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Earth Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun Sun and the only object in the Universe Universe known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth Earth revolves around the Sun Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth Earth year [...More...]  "Earth" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Volume Volume Volume is the quantity of threedimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.[1] Volume Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container; i. e., the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straightedged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas [...More...]  "Volume" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Volume Of The Earth Volume Volume is the quantity of threedimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.[1] Volume Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container; i. e., the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straightedged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas [...More...]  "Volume Of The Earth" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Kelvin The Kelvin Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin (symbol: K) is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units International System of Units (SI). The kelvin is defined as the fraction 1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F).[1] In other words, it is defined such that the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K. The Kelvin Kelvin scale is named after the Belfastborn, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit Fahrenheit and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree [...More...]  "Kelvin" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Meridional The terms zonal and meridional are used to describe directions on a globe. Zonal means "along a latitudinal circle" or "in the west–east direction" [1]; while meridional means "along a longitudinal circle" (a.k.a. meridian) or "in the north–south direction" [2] These terms are often used in the atmospheric and earth sciences to describe global phenomena, such as "meridional wind", or "zonal average temperature" [...More...]  "Meridional" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Invariable Plane The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector. In the Solar System, about 98% of this effect is contributed by the orbital angular momenta of the four jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). The invariable plane is within 0.5° of the orbital plane of Jupiter,[1] and may be regarded as the weighted average of all planetary orbital and rotational planes. This plane is sometimes called the "Laplacian" or "Laplace plane" or the "invariable plane of Laplace", though it should not be confused with the Laplace plane, which is the plane about which orbital planes precess.[4] Both derive from the work of (and are at least sometimes named for) the French astronomer Pierre Simon Laplace.[5] The two are equivalent only in the case where all perturbers and resonances are far from the precessing body [...More...]  "Invariable Plane" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Pascal (unit) The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre.[1] It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101325 Pa.[2] Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in millibars.Contents1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 Standard units 4 Uses4.1 Hectopascal and millibar units5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, and experiments with a barometer [...More...]  "Pascal (unit)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Temperature Temperature Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. Temperature Temperature is measured with a thermometer, historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius Celsius scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin Kelvin scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zeropoint energy in the quantum mechanical description [...More...]  "Temperature" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Nitrogen Nitrogen Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist JeanAntoineClaude Chaptal JeanAntoineClaude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates [...More...]  "Nitrogen" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

ETRS89 The European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) is an ECEF (EarthCentered, EarthFixed) geodetic Cartesian reference frame, in which the Eurasian Plate Eurasian Plate as a whole is static. The coordinates and maps in Europe based on ETRS89 are not subject to change due to the continental drift. The development of ETRS89 is related to the global ITRS geodetic datum, in which the representation of the continental drift is balanced in such a way that the total apparent angular momentum of continental plates is about 0. ETRS89 was officially born at the 1990 Florence Florence meeting of EUREF, following its Resolution 1, which recommends that the terrestrial reference system to be adopted by EUREF will be coincident with ITRS at the epoch 1989.0 and fixed to the stable part of the Eurasian Plate [...More...]  "ETRS89" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Bond Albedo The Bond albedo, named after the American astronomer George Phillips Bond (1825–1865), who originally proposed it, is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space. Because the Bond albedo accounts for all of the light scattered from a body at all wavelengths and all phase angles, it is a necessary quantity for determining how much energy a body absorbs [...More...]  "Bond Albedo" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Geometric Albedo In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e. at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same crosssection. (This phase angle refers to the direction of the light paths and is not a phase angle in its normal meaning in optics or electronics.) Diffuse scattering implies that radiation is reflected isotropically with no memory of the location of the incident light source. Zero phase angle corresponds to looking along the direction of illumination [...More...]  "Geometric Albedo" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Mean Anomaly In celestial mechanics, the mean anomaly is an angle used in calculating the position of a body in an elliptical orbit in the classical twobody problem. It is the angular distance from the pericenter which a fictitious body would have if it moved in a circular orbit, with constant speed, in the same orbital period as the actual body in its elliptical orbit.[1][2]Contents1 Definition 2 Formula 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition[edit] Define T as the time required for a particular body to complete one orbit [...More...]  "Mean Anomaly" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Argument Of Periapsis The argument of periapsis (also called argument of perifocus or argument of pericenter), symbolized as ω, is one of the orbital elements of an orbiting body. Parametrically, ω is the angle from the body's ascending node to its periapsis, measured in the direction of motion. For specific types of orbits, words such as perihelion (for heliocentric orbits), perigee (for geocentric orbits), periastron (for orbits around stars), and so on may replace the word periapsis. (See apsis for more information.) An argument of periapsis of 0° means that the orbiting body will be at its closest approach to the central body at the same moment that it crosses the plane of reference from South to North. An argument of periapsis of 90° means that the orbiting body will reach periapsis at its northmost distance from the plane of reference. Adding the argument of periapsis to the longitude of the ascending node gives the longitude of the periapsis [...More...]  "Argument Of Periapsis" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Density The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:[1] ρ = m V displaystyle rho = frac m V where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume,[2] although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and packaging [...More...]  "Density" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Osculating Orbit In astronomy, and in particular in astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it would have about its central body if perturbations were not present.[1] That is, it is the orbit that coincides with the current orbital state vectors (position and velocity).Contents1 Kepler elements 2 Perturbations 3 Parameters 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksKepler elements[edit] An osculating orbit and the object's position upon it can be fully described by the six standard Kepler orbital elements (osculating elements), which are easy to calculate as long as one knows the object's position and velocity relative to the central body. The osculating elements would remain constant in the absence of perturbations. Real astronomical orbits experience perturbations that cause the osculating elements to evolve, sometimes very quickly [...More...]  "Osculating Orbit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 