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Earthwork (archaeology)
In archaeology , EARTHWORKS are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features , or they can show features beneath the surface. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Size * 3 Detection * 4 Interpretation * 5 Examples * 6 Gallery * 7 Notes * 8 References TYPESEarthworks of interest to archaeologists include hill forts , henges , mounds , platform mounds , effigy mounds , enclosures , long barrows , tumuli , ridge and furrow , mottes , round barrows , and other tombs . * Hill forts , a type of fort made out of mostly earth and other natural materials including sand, straw, and water, were built as early as the late Stone Age and were built more frequently during the Bronze Age and Iron Age as a means of protection
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GIS
A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data . The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographic information science (GIScience) to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of geoinformatics . What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure , a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries. In general, the term describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems
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Hopewell Tradition
The HOPEWELL TRADITION (also called the HOPEWELL CULTURE) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States
United States
from 200 BC to 500 AD , in the Middle Woodland period . The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States
United States
as far south as the Crystal River Indian Mounds into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
in the north. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways. The Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over what is now the United States
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Ohio
OHIO /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen ) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States
United States
. Ohio
Ohio
is the 34th largest by area , the 7th most populous , and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States
United States
. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus . The state takes its name from the Ohio River
Ohio River
. The name originated from the Seneca language word ohiːyo', meaning "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance ) on March 1, 1803. Ohio
Ohio
is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees , and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes"
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust
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Lidar
LIDAR (also called LIDAR, LIDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating that target with a pulsed laser light, and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor. Differences in laser return times and wavelengths can then be used to make digital 3D-representations of the target. The name lidar, sometimes considered an acronym of Light
Light
Detection And Ranging (sometimes Light
Light
Imaging, Detection, And Ranging), was originally a portmanteau of light and radar . Lidar
Lidar
is popularly used to make high-resolution maps, with applications in geodesy , geomatics , archaeology , geography , geology , geomorphology , seismology , forestry , atmospheric physics , laser guidance , airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), and laser altimetry . The technology is also used for control and navigation for some autonomous cars
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Aerial Photography
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated/direct-down position. Usually the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft , helicopters , unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "drones"), balloons , blimps and dirigibles , rockets , pigeons , kites , parachutes , stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered remotely or automatically; hand-held photographs may be taken by a photographer. Aerial photography
Aerial photography
should not be confused with air-to-air photography , where one or more aircraft are used as chase planes that "chase" and photograph other aircraft in flight
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Offa's Dyke
Coordinates : 52°20′38″N 3°02′56″W / 52.344°N 3.049°W / 52.344; -3.049 OFFA\'S DYKE (Welsh : CLAWDD OFFA) is a large linear earthwork that roughly follows the current border between England
England
and Wales
Wales
. The structure is named after Offa , the Anglo-Saxon king of Mercia from AD 757 until 796, who is traditionally believed to have ordered its construction. Although its precise original purpose is debated, it delineated the border between Anglian Mercia and the Welsh kingdom of Powys . The Dyke, which was up to 65 feet (20 m) wide (including its flanking ditch) and 8 feet (2.4 m) high, traversed low ground, hills and rivers
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Antonine Wall
The ANTONINE WALL, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland
Scotland
, between the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
and the Firth of Clyde
Firth of Clyde
. Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, it spanned approximately 63 kilometres (39 miles) and was about 3 metres (10 feet) high and 5 metres (16 feet) wide. Security was bolstered by a deep ditch on the northern side. It is thought that there was a wooden palisade on top of the turf. The barrier was the second of two "great walls" created by the Romans in Northern Britain. Its ruins are less evident than the better-known Hadrian\'s Wall to the south, primarily because the turf and wood wall has largely weathered away, unlike its stone-built southern predecessor
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Maiden Castle, Dorset
Coordinates : 50°41′40″N 2°28′05″W / 50.694495°N 2.468192°W / 50.694495; -2.468192 MAIDEN CASTLE is an Iron Age
Iron Age
hill fort 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) south west of Dorchester , in the English county of Dorset
Dorset
. Hill forts were fortified hill-top settlements constructed across Britain during the Iron Age
Iron Age
. The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the site consists of a Neolithic
Neolithic
causewayed enclosure and bank barrow . In about 1800 BC, during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, the site was used for growing crops before being abandoned
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Cropmarks
CROPMARKS or CROP MARKS are a means through which sub-surface archaeological , natural and recent features may be visible from the air or a vantage point on higher ground or a temporary platform. Along with parch marks , soil marks and frost marks can reveal buried archaeological sites not visible from the ground. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Sketched diagram of a NEGATIVE CROPMARK above a wall and a POSITIVE CROPMARK above a ditch Kite aerial photo of crop marks at Nesley, near Tetbury, Gloucestershire. Cereal
Cereal
crop left, beans right. The relative intensity in the crops was reversed in the near infra-red. Crop marks appear due to the principle of differential growth. One of the factors controlling the growth of vegetation is the condition of the soil
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Archaeological Field Survey
In archaeology , SURVEY or FIELD SURVEY is a type of field research by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists ) search for archaeological sites and collect information about the location, distribution and organization of past human cultures across a large area (e.g. typically in excess of one hectare , and often in excess of many km2). Archaeologists conduct surveys to search for particular archaeological sites or kinds of sites, to detect patterns in the distribution of material culture over regions, to make generalizations or test hypotheses about past cultures, and to assess the risks that development projects will have adverse impacts on archaeological heritage. The surveys may be: (a) intrusive or non-intrusive, depending on the needs of the survey team (and the risk of destroying archaeological evidence if intrusive methods are used) and; (b) extensive or intensive, depending on the types of research questions being asked of the landscape in question
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Excavation (archaeology)
In archaeology , EXCAVATION is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains. An excavation site or "dig" is a site being studied. Such a site excavation concerns itself with a specific archaeological site or a connected series of sites, and may be conducted over as little as several weeks to over a number of years. Numerous specialized techniques each with its particular features are used. Resources and other practical issues do not allow archaeologists to carry out excavations whenever and wherever they choose. These constraints mean many known sites have been deliberately left unexcavated. This is with the intention of preserving them for future generations as well as recognising the role they serve in the communities that live near them. Excavation involves the recovery of several types of data from a site
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Monks Mound
MONKS MOUND is the largest Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
earthwork in the Americas and the largest pyramid north of Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. The beginning of its construction dates from 900-955 CE. Located at the Cahokia
Cahokia
Mounds UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
near Collinsville, Illinois , the mound size was calculated in 1988 as about 100 feet (30 m) high, 955 feet (291 m) long including the access ramp at the southern end, and 775 feet (236 m) wide. This makes Monks Mound
Monks Mound
roughly the same size at its base as the Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
(13.1 acres / 5.3 hectares). Its base circumference is larger than the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
. As a platform mound, the earthwork supported a wooden structure on the summit
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Cahokia
The CAHOKIA MOUNDS STATE HISTORIC SITE /kəˈhoʊkiə/ (11 MS 2 ) is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (c. 600–1400 CE) directly across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
from modern St. Louis, Missouri . This historic park lies in southern Illinois
Illinois
between East St. Louis and Collinsville . The park covers 2,200 acres (890 ha), or about 3.5 square miles (9 km2), and contains about 80 mounds, but the ancient city was much larger. In its heyday, Cahokia
Cahokia
covered about 6 square miles (16 km2) and included about 120 human-made earthen mounds in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and functions
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Citrus County
CITRUS COUNTY is a county located in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Florida
Florida
. As of the 2010 census , the population was 141,236. Its county seat is Inverness , and its largest community is Homosassa Springs . Citrus
Citrus
County comprises the Homosassa Springs, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area
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