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Empennage
The empennage (/ˌɑːmpɪˈnɑːʒ/ or /ˈɛmpɪnɪdʒ/), also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow.[1][2][3] The term derives from the French language word empenner which means "to feather an arrow".[4] Most aircraft feature an empennage incorporating vertical and horizontal stabilising surfaces which stabilise the flight dynamics of yaw and pitch,[1][2] as well as housing control surfaces. In spite of effective control surfaces, many early aircraft that lacked a stabilising empennage were virtually unflyable. Even so-called "tailless aircraft" usually have a tail fin (usually a vertical stabiliser)
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Sadler Vampire
The Sadler SV-1 Vampire is a single-seat ultralight sport aircraft developed in the United States in the early 1980s.[1] It is uncharacteristic of ultralight designs in both its layout and its construction
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Emergency Locator Transmitter
An emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station is a COSPAS-SARSAT 406-MHz tracking transmitters in the mobile radiocommunication service which aid search and rescue operations in the detection and location of boats, aircraft, and people in distress.[1] It is distinct from a Satellite
Satellite
emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station. The first form of these beacons was the 121.500 MHz ELT, which was designed as an automatic locator beacon for crashed military aircraft. These beacons were first used in the 1950s by the U.S. military and were mandated for use on many types of commercial and general aviation aircraft beginning in the early 1970s.[2] The frequency and signal format used by the ELT beacons was not designed for satellite detection, which resulted in a system with poor location detection abilities and with long delays in detection of activated beacons
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De Havilland Vampire
The de Havilland Vampire is a British jet fighter developed and manufactured by the de Havilland Aircraft Company. It had the distinction of being the second jet fighter, following after the Gloster Meteor, to be operated by the RAF
RAF
and the first to be powered by a single jet engine. Work on the Vampire commenced during 1941 in the midst of the Second World War; it was initially intended as an experimental aircraft, albeit one that was suitable for combat, that harnessed the groundbreaking innovation of jet propulsion. Out of the company's design studies, it was quickly decided to settle on a single-engine, twin-boom aircraft, powered by the Halford H.1 turbojet engine (later produced as the "Goblin")
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ERCO Ercoupe
The ERCO Ercoupe
ERCO Ercoupe
is a low-wing monoplane aircraft that was designed and built in the United States. It was first manufactured by the Engineering and Research Corporation (ERCO) shortly before World War II; several other manufacturers continued its production after the war. The final model, the Mooney M-10, first flew in 1968 and the last model year was 1970. It was designed to be the safest fixed-wing aircraft that aerospace engineering could provide at the time, and the type continues to enjoy a faithful following.Contents1 Design and development1.1 Postwar sales 1.2 Other production2 Operational history2.1 Military 2.2 Light sport use3 Variants 4 Specifications (Ercoupe 415-C) 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksDesign and development[edit] Fred Weick
Fred Weick
designed the W-1 with tricycle landing gear
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Avro Lancaster
The Avro
Avro
Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber. It was designed and manufactured by Avro
Avro
as a contemporary of the Handley Page
Handley Page
Halifax, both bombers having been developed to the same specification, as well as the Short Stirling, all three aircraft being four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) during the same wartime era. The Lancaster has its origins in the twin-engine Avro
Avro
Manchester
Manchester
which had been developed during the late 1930s in response to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for "world-wide use"
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B-25 Mitchell
The North American B-25 Mitchell
North American B-25 Mitchell
is an American twin-engine, medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation
North American Aviation
(NAA). The design was named in honor of Major General William "Billy" Mitchell, a pioneer of U.S. military aviation
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McDonnell Douglas DC-9
The McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
DC-9 (initially known as Douglas DC-9) is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It first flew and entered airline service in 1965. The DC-9 was designed for frequent, short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982. DC-9-based airliners including the MD-80, MD-90 and Boeing 717
Boeing 717
later followed in production
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Boeing 727
The Boeing
Boeing
727 is a midsized, narrow-body three-engined jet aircraft built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
from the early 1960s to 1984.[1] It can carry 149 to 189 passengers and later models can fly up to 2,700 nautical miles (5,000 km) nonstop. Intended for short and medium-length flights, the 727 can use relatively short runways at smaller airports. It has three Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines below the T-tail, one on each side of the rear fuselage with a center engine that connects through an S-duct
S-duct
to an inlet at the base of the fin. The 727 is Boeing's only trijet aircraft.[3] The 727 followed the 707, a quad-jet airliner, with which it shares its upper fuselage cross-section and cockpit design
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Radar Cross Section
Radar
Radar
cross-section (RCS) is a measure of how detectable an object is by radar. A larger RCS indicates that an object is more easily detected. An object reflects a limited amount of radar energy back to the source
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Glide Ratio
Gliding
Gliding
flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals.[1] It is employed by gliding animals and by aircraft such as gliders. This mode of flight involves flying a significant distance horizontally compared to its descent and therefore can be distinguished from a mostly straight downward descent like with a round parachute. Although the human application of gliding flight usually refers to aircraft designed for this purpose, most powered aircraft are capable of gliding without engine power. As with sustained flight, gliding generally requires the application of an airfoil, such as the wings on aircraft or birds, or the gliding membrane of a gliding possum. However, gliding can be achieved with a flat (uncambered) wing, as with a simple paper plane,[2] or even with card-throwing
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Hawker Sea Hawk
The Hawker Sea Hawk
Hawker Sea Hawk
is a British single-seat jet fighter of the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), the air branch of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
(RN), built by Hawker Aircraft and its sister company, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft. Although its origins stemmed from earlier Hawker piston-engined fighters, the Sea Hawk became the company's first jet aircraft. Following the type's acceptance in the RN, the Sea Hawk proved to be a reliable and sturdy workhorse. A considerable number were also produced for the export market, and were operated from aircraft carriers in both Dutch and Indian service
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Cross
A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of oblique lines, in the shape of the Latin letter X, is also termed a saltire in heraldic terminology.Contents1 Name 2 History2.1 Pre-Christian 2.2 Christian cross3 Cross-like marks and graphemes 4 Cross-like emblems 5 Notable formations known as "cross" 6 Physical gestures 7 See also 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 Sources9 External linksName[edit] The word cross is recorded in 10th-century Old English
Old English
as cros, exclusively for the instrument of Christ's crucifixion, replacing the native Old English
Old English
word rood. The word's history is complicated; it appears to have entered English from Old Irish, possibly via Old Norse, ultimately from the Latin crux (or its accusative crucem and its genitive crucis), "stake, cross"
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General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark
The General Dynamics
General Dynamics
F-111 Aardvark
Aardvark
was a supersonic, medium-range interdictor and tactical attack aircraft that also filled the roles of strategic nuclear bomber, aerial reconnaissance, and electronic-warfare aircraft in its various versions. Developed in the 1960s by General Dynamics, it first entered service in 1967 with the United States
United States
Air Force. The Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
(RAAF) also ordered the type and began operating F-111Cs in 1973. The F-111 pioneered several technologies for production aircraft, including variable-sweep wings, afterburning turbofan engines, and automated terrain-following radar for low-level, high-speed flight. Its design influenced later variable-sweep wing aircraft, and some of its advanced features have since become commonplace. The F-111 suffered a variety of problems during initial development
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Roe I Triplane
The Roe I Triplane (often later referred to as the Avro Triplane) was an early aircraft designed and built by A.V. Roe which was the first all-British aircraft to fly.[1] (Roe's previous biplane had a French engine).Contents1 Background 2 Design and development 3 Specifications (First example) 4 Examples 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesBackground[edit] After being evicted from Brooklands, where he had worked on his first aircraft, Roe started work in July 1908 on the design of a triplane: a patent was filed for this design in January 1909,[2] and work was started on the construction of an aircraft of this design in the stable adjoining the house of his brother, Dr Spencer Verdon Roe, in Putney in South-West London
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Arrow
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is shot with a bow, and usually consists of a long straight shaft with a weighty and usually pointed arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the rear end. The use of bows and arrows by humans predates recorded history and is common to most cultures. One who makes arrows is a fletcher.[1]Contents1 History 2 Size2.1 Shaft2.1.1 GPI rating 2.1.2 Footed arrows2.2 Arrowhead 2.3 Fletchings 2.4 Nocks3 Finishes and Cresting 4 See also 5 Symbolism 6 Notes 7 External linksHistory[edit] Main article: History of archery The oldest evidence of stone-tipped projectiles, which may or may not have been propelled by a bow (c.f. atlatl), dating to c. 64,000 years ago, were found in Sibudu Cave, current South Africa.[2] The oldest evidence of the use of bows to shoot arrows dates to about 10,000 years ago; it is based on pinewood arrows found in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg
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