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Earthwork (archaeology)
In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil
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Offa's Dyke
Coordinates: 52°20′38″N 3°02′56″W / 52.344°N 3.049°W / 52.344; -3.049 Offa's Dyke
Offa's Dyke
(Welsh: Clawdd Offa) is a large linear earthwork that roughly follows the current border between England
England
and Wales. The structure is named after Offa, the Anglo-Saxon king of Mercia
Mercia
from AD 757 until 796, who is traditionally believed to have ordered its construction. Although its precise original purpose is debated, it delineated the border between Anglian Mercia
Mercia
and the Welsh kingdom of Powys. The Dyke, which was up to 65 feet (20 m) wide (including its flanking ditch) and 8 feet (2.4 m) high, traversed low ground, hills and rivers. Today the earthwork is protected as a scheduled monument
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Excavation (archaeology)
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains. An excavation site or "dig" is a site being studied. Such a site excavation concerns itself with a specific archaeological site or a connected series of sites, and may be conducted over as little as several weeks to over a number of years. Numerous specialized techniques each with its particular features are used. Resources and other practical issues do not allow archaeologists to carry out excavations whenever and wherever they choose. These constraints mean many known sites have been deliberately left unexcavated
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Maiden Castle, Dorset
Coordinates: 50°41′40″N 2°28′05″W / 50.694495°N 2.468192°W / 50.694495; -2.468192 Maiden Castle is an Iron Age
Iron Age
hill fort 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset.[1][2] Hill forts were fortified hill-top settlements constructed across Britain during the Iron Age. The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the site consists of a Neolithic
Neolithic
causewayed enclosure and bank barrow. In about 1800 BC, during the Bronze Age, the site was used for growing crops before being abandoned. Maiden Castle itself was built in about 600 BC; the early phase was a simple and unremarkable site, similar to many other hill forts in Britain and covering 6.4 hectares (16 acres)
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Cropmarks
Cropmarks or Crop marks are a means through which sub-surface archaeological, natural and recent features may be visible from the air or a vantage point on higher ground or a temporary platform. Along with parch marks,[1] soil marks and frost marks can reveal buried archaeological sites not visible from the ground.Contents1 Description 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit]Sketched diagram of a negative cropmark above a wall and a positive cropmark above a ditchKite aerial photo of crop marks at Nesley, near Tetbury, Gloucestershire. Cereal
Cereal
crop left, beans right. The relative intensity in the crops was reversed in the near infra-red.Crop marks appear due to the principle of differential growth. One of the factors controlling the growth of vegetation is the condition of the soil
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Aerial Photography
Aerial photography
Aerial photography
is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.[1] Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "drones"), balloons, blimps and dirigibles, rockets, pigeons, kites, parachutes, stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles
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LIDAR
Lidar
Lidar
(also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor. Differences in laser return times and wavelengths can then be used to make digital 3-D representations of the target. The name lidar, now used as an acronym of light detection and ranging[1] (sometimes light imaging, detection, and ranging), was originally a portmanteau of light and radar.[2][3] Lidar
Lidar
sometimes is called laser scanning and 3-D scanning, with terrestrial, airborne, and mobile applications. Lidar
Lidar
is commonly used to make high-resolution maps, with applications in geodesy, geomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, atmospheric physics,[4] laser guidance, airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), and laser altimetry
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GIS
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data
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Hopewell Tradition
The Hopewell tradition
Hopewell tradition
(also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States
United States
from 200 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland
Middle Woodland
period. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes,[1] known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Crystal River Indian Mounds
Crystal River Indian Mounds
in modern-day Florida
Florida
as far north as the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways
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Ohio
Ohio
Ohio
/oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region
Great Lakes region
of the United States. Ohio
Ohio
is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio
Ohio
River
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "He h
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Archaeological Field Survey
In archaeology, survey or field survey is a type of field research by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) search for archaeological sites and collect information about the location, distribution and organization of past human cultures across a large area (e.g. typically in excess of one hectare, and often in excess of many km2). Archaeologists conduct surveys to search for particular archaeological sites or kinds of sites, to detect patterns in the distribution of material culture over regions, to make generalizations or test hypotheses about past cultures, and to assess the risks that development projects will have adverse impacts on archaeological heritage.[1] The surveys may be: (a) intrusive or non-intrusive, depending on the needs of the survey team (and the risk of destroying archaeological evidence if intrusive methods are used) and; (b) extensive or intensive, depending on the types of research questions being asked of the landscape in question
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Deserted Medieval Village
An abandoned village is a village that has, for some reason, been deserted. In many countries, and throughout history, thousands of villages have been deserted for a variety of causes. Abandonment of villages is often related to epidemic, famine, war, climate change, environmental destruction, or deliberate clearances.Contents1 Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan 2 Australia 3 Cyprus 4 Germany 5 Hong Kong 6 Hungary 7 India 8 Ireland 9 Israel, the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip 10 Malta 11 North Africa 12 Romania 13 Russia 14 Spain 15 Syria 16 United Kingdom16.1 Deserted medieval villages17 United States 18 See also 19 References 20 Further reading 21 External links Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan[edit] Hundreds of villages in Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
went deserted following the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War
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Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
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Great Serpent Mound
The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,348-foot (411 m)-long,[3] three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. Maintained within a park by the Ohio History Connection, it has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of Interior. The Serpent Mound of Ohio was first reported from surveys by Ephraim Squire and Edwin Davis in their historic volume Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, published in 1848 by the newly founded Smithsonian Museum. Researchers have at different times attributed construction of the mound to two different prehistoric indigenous cultures
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Us Midwest
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four geographic regions defined by the United States
United States
Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States
United States
of America.[2] It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984.[3] It is located between the Northeastern U.S.
Northeastern U.S.
and the Western U.S., with Canada
Canada
to its north and the Southern U.S.
Southern U.S.
to its south. The Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin
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