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Ear
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear, middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal. Since the outer ear is the only visible portion of the ear in most animals, the word "ear" often refers to the external part alone.[1] The middle ear includes the tympanic cavity and the three ossicles. The inner ear sits in the bony labyrinth, and contains structures which are key to several senses: the semicircular canals, which enable balance and eye tracking when moving; the utricle and saccule, which enable balance when stationary; and the cochlea, which enables hearing
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Organ System
In biology, an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Each does a particular job in the body, and is made up of certain tissues. Organs and their tissue systems[edit] These specific systems are widely studied in anatomy
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Foundational Model Of Anatomy
The Foundational Model of Anatomy
Anatomy
Ontology (FMA) is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy
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Pharyngeal Pouch (embryology)
In the embryonic development of vertebrates, pharyngeal pouches form on the endodermal side between the pharyngeal arches. The pharyngeal grooves (or clefts) form the lateral ectodermal surface of the neck region to separate the arches. The pouches line up with the clefts,[1] and these thin segments become gills in fish.Contents1 Specific pouches1.1 First pouch 1.2 Second pouch 1.3 Third pouch 1.4 Fourth pouch 1.5 Fifth pouch 1.6 Sixth pouch2 See also 3 References 4 External linksSpecific pouches[edit] First pouch[edit] The endoderm lines the future auditory tube (Pharyngotympanic Eustachian tube), middle ear, mastoid antrum, and inner layer of the tympanic membrane. Derivatives of this pouch are supplied by Mandibular nerve. Second pouch[edit]Contributes the middle ear, palatine tonsils, supplied by the facial nerve.Third pouch[edit]The third pouch possesses Dorsal and Ventral wings
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/ PubMed
PubMed
article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov
registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only.[2] It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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NeuroLex
NeuroLex
NeuroLex
is a dynamic lexicon of neuroscience concepts.[1] It is a structured as a semantic wiki, using Semantic MediaWiki. NeuroLex
NeuroLex
is supported by the Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Information Framework project.Contents1 Overview 2 Utilization within the Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Information Framework 3 Content 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 Further reading 7 External linksOverview[edit] The NeuroLex
NeuroLex
is intended to help improve the way that neuroscientists communicate about their data, so that information systems like the NIF can find data more easily and provide more powerful means of integrating data that occur across distributed resources. One of the big roadblocks to data integration in neuroscience is the inconsistent use of terminology in databases and other resources like the literature
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Vertebrate
Fire salamander
Fire salamander
(Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClade: CraniataSubphylum: Vertebrata J-B
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Equilibrioception
Sense
Sense
of balance or equilibrioception is one of the physiological senses related to balance. It helps prevent humans and animals from falling over when standing or moving. Balance is the result of a number of body systems working together: the eyes (visual system), ears (vestibular system) and the body's sense of where it is in space (proprioception) ideally need to be intact. The vestibular system, the region of the inner ear where three semicircular canals converge, works with the visual system to keep objects in focus when the head is moving. This is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The balance system works with the visual and skeletal systems (the muscles and joints and their sensors) to maintain orientation or balance
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Organ (anatomy)
Organs are collections of tissues with a similar function. Plant
Plant
and animal life relies on many organs that coexist in organ systems.[2] Organs are composed of main tissue, parenchyma, and "sporadic" tissues, stroma. The main tissue is that which is unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium, the main tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in all organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria the functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle
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Throat
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra. It contains the pharynx and larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, which is a flap separating the esophagus from the trachea (windpipe) preventing food and drink being inhaled into the lungs.[1] The throat contains various blood vessels, pharyngeal muscles, the nasopharyngeal tonsil, the tonsils, the palatine uvula, the trachea, the esophagus, and the vocal cords.[2] Mammal throats consist of two bones, the hyoid bone and the clavicle. The "throat" is sometimes thought to be synonymous for the isthmus of the fauces.[3] It works with the mouth, ears and nose, as well as a number of other parts of the body. Its pharynx is connected to the mouth, allowing speech to occur, and food and liquid to pass down the throat
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Embryo
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the DNA
DNA
of each of its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism
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Balance Disorders
A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking. It may be accompanied by feelings of giddiness, or wooziness, or having a sensation of movement, spinning, or floating. Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system (eyes), vestibular system (ears) and proprioception (the body's sense of where it is in space). Degeneration or loss of function in any of these systems can lead to balance deficits.[1]Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Causes2.1 Related to the ear 2.2 Related to the brain and central nervous system3 Pathophysiology 4 Diagnosis4.1 Diagnostic testing5 Treatment5.1 Vestibular Rehabilitation 5.2 BPPV 5.3 Ménière's disease 5.4 Labyrinthitis 5.5 Bilateral vestibular loss 5.6 Medication6 Research 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] When balance is impaired, an individual has difficulty maintaining upright orientation
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Ectoderm
Ectoderm
Ectoderm
is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the mesoderm (middle layer) and endoderm (most proximal layer), with the ectoderm as the most exterior (or distal) layer.[1] It emerges and originates from the outer layer of germ cells. The word ectoderm comes from the Greek ektos meaning "outside", and derma, meaning "skin."[2] Generally speaking, the ectoderm differentiates to form the nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves and brain),[3][4] tooth enamel and the epidermis (the outer part of integument). It also forms the lining of mouth, anus, nostrils, sweat glands, hair and nails.[4] In vertebrates, the ectoderm has three parts: external ectoderm (also known as surface ectoderm), the neural crest, and neural tube
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Nasopharynx
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs. The pharynx is an organ found in vertebrates and invertebrates, though the structure is not universally the same across all of those species. In humans the pharynx is part of the digestive system and also of the conducting zone of the respiratory system. (The conducting zone also includes the nostrils of the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, and their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs.[1]) The pharynx makes up the part of the throat situated immediately behind the nasal cavity, behind the mouth and above the esophagus and larynx. The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx
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Terminologia Anatomica
Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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