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Earth
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life . According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4 billion years ago . Earth\'s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon , Earth's only natural satellite . During one orbit around the Sun , Earth rotates about its axis about 365.26 times; thus, an Earth year is about 365.26 days long. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides , stabilizes the Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets
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World
The WORLD is the planet Earth
Earth
and all life upon it, including human civilization . In a philosophical context, the world is the whole of the physical Universe
Universe
, or an ontological world. In a theological context, the _world_ is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, spiritual, transcendent or sacred. The "end of the world " refers to scenarios of the final end of human history, often in religious contexts. History of the world is commonly understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion , world language , world government , and world war , _world_ suggests international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of the entire world
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Earth (other)
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
. ANIMALS Earth
Earth
the Orca , Earth
Earth
(アース Āsu) It's a killer whale who was born at Kamogawa SeaWorld located in Chiba Prefecture
Chiba Prefecture
, Japan
Japan
on October 13, 2008. But his mother is Lovey and his father is Oscar who died on December 21, 2012
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The Blue Marble
_THE BLUE MARBLE_ is an image of the Earth made on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17
Apollo 17
spacecraft at a distance of about 29,000 kilometers (18,000 miles) from the surface. It is one of the most reproduced images in human history. The image with the official NASA
NASA
designation AS17-148-22727 reproduces the view of the Earth as seen by the Apollo crew traveling toward the Moon. The translunar coast photograph extends from the Mediterranean Sea to Antarctica. This was the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the south polar ice cap, despite the Southern Hemisphere being heavily covered in clouds. In addition to the Arabian Peninsula and Madagascar
Madagascar
, almost the entire coastline of Africa is clearly visible. The Asian mainland is on the horizon
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Apollo 17
Left to right: Schmitt, Cernan (seated), Evans Apollo program
Apollo program
Apollo 16 APOLLO 17 was the final mission of NASA
NASA
's Apollo program
Apollo program
. Launched at 12:33 a.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) on December 7, 1972, with a crew made up of Commander Eugene Cernan , Command Module Pilot Ronald Evans , and Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt , it was the last use of Apollo
Apollo
hardware for its original purpose; after Apollo
Apollo
17, extra Apollo
Apollo
spacecraft were used in the Skylab
Skylab
and Apollo–Soyuz programs. Apollo
Apollo
17 was the first night launch of a U.S. human spaceflight and the final manned launch of a Saturn V rocket
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Osculating Orbit
In astronomy , and in particular in astrodynamics , the OSCULATING ORBIT of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it _would have_ about its central body if perturbations were not present. That is, it is the orbit that coincides with the current orbital state vectors (position and velocity). The word "osculate" derives from a Latin word meaning "to kiss". Its use in this context derives from the fact that, at any point in time, an object's osculating orbit is precisely tangent to its actual orbit, with the tangent point being the object's location – and has the same curvature as the orbit would have in the absence of perturbing forces
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Epoch (astronomy)
In astronomy , an EPOCH is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body , because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time. These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane , the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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J2000.0
In astronomy , an EPOCH is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body , because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time. These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane , the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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Aphelion
The PERIHELION is the point in the orbit of a celestial body where it is nearest to its orbital focus, generally a star. It is the opposite of APHELION, which is the point in the orbit where the celestial body is farthest from its focus. The word "perihelion" stems from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words "peri", meaning "around" or "surrounding", and "helios ", meaning "the Sun". "Aphelion" derives from the preposition "apo", meaning "away, off, apart". (The similar words "perigee " and "apogee " refer to the nearest and furthest points in some object's orbit around the Earth.) According to Kepler\'s first law of planetary motion , all planets, comets, and asteroids in the Solar System
Solar System
have approximately elliptical orbits around the Sun
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Perihelion
The PERIHELION is the point in the orbit of a celestial body where it is nearest to its orbital focus, generally a star. It is the opposite of APHELION, which is the point in the orbit where the celestial body is farthest from its focus. The word "perihelion" stems from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words "peri", meaning "around" or "surrounding", and "helios ", meaning "the Sun". "Aphelion" derives from the preposition "apo", meaning "away, off, apart". (The similar words "perigee " and "apogee " refer to the nearest and furthest points in some object's orbit around the Earth.) According to Kepler\'s first law of planetary motion , all planets, comets, and asteroids in the Solar System
Solar System
have approximately elliptical orbits around the Sun
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Semi-major Axis
In geometry , the MAJOR AXIS of an ellipse is its longest diameter : a line segment that runs through the center and both foci , with ends at the widest points of the perimeter . The SEMI-MAJOR AXIS is one half of the major axis, and thus runs from the centre, through a focus , and to the perimeter. Essentially, it is the radius of an orbit at the orbit's two most distant points. For the special case of a circle, the semi-major axis is the radius . One can think of the semi-major axis as an ellipse's _long radius_. The length of the semi-major axis a {displaystyle a} of an ellipse is related to the semi-minor axis 's length b {displaystyle b} through the eccentricity e {displaystyle e} and the semi-latus rectum {displaystyle ell } , as follows: b = a 1 e 2 , = a ( 1 e 2 ) , a = b 2
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Orbital Eccentricity
The ORBITAL ECCENTRICITY of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle . A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptical orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit , and greater than 1 is a hyperbola . The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections , as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem , but extensions exist for objects following a rosette orbit through the galaxy. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Etymology * 3 Calculation * 4 Examples * 5 Mean eccentricity * 6 Climatic effect * 7 Exoplanets * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DEFINITION e=0 e=0.5 Orbits in a two-body system for two values of the eccentricity, e. In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit
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Orbital Period
The ORBITAL PERIOD is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun , moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars , or binary stars . For objects in the Solar System , this is often referred to as the SIDEREAL PERIOD, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth orbiting the Sun. The name _sidereal_ is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky . When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the PERIOD. For example, Jupiter has a sidereal period of 11.86 years while the main binary star Alpha Centauri AB has a period of about 79.91 years
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Annum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun
Sun
. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are generally recognized: spring , summer , autumn and winter . In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below
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Orbital Speed
The ORBITAL SPEED of a body, generally a planet , a natural satellite , an artificial satellite , or a multiple star , is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. It can be used to refer to either the mean orbital speed, i.e. the average speed as it completes an orbit, or the speed at a particular point in its orbit such as perihelia . The orbital speed at any position in the orbit can be computed from the distance to the central body at that position, and the specific orbital energy , which is independent of position: the kinetic energy is the total energy minus the potential energy
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Mean Anomaly
In celestial mechanics , the MEAN ANOMALY is an angle used in calculating the position of a body in an elliptical orbit in the classical two-body problem . It is the angular distance from the pericenter which a fictitious body would have if it moved in a circular orbit , with constant speed , in the same orbital period as the actual body in its elliptical orbit. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Formulae * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITIONDefine _T_ as the time required for a particular body to complete one orbit. In time _T_, the radius vector sweeps out 2π radians or 360°. The average rate of sweep, _n_, is then n = 2 T or n = 360 T , {displaystyle n={frac {2pi }{T}}quad {mbox{or}}quad n={frac {360^{circ }}{T}},} which is called the _mean angular motion _ of the body, with dimensions of radians per unit time or degrees per unit time. Define _τ_ as the time at which the body is at the pericenter
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