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Earthquakes
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami
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Strain (materials Science)
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.[1] A configuration is a set containing the positions of all particles of the body. A deformation may be caused by external loads,[2] body forces (such as gravity or electromagnetic forces), or changes in temperature, moisture content, or chemical reactions, etc. Strain is a description of deformation in terms of relative displacement of particles in the body that excludes rigid-body motions. Different equivalent choices may be made for the expression of a strain field depending on whether it is defined with respect to the initial or the final configuration of the body and on whether the metric tensor or its dual is considered. In a continuous body, a deformation field results from a stress field induced by applied forces or is due to changes in the temperature field inside the body
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Seismic Migration
Seismic migration
Seismic migration
is the process by which seismic events are geometrically re-located in either space or time to the location the event occurred in the subsurface rather than the location that it was recorded at the surface, thereby creating a more accurate image of the subsurface. This process is necessary to overcome the limitations of geophysical methods imposed by areas of complex geology, such as: faults, salt bodies, folding, etc.[1][2][3] Migration moves dipping reflectors to their true subsurface positions and collapses diffractions,[4] resulting in a migrated image that typically has an increased spatial resolution and resolves areas of complex geology much better than non-migrated images
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Potential Energy
U = m · g · h (gravitational) U = ½ · k · x2 U = ½ · C · V2 (electric) U = -m · B (magnetic)Part of a series of articles aboutClassical mechanics F → = m a → displaystyle vec F =m vec a Second law of motionHistory TimelineBranchesApplied Celestial Continuum Dynamics Kinematics Kinetics Statics StatisticalFundamentalsAcceleration Angular momentum Couple D'Alembert's principle Energykinetic potentialForce Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Impulse Inertia / Moment of inertia MassMechanical power Mechanical workMoment Momentum Space Speed Time Torque Velocity Virtual workFormulationsNewton's laws of motionAnalytical mechanicsLagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Routhian mechanics Hamilton–Jacobi equation Appell's equation of m
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Asperity (material Science)
In materials science, asperity, defined as "unevenness of surface, roughness, ruggedness" (OED, from the Latin asper — "rough"), has implications (for example) in physics and seismology. Smooth surfaces, even those polished to a mirror finish, are not truly smooth on a microscopic scale. They are rough, with sharp, rough or rugged projections, termed "asperities". Surface asperities exist across multiple scales, often in a self affine or fractal geometry.[1] The fractal dimension of these structures has been correlated with the contact mechanics exhibited at an interface in terms of friction and contact stiffness. When two macroscopically smooth surfaces come into contact, initially they only touch at a few of these asperity points. These cover only a very small portion of the surface area. Friction
Friction
and wear originate at these points, and thus understanding their behavior becomes important when studying materials in contact
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Aseismic Creep
In geology, aseismic creep or fault creep is measurable surface displacement along a fault in the absence of notable earthquakes. An aseismic creep exists along the Calaveras fault
Calaveras fault
in Hollister, California. Streets crossing the fault in Hollister show significant offset and several houses sitting atop the fault are notably twisted (yet habitable). The city attracts geologists and geology students almost weekly. There is also significant aseismic creep along the Hayward fault in and north of Hayward, California, but this is insufficient to prevent a substantial earthquake.Creep of the Hayward Fault has displaced this curb since its construction about 15 years prior
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Underground Nuclear Testing
Underground nuclear testing is the test detonation of nuclear weapons that is performed underground. When the device being tested is buried at sufficient depth, the explosion may be contained, with no release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere. The extreme heat and pressure of an underground nuclear explosion causes changes in the surrounding rock. The rock closest to the location of the test is vaporised, forming a cavity. Farther away, there are zones of crushed, cracked, and irreversibly strained rock. Following the explosion, the rock above the cavity may collapse, forming a rubble chimney. If this chimney reaches the surface, a bowl-shaped subsidence crater may form. The first underground test took place in 1951; further tests provided information that eventually led to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, which banned all nuclear tests except for those performed underground
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Seismicity
Seismicity is a measure which encompasses earthquake occurrences, mechanisms, and magnitude at a given geographical location.[1] As such it summarizes a region's seismic activity. The term was coined by Beno Gutenberg and Charles Francis Richter
Charles Francis Richter
in 1941. Seismicity is studied by geophysicists. Calculation of seismicity[edit] Seismicity is quantitatively computed
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Lithosphere
A lithosphere (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere") is the rigid,[1] outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. The study of past and current formations of landscapes is called geomorphology.Contents1 Earth's lithosphere1.1 History of the concept 1.2 Types1.2.1 Oceanic lithosphere 1.2.2 Subducted lithosphere2 Mantle xenoliths 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksEarth's lithosphere Earth's lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The lithosphere is subdivided into tectonic plates
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Index Of Geology Articles
This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:Geologic time scale List of compounds Lists of earthquakes List of elements by name Geology
Geology
of the English countiesList of geologists List of fluvial topics List of landforms List of minerals List of oil fieldsList of plate tectonics topics List of rock types List of tectonic plates List of volcanoesContents: Top A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA[edit]Asthenosphere Astrogeolo
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Flinn–Engdahl Regions
In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law. Apart from the global continental regions, there are also hydrospheric and atmospheric regions that cover the oceans, and discrete climates above the land and water masses of the planet
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Landslide
A landslide, also known as a landslip[1] or mudslide,[citation needed] is a form of mass wasting that includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows. Landslides can occur underwater, called a submarine landslide, coastal and onshore environments
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Earth
Earth
Earth
is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4.5 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year
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Stick-slip Phenomenon
The stick-slip phenomenon, also known as the slip-stick phenomenon or simply stick-slip, is the spontaneous jerking motion that can occur while two objects are sliding over each other.Contents1 Cause 2 Examples 3 References 4 External linksCause[edit] Below is a simple, heuristic description of stick-slip phenomena using classical mechanics that is relevant for engineering descriptions. However, in actuality, there is little consensus in academia regarding the actual physical description of stick-slip which follows the lack of understanding about friction phenomena in general
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Episodic Tremor And Slip
Episodic tremor and slip
Episodic tremor and slip
(ETS) is a seismological phenomenon observed in some subduction zones that is characterized by non-earthquake seismic rumbling, or tremor, and slow slip along the plate interface. Slow slip events are distinguished from earthquakes by their propagation speed and focus. In slow slip events, there is an apparent reversal of crustal motion, although the fault motion remains consistent with the direction of subduction. ETS events themselves are imperceptible to human beings and do not cause damage.[1]Contents1 Discovery 2 Characteristics2.1 Slip behaviour 2.2 Tremor3 Geological interpretation 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDiscovery[edit]Structure of the Cascadia subduction zone
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Shear Wave Splitting
Shear wave
Shear wave
splitting, also called seismic birefringence, is the phenomenon that occurs when a polarized shear wave enters an anisotropic medium (Fig. 1). The incident shear wave splits into two polarized shear waves (Fig. 2). Shear wave
Shear wave
splitting is typically used as a tool for testing the anisotropy of an area of interest. These measurements reflect the degree of anisotropy and lead to a better understanding of the area’s crack density and orientation or crystal alignment.[1] We can think of the anisotropy of a particular area as a black box and the shear wave splitting measurements as a way of looking at what is in the box.Figure 1. (a) isotropic media, (b) anisotropic media with preferentially oriented cracks.Figure 2. Animation of shear wave splitting upon entering an anisotropic medium. Courtesy of Ed Garnero.Figure 3. Polarization diagram of shear wave arrivals
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