. The failure occurred due to faulty repair of the bulkhead after a tailstrike seven years earlier, when a single repair patch plate was incorrectly cut in two "to make it fit". Failure of the bulkhead damaged hydraulic pipes passing through. Boeing later calculated that the incorrect installation would be expected to fail after approximately 10,000 pressurizations; the repaired aircraft accomplished 12,318 successful flights before the crash
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Elevator (aircraft)
ELEVATORS are flight control surfaces , usually at the rear of an aircraft , which control the aircraft's pitch , and therefore the angle of attack and the lift of the wing. The elevators are usually hinged to the tailplane or horizontal stabilizer . They may be the only pitch control surface present, sometimes located at front (early airplanes) or integrated into a rear "all-moving tailplane" also called a slab elevator or stabilator . CONTENTS * 1 Elevators\' effect * 2 Elevators\' location * 3 Research * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ELEVATORS\' EFFECTThe horizontal stabilizer usually creates a downward force which balances the nose down moment created by the wing lift force, which typically applies at a point (the wing center of lift) situated aft of the airplane's center of gravity . The effects of drag and engine thrust may also result in pitch moments that need to be compensated with the horizontal stabilizer. Both the horizontal stabilizer and the elevator contribute to pitch stability, but only the elevators provide pitch control. They do so by decreasing or increasing the downward force created by the stabilizer : * an increased downward force, produced by up elevator, forces the tail down and the nose up. At constant speed, the increased wing angle of attack causes a greater lift to be produced by the wing, accelerating the aircraft upwards
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