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Egyptian Arabic
EGYPTIAN ARABIC, locally known as the EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE or MAṣRI, meaning simply "Egyptian," is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians . Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is a North African dialect of the Arabic
Arabic
language which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family
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Dialect Continuum
A DIALECT CONTINUUM or DIALECT CHAIN is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that each differs only slightly from its neighbors, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible . That happens, for example, across large parts of India or the Maghreb . Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal
Portugal
, southern Belgium
Belgium
and southern Italy , and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
. Leonard Bloomfield used the name DIALECT AREA. Charles F. Hockett used the term L-COMPLEX. It is analogous to a ring species in evolutionary biology
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MENA
MENA
MENA
is an English-language acronym referring to the MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA region. The term MENA
MENA
covers an extensive region, extending from Morocco
Morocco
to Iran
Iran
, including all Middle Eastern Mashriq and Maghreb countries. This toponym is roughly synonymous with the term the Greater Middle East
Middle East
. The population of the MENA
MENA
region at its least extent is estimated to be around 381 million people. This constitutes about 6% of the total world population. The MENA
MENA
acronym is often used in academia , military planning, disaster relief, and business writing
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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South East Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia
. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with heavy seismic and volcanic activity
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . Developed in conjunction with the Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) standard and published as The Unicode Standard, the latest version of Unicode
Unicode
contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts). As of June 2017 , the most recent version is Unicode
Unicode
10.0
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Latin Letters
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa , the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel . Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic

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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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SMS
SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE (SMS) is a text messaging service component of most telephone , World Wide Web
World Wide Web
, and mobile telephony systems . It uses standardized communication protocols to enable mobile phone devices to exchange short text messages. An intermediary service can facilitate a text-to-voice conversion to be sent to landlines. SMS was the most widely used data application, with an estimated 3.5 billion active users, or about 80% of all mobile phone subscribers, at the end of 2010. SMS, as used on modern handsets, originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers that used standardized phone protocols. These were defined in 1985 as part of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) series of standards. The protocols allowed users to send and receive messages of up to 160 alpha-numeric characters to and from GSM mobile handsets
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
* Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe
Europe
is bordered by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia
Asia
is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe
Europe
also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia
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