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Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based
publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as s, s, and s. ...
company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. It is a part of the
RELX Group RELX (pronounced "Rel-ex", sometimes written RElX) is a British multinational information and analytics company headquartered in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of Eng ...
, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as ''
The Lancet ''The Lancet'' is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is among the world's oldest and best-known general medical journals. It was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument ca ...
'' and ''
Cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl ...
'', the
ScienceDirect ScienceDirect is a website which provides access to a large bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as t ...
collection of electronic journals, the ''
Trends Trend, trending, or trends may refer to: Data patterns and forecasting *Market trend, a period of time when prices in a financial market are rising ("bull market") or falling ("bear market") faster than their historical average **Real estate trend ...
'' and '' Current Opinion'' series of journals, the online citation database
Scopus Scopus is Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as '' ...
, the SciVal tool for measuring research performance, the ClinicalKey search engine for clinicians, and the ClinicalPath evidence-based cancer care service. Elsevier's products and services also include digital tools for data management, instruction, research analytics and assessment. Elsevier publishes more than 500,000 articles annually in 2,500 journals. Its archives contain over 17 million documents and 40,000 e-books. Total yearly downloads amount to more than 1 billion. Elsevier's high operating profit margins (37% in 2018) and £950 million in profits, often on publicly funded research works Adjusted operating margin for 2017 for the publishing division is 36.8% (p. 6). and its copyright practices have subjected it to criticism by researchers. Seen as generating massive profits from copyrights while adding little to no value to their products, Elsevier is commonly accused of
rent-seeking In public-choice theory, as well as in economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumpt ...
.


History

Elsevier was founded in 1880 and adopted the name and logo from the Dutch publishing house Elzevir that was an inspiration and has no connection to the contemporary Elsevier. The Elzevir family operated as booksellers and publishers in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
; the founder,
Lodewijk Elzevir Lodewijk Elzevir (c. 1540, Leuven Leuven (, ) or Louvain (, also , ; german: link=no, Löwen ) is the capital and largest city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located about east o ...
(1542–1617), lived in
Leiden Leiden ( , ; in English language, English and Archaism, archaic Dutch language, Dutch also Leyden) is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and List of municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality in the Provinces of the N ...

Leiden
and established that business in 1580. As a company logo, Elsevier used the Elzevir family's printer's mark, a tree entwined with a vine and the words ''Non Solus'', which is Latin for "not alone". According to Elsevier, this logo represents "the symbiotic relationship between publisher and scholar". The expansion of Elsevier in the scientific field after 1945 was funded with the profits of the newsweekly ''
Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and ...
'', which published its first issue on 27 October 1945. The weekly was an instant success and very profitable. The weekly was a continuation, as is stated in its first issue, of the monthly ''Elsevier'', which was founded in 1891 to promote the name of the publishing house and had to stop publication in December 1940 because of the
German occupation of the Netherlands Despite Dutch neutrality, Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich. until 1943 and Greater German Reic ...
. In 1947, Elsevier began publishing its first English-language journal, ''
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ''Biochimica et Biophysica Acta'' (''BBA'') is a peer review, peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of biochemistry and biophysics that was established in 1947. The journal is published by Elsevier with a total of 100 annual issues in ten ...
''. In 1971 the firm acquired Excerpta Medica, a small medical abstract publisher based in Amsterdam. As the first and only company in the world that employed a database for the production of journals, it introduced computer technology to Elsevier. In 1978 Elsevier merged with Dutch newspaper publisher NDU, and devised a strategy to broadcast textual news to people's television sets through Viewdata and Teletext technology. In 1979 Elsevier Science Publishers launched the Article Delivery Over Network Information System (ADONIS) project in conjunction with four business partners. The project aims to find a way to deliver scientific articles to libraries electronically, and would continue for over a decade. In 1991, in conjunction with nine American universities, Elsevier's The University Licensing Project (TULIP) was the first step in creating published, copyrighted material available over the Internet. It formed the basis for
ScienceDirect ScienceDirect is a website which provides access to a large bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as t ...
, launched six years later. In 1997, after almost two decades of experiments, ScienceDirect is launched as the first online repository of electronic (scientific) books and articles. Though librarians and researchers were initially hesitant regarding the new technology, more and more of them switched to e-only subscriptions. In 2004,
Scopus Scopus is Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as '' ...
was launched. The abstract database covers journals and books from various publishers, and measures performance on both author and publication levels. In 2009 SciVal Spotlight was released. This tool enabled research administrators to measure their institution's relative standing in terms of productivity, grants, and publications . In 2013, Elsevier acquired
Mendeley Mendeley is a company based in London, UK, which provides products and services for academic researchers. It is most known for its reference manager which is used to manage and share research papers and generate bibliographies 250px, Bibliograp ...
, a UK company making software for managing and sharing research papers. Mendeley, previously an open platform for sharing of research, was greatly criticized for the sale, which users saw as acceding to the "
paywall A paywall is a method of restricting access to content (media), content, with a purchase or a subscription business model, paid subscription, especially news. Beginning in the mid-2010s, newspapers started implementing paywalls on their websites ...
" approach to research literature. Mendeley's previously open-sharing system now allows exchange of paywalled resources only within private groups. ''
The New Yorker ''The New Yorker'' is an American weekly magazine featuring journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the "news of the day" and that informs society ...

The New Yorker
'' described Elsevier's reasons for buying Mendeley as two-fold: to acquire its user data, and to "destroy or coöpt an
open-science One definition of Open science holds that it is the movement to make scientific research (including publications, data, physical samples, and software) and its dissemination free access, accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or ...
icon that threatens its ".


Company statistics

, researchers submitted over 1.8 million
research papers Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distributio ...
to Elsevier-based publications. Over 20,000 editors managed the peer review and selection of these papers, resulting in the publication of more than 470,000 articles in over 2,500 journals. Editors are generally unpaid volunteers who perform their duties alongside a full-time job in academic institutions, although exceptions have been reported. In 2013, the five editorial groups Elsevier,
Springer Springer or springers may refer to: Places ;United States * Springer, New Mexico * Springer, Oklahoma * Springer Mountain, southern terminus of the Appalachian Trail * Springer Opera House, Columbus, Georgia Animals * In cattle, a cow or heifer ne ...
,
Wiley-Blackwell Wiley-Blackwell is an international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons John Wiley & Sons, Inc., commonly known as Wiley (), is an American Multinational corporation, multinational publishing co ...
,
Taylor & Francis Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication o ...
, and
SAGE Publications SAGE Publishing, formerly SAGE Publications, is an American independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, ...
published more than half of all academic papers in the peer-reviewed literature. At that time, Elsevier accounted for 16% of the world market in science, technology, and medical publishing. In 2019, Elsevier accounted for the review, editing and dissemination 18% of the world's scientific articles. About 45% of revenue by geography in 2019 derived from North America, 24% from Europe, and the remaining 31% from the rest of the world. Around 84% of revenue by format came from electronic usage and 16% came from print. The firm employs 8,100 people. The CEO is Kumsal Bayazit, who was appointed on 15 February 2019. In 2018, it reported a mean 2017
gender pay gap The gender pay gap or gender wage gap is the average difference between the for men and women who are working. Women are generally considered to be paid less than men. There are two distinct numbers regarding the pay gap: non-adjusted versus ...

gender pay gap
of 29.1% for its UK workforce, while the median was 40.4%, the highest yet reported by a publisher in UK. Elsevier attributed the result to the under-representation of women in its senior ranks and the prevalence of men in its technical workforce. The UK workforce consists of 1,200 people in the UK, and represents 16% of Elsevier's global employee population. Elsevier's parent company, RELX, has a global workforce that is 51% female to 49% male, with 43% female and 57% male managers, and 29% female and 71% male senior operational managers. In 2018, Elsevier accounted for 34% of the revenues of RELX group (£2.538 billion of £7.492 billion). In operating profits, it represented 40% (£942 million of £2,346 million). Adjusted operating profits (with constant currency) rose by 2% from 2017 to 2018. Profits grew further from 2018 to 2019, to a total of £982 million. the first half of 2019, RELX reported the first slowdown in revenue growth for Elsevier in several years: 1% vs. an expectation of 2% and a typical growth of at least 4% in the previous 5 years. Overall for 2019, Elsevier reported revenue growth of 3.9% from 2018, with the underlying growth at constant currency at 2%. In 2019, Elsevier accounted for 34% of the revenues of RELX (£2.637billion of £7.874billion). In adjusted operating profits, it represented 39% (£982m of £2.491bn). Adjusted operating profits (with constant currency) rose by 2% from 2018 to 2019. In 2019, researchers submitted over two million
research papers Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distributio ...
to Elsevier-based publications. Over 22,000 editors managed the peer review and selection of these papers, resulting in the publication of about 500,000 articles in over 2,500 journals.


Market model


Products and services

Products and services include electronic and print versions of journals, textbooks and
reference work A reference work is a work, such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a sing ...
s, and cover the
health Health, according to the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each ...
, life, physical, and
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s. The target markets are academic and government research institutions, corporate research labs, booksellers, librarians, scientific researchers, authors, editors, physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, medical and nursing students and schools, medical researchers,
pharmaceutical companies The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drug Uncoated tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a minor amount of inert fillers and binders. Aspirin is a pharmaceutical drug A me ...
, hospitals, and research establishments. It publishes in 13 languages including English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Polish, Japanese, Hindi, and Chinese. Flagship products and services include VirtualE,
ScienceDirect ScienceDirect is a website which provides access to a large bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as t ...
,
Scopus Scopus is Elsevier Elsevier () is a Netherlands-based publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. It is a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier. Its products include journals such as '' ...
, Scirus,
EMBASE Embase (often styled EMBASE for Excerpta Medica dataBASE) is a biomedical Biomedicine (also referred to as Western medicine, mainstream medicine or conventional medicine)Compendex Ei Compendex is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engi ...
,
Cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl ...
, SciVal, Pure, and Analytical Services, The Consult series (FirstCONSULT, PathCONSULT, NursingCONSULT, MDConsult, StudentCONSULT), Virtual Clinical Excursions, and major reference works such as ''
Gray's Anatomy ''Gray's Anatomy'' is a reference book of human anatomy written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, published in London in 1858. It has gone through multiple revised editions and the current edition, the 42nd (October 2020), ...
'', ''Nelson Pediatrics'', '' Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary'', '' Netter's Atlas of Human Anatomy'', and online versions of many journals including ''
The Lancet ''The Lancet'' is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is among the world's oldest and best-known general medical journals. It was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument ca ...
''. ScienceDirect is Elsevier's platform for online electronic access to its journals and over 40,000 e-books, reference works, book series, and handbooks. The articles are grouped in four main sections: ''Physical Sciences and Engineering'', ''Life Sciences'', ''Health Sciences'', and ''Social Sciences and Humanities''. For most articles on the website, abstracts are freely available; access to the full text of the article (in PDF, and also HTML for newer publications) often requires a subscription or pay-per-view purchase. In 2019, Elsevier published 49,000 gratis open access articles and 370 full open access journals. Moreover, 1,900 of its journals sold
hybrid open access A hybrid open-access journal is a subscription journal in which some of the articles are open access. This status typically requires the payment of a publication fee (also called an article processing charge or APC) to the publisher in order to pu ...
options.


Pricing

The subscription rates charged by the company for its journals have been criticized; some very large journals (with more than 5,000 articles) charge subscription prices as high as £9,634, far above average, and many British universities pay more than a million pounds to Elsevier annually. The company has been criticized not only by advocates of a switch to the
open-access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...
publication model, but also by universities whose library budgets make it difficult for them to afford current journal prices. For example, in 2004, a resolution by
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
's senate singled out Elsevier's journals as being "disproportionately expensive compared to their educational and research value", which librarians should consider dropping, and encouraged its faculty "not to contribute articles or editorial or review efforts to publishers and journals that engage in exploitive or exorbitant pricing". Similar guidelines and criticism of Elsevier's pricing policies have been passed by the
University of California The University of California (UC) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university, research university system in the U.S. state of California. The system is composed of the campuses at University of Califor ...
,
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
, and
Duke University Duke University is a Private university, private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity, North Carolina, Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, t ...
. In July 2015, the Association of Universities in the Netherlands announced a plan to start boycotting Elsevier, which refused to negotiate on any
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open access
policy for Dutch universities. In October 2018, a complaint against Elsevier was filed with the European Commission, alleging anticompetitive practices stemming from Elsevier's confidential subscription agreements and market dominance. The European Commission decided not to investigate. The elevated pricing of field journals in economics, most of which are published by Elsevier, was one of the motivations that moved the
American Economic Association The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipline (academia), academic discip ...
to launch the ''
American Economic Journal The ''American Economic Journal'' is a group of four peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualif ...
'' in 2009.


Research and information ecosystem

RELX Group has been
active Active may refer to: Music * Active (album), ''Active'' (album), a 1992 album by Casiopea * Active Records, a record label Ships * Active (ship), ''Active'' (ship), several commercial ships by that name * HMS Active, HMS ''Active'', the nam ...
in
mergers and acquisitions In corporate finance Corporate finance is the area of finance that deals with sources of funding, the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the Value investing, value of the firm to the shareholders, ...
. Elsevier has incorporated other businesses that were either complementing or competing in the field of research and publishing and that reinforce its
market power In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...
, such as
Mendeley Mendeley is a company based in London, UK, which provides products and services for academic researchers. It is most known for its reference manager which is used to manage and share research papers and generate bibliographies 250px, Bibliograp ...
(after the closure of 2collab),
SSRN The SSRN, formerly known as Social Science Research Network, is a Institutional repository, repository for preprints devoted to the rapid dissemination of scholarly research in the social sciences and humanities and more. Elsevier bought SSRN fro ...
,
bepress Bepress is a commercial, academic software firm owned by RELX Group. It began in 1999 as the Berkeley Electronic Press, co-founded by academics Robert Cooter and Aaron Edlin. It makes products and services to support scholarly communication, inc ...
/
Digital Commons Digital Commons is a commercial, hosted institutional repository platform owned by RELX Group. This hosted service, licensed by bepress, is used by over 500 academic institutions, healthcare centers, public libraries, and research centers to show ...
, PlumX, Hivebench, Newsflo, Science-Metrix. These integrations are seen as a way to exert additional power on the research process.


Conferences

Elsevier also conducts conferences, exhibitions, and workshops around the world, with over 50 conferences a year covering life sciences, physical sciences and engineering, social sciences, and health sciences.


Shill review offer

According to the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
, in 2009, the firm lsevieroffered a £17.25 Amazon voucher to academics who contributed to the textbook ''Clinical Psychology'' if they would go on
Amazon.com Amazon.com, Inc. ( ) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...
and
Barnes & Noble Barnes & Noble, Inc., is an American Bookselling, bookseller. It is a Fortune 1000 company and the bookseller with the largest number of retail outlets in the United States. As of March 7, 2019, the company operates 627 retail stores in a ...
(a large US books retailer) and give it five stars. Elsevier responded by stating "Encouraging interested parties to post book reviews isn't outside the norm in scholarly publishing, nor is it wrong to offer to nominally compensate people for their time. But in all instances the request should be unbiased, with no incentives for a positive review, and that's where this particular e-mail went too far", and that it was a mistake by a marketing employee.


Blocking text mining research

Elsevier seeks to regulate
text and data mining Text mining, also referred to as ''text data mining'', similar to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information from Plain text, text. It involves "the discovery by computer of new, previously unknown information, by automatica ...
with private licenses, claiming that reading requires extra permission if automated and that the publisher holds copyright on output of automated processes. The conflict on research and copyright policy has often resulted in researchers being blocked from their work. In November 2015, Elsevier blocked a scientist from performing
text mining Text mining, also referred to as ''text data mining'', similar to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or ...
research at scale on Elsevier papers, even though his institution already pays for access to Elsevier journal content. The data was collected using the R package "statcheck".


Academic practices


"Who's Afraid of Peer Review"

In 2013, one of Elsevier's journals was caught in the sting set up by
John Bohannon John Bohannon is an American science journalist and scientist who is Director of Science at Primer, an artificial intelligence company headquartered in San Francisco, California. He is known for his career prior to Primer as a science journalist and ...
, published in ''Science'', called "Who's Afraid of Peer Review?" The journal ''Drug Invention Today'' accepted an obviously bogus paper made up by Bohannon that should have been rejected by any good peer-review system. Instead, ''Drug Invention Today'' was among many open-access journals that accepted the fake paper for publication. As of 2014, this journal had been transferred to a different publisher.


Fake journals

At a 2009 court case in Australia where Merck & Co. was being sued by a user of
Vioxx Rofecoxib was a COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are members of a drug class A drug is any chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In cl ...
, the plaintiff alleged that Merck had paid Elsevier to publish the '' Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine'', which had the appearance of being a peer-reviewed
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of w ...
but in fact contained only articles favourable to Merck drugs. Merck described the journal as a "complimentary publication," denied claims that articles within it were ghost written by Merck, and stated that the articles were all reprinted from peer-reviewed medical journals. In May 2009, Elsevier Health Sciences CEO Hansen released a statement regarding Australia-based sponsored journals, conceding that they were "sponsored article compilation publications, on behalf of pharmaceutical clients, that were made to look like journals and lacked the proper disclosures." The statement acknowledged that it "was an unacceptable practice." '' The Scientist'' reported that, according to an Elsevier spokesperson, six sponsored publications "were put out by their Australia office and bore the Excerpta Medica imprint from 2000 to 2005," namely the ''Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine'' (''Australas. J. Bone Joint Med.''), the ''Australasian Journal of General Practice'' (''Australas. J. Gen. Pract.''), the ''Australasian Journal of Neurology'' (''Australas. J. Neurol.''), the ''Australasian Journal of Cardiology'' (''Australas. J. Cardiol.''), the ''Australasian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy'' (''Australas. J. Clin. Pharm.''), and the ''Australasian Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine'' (''Australas. J. Cardiovasc. Med.''). Excerpta Medica was a "strategic medical communications agency" run by Elsevier, according to the imprint's web page. In October 2010, Excerpta Medica was acquired by Adelphi Worldwide.


''Chaos, Solitons & Fractals''

There was speculation that the editor-in-chief of Elsevier journal ''Chaos, Solitons & Fractals'', Mohamed El Naschie, misused his power to publish his own work without appropriate peer review. The journal had published 322 papers with El Naschie as author since 1993. The last issue of December 2008 featured five of his papers. The controversy was covered extensively in blogs. The publisher announced in January 2009 that El Naschie had retired as editor-in-chief. the co-Editors-in-Chief of the journal were Maurice Courbage and Paolo Grigolini. In June 2011, El Naschie sued the journal ''
Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...
'' for libel, claiming that his reputation had been damaged by their November 2008 article about his retirement, which included statements that ''Nature'' had been unable to verify his claimed affiliations with certain international institutions. The suit came to trial in November 2011 and was dismissed in July 2012, with the judge ruling that the article was "substantially true", contained "honest comment", and was "the product of responsible journalism". The judgement noted that El Naschie, who represented himself in court, had failed to provide any documentary evidence that his papers had been peer-reviewed."Nature libel verdict 'a victory for free speech'"
''The Guardian'' 6 July 2012
Judge
Victoria Sharp Dame Victoria Madeleine Sharp, (born 8 February 1956) is the President of the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice in England and Wales. Early life She is the daughter of Eric Sharp, Baron Sharp of Grimsdyke, Lord Sharp of Grimsd ...
also found "reasonable and serious grounds" for suspecting that El Naschie used a range of false names to defend his editorial practice in communications with ''Nature'', and described this behavior as "curious" and "bizarre".


Plagiarism

Elsevier's 'Duties of Authors' states that authors should ensure they have written entirely original works, and that proper acknowledgement of other's work must always be given. Elsevier claims plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical behaviour. Some Elsevier journals automatically screen submissions for plagiarism, but not all. Albanian politician, Taulant Muka claimed that Elsevier journal '' Procedia'' had plagiarized in the abstract of one of its articles. It is unclear whether or not Muka had access to the entirety of the article.


Scientific racism

Angela Saini Angela Saini (born in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head o ...

Angela Saini
has criticized the two Elsevier journals ''
Intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. More generally, it can be des ...
'' and ''
Personality and Individual Differences ''Personality and Individual Differences'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified ...
'' for having included on their editorial boards such well-known proponents of
scientific racism Scientific racism, sometimes termed biological racism, is the pseudoscientific Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that claim to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseu ...
as
Richard Lynn Richard Lynn (born 20 February 1930) is a controversial English psychologist and author. He is a former professor emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professo ...
and
Gerhard Meisenberg Gerhard Meisenberg is a German biochemist. As of 2018, he was a professor of physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology Biology is the natural scien ...

Gerhard Meisenberg
; in response to her inquiries, Elsevier defended their presence as editors. The journal ''Intelligence'' has been criticized for having "occasionally included papers with pseudoscientific findings about intelligence differences between races." It is the official journal of the International Society for Intelligence Research, which organizes the controversial series of conferences
London Conference on Intelligence The London Conference on Intelligence (LCI) is an invitation-only conference for research on controversial aspects of human intelligence, including race and intelligence and eugenics. Founded in 2014, it was secretly held in the Pearson Building at ...
, described by the ''New Statesman'' as a forum for scientific racism. In response to a 2019 open letter, efforts by
Retraction Watch Retraction Watch is a blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real nu ...
and a petition signed by over 1000 people, on 17 June 2020 Elsevier announced it was retracting an article that J. Philippe Rushton and
Donald Templer Donald I. Templer (1938 – 2016) was an American psychologist best known for ideas on race and intelligence, and his association with the white nationalist group American Renaissance (magazine), American Renaissance. He was a professor of psycholog ...
published in 2012 in the Elsevier journal ''Personality and Individual Differences''. The article had claimed that there was scientific evidence that skin color was related to aggression and sexuality in humans. One of their Journals, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, was involved in the manipulation of the peer review report


Manipulation of bibliometrics

According to
Goodhart's law Goodhart's law is an adage An adage (; Latin: adagium) is a concise, memorable, and usually philosophical aphorism that communicates an important truth derived from experience, custom, or both, and that many people consider true and credible ...
and concerned academics like the signatories of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment, commercial academic publishers benefit from manipulation of
bibliometrics Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyse books, articles and other publications. Bibliometric methods Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyse books, articles and other publications. Bibliometric methods a ...
and
scientometrics Scientometrics is the field of study which concerns itself with measuring and analysing scholarly literature. Scientometrics is a sub-field of informetrics Informetrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the produc ...
like the
journal impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discip ...
, which is often used as
proxy Proxy may refer to: * Proxy or agent (law), a substitute authorized to act for another entity or a document which authorizes the agent so to act * Proxy (climate), a measured variable used to infer the value of a variable of interest in climate r ...
of
prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Films *Prestige (film), ''Prestige'' (film), a 1932 American film directed ...
and can influence revenues, including in the form of subscriptions and free work from academics. Nine Elsevier journals, which exhibited unusual levels of
self-citation Coercive citation is an academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Tradi ...
, had their
journal impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which Scholarly method, scholarship relating to a particular list of academic disciplines, academic discip ...
of 2019 suspended from ''
Journal Citation Reports ''Journal Citation Reports'' (''JCR'') is an annual publicationby Clarivate Analytics (previously the intellectual property of Thomson Reuters). It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collectio ...
'' in 2020, a sanction which hit 34 journals in total.


Control of journals


Resignation of editorial boards

In November 1999, the entire editorial board (50 persons) of the '' Journal of Logic Programming'' (founded in 1984 by Alan Robinson) collectively resigned after 16 months of unsuccessful negotiations with Elsevier Press about the price of library subscriptions. Joan Birman.
Scientific publishing: a mathematician’s viewpoint
. ''
Notices of the AMS ''Notices of the American Mathematical Society'' is the membership journal A journal, from the Old French ''journal'' (meaning "daily"), may refer to: *Bullet journal, a method of personal organizations *Diary, a record of what happened over the c ...
''. Vol. 47, No. 7, August 2000
The personnel created a new journal, ''Theory and Practice of Logic Programming'', with
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowled ...
at a much lower price, while Elsevier continued publication with a new editorial board and a slightly different name (the '' Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming''). In 2002, dissatisfaction at Elsevier's pricing policies caused the
European Economic Association The European Economic Association (EEA) is a learned society, professional academic body which links European economists. It was founded in the mid-1980s. Its first annual congress was in 1986 in Vienna and its first president was Jacques Drèze. T ...
to terminate an agreement with Elsevier designating Elsevier's ''
European Economic Review The ''European Economic Review'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of ...
'' as the official journal of the association. The EEA launched a new journal, the ''
Journal of the European Economic Association The ''Journal of the European Economic Association'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by ...
''. In 2003, the entire editorial board of the ''Journal of Algorithms'' resigned to start '' ACM Transactions on Algorithms'' with a different, lower-priced, not-for-profit publisher, at the suggestion of ''Journal of Algorithms'' founder
Donald Knuth Donald Ervin Knuth ( ; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, ...
. The ''Journal of Algorithms'' continued under Elsevier with a new editorial board until October 2009, when it was discontinued. The same happened in 2005 to the ''International Journal of Solids and Structures'', whose editors resigned to start the '' Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures''. However, a new editorial board was quickly established and the journal continues in apparently unaltered form with editors D.A. Hills (
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...

Oxford University
) and Stelios Kyriakides (
University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin, UT, or Texas) is a public university, public research university in Austin, Texas, founded in 1883. The University of Texas was included in the Association of American Universities in 1929. The i ...
). In August 2006, the entire editorial board of the distinguished
mathematical journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the ter ...
''
Topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities ...
'' handed in their resignations, again because of stalled negotiations with Elsevier to lower the subscription price. This board then launched the new '' Journal of Topology'' at a far lower price, under the auspices of the
London Mathematical Society The London Mathematical Society (LMS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization An organization, or organisatio ...
. After this mass resignation, ''Topology'' remained in circulation under a new editorial board until 2009, when the last issue was published. In May 2015,
Stephen Leeder Stephen Leeder (Order of Australia, AO Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians, FRACP FFPH FAFPHM FRACGP, born 13 December 1941 in Grafton, New South Wales) is an emeritus professor of public health and community medicine at the Uni ...
was removed from his role as editor of the ''
Medical Journal of Australia The ''Medical Journal of Australia'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified memb ...
'' when its publisher decided to outsource the journal's production to Elsevier. As a consequence, all but one of the journal's editorial advisory committee members co-signed a letter of resignation. In October 2015, the entire editorial staff of the general linguistics journal '' Lingua'' resigned in protest of Elsevier's unwillingness to agree to their terms of Fair Open Access. Editor-in-chief Johan Rooryck also announced that the ''Lingua'' staff would establish a new journal, '' Glossa''. In January 2019, the entire editorial board of Elsevier's ''
Journal of Informetrics The ''Journal of Informetrics'' is a closed-access quarterly Peer review, peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on scientometrics and informetrics. It was established in 2007 by Leo Egghe. The journal is published by Elsevier. The edito ...
'' resigned over the open-access policies of its publisher and founded open-access journal called ''Quantitative Science Studies''. In March 2020, Elsevier effectively severed the tie between the ''
Journal of Asian Economics The ''Journal of Asian Economics'' is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal focused on the economy of Asia. It was established in 1990 by the American Committee on Asian Economic Studies, and was published on the Committee's behalf by Elsevier ...
'' and the academic society that founded it, the American Committee on Asian Economic Studies (ACAES), by offering the ACAES-appointed editor, Calla Wiemer, a terminal contract for 2020. A diverse group of 43 academic stakeholders, including editorial board members, ACAES Advisory Council members, and authors, petitioned Elsevier in support of a three-year renewable contract for the editor. Elsevier nonetheless stood by its offer, which the editor declined to accept. A majority of the editorial board members refused invitations from Elsevier to continue with the post-ACAES journal and remain on the Executive Board of ACAES.


"The Cost of Knowledge" boycott

In 2003, various university librarians began coordinating with each other to complain about Elsevier's " big deal" journal bundling packages, in which the company offered a group of journal subscriptions to libraries at a certain rate, but in which librarians claimed no economical option was available to subscribe to only the popular journals at a rate comparable to the bundled rate. Librarians continued to discuss the implications of the pricing schemes, many feeling pressured into buying the Elsevier packages without other options. On 21 January 2012, mathematician
Timothy Gowers Sir William Timothy Gowers, (; born 20 November 1963) is a British mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as qu ...
publicly announced he would boycott Elsevier, noting that others in the field have been doing so privately. The reasons for the
boycott A boycott is an act of nonviolent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achiev ...

boycott
are high subscription prices for individual journals, bundling subscriptions to journals of different value and importance, and Elsevier's support for
SOPA Sopa or SOPA may refer to: * Sopa (tribe), an Albanian tribe of the Sharr Mountains * Lake Sopa, Albania * School of Performing Arts Seoul, an arts high school in Seoul, South Korea * Senior Officer Present Afloat, a term used in the U.S. Navy * ...
,
PIPA The pipa, pípá, or p'i-p'a () is a traditional China, Chinese List of traditional Chinese musical instruments, musical instrument, belonging to the Plucked string instrument, plucked category of instruments. Sometimes called the "Chinese lut ...
, and the
Research Works Act The Research Works Act, 102 H.R. 3699, was a bill (proposed law), bill that was introduced in the United States House of Representatives at the 112th United States Congress on December 16, 2011, by Representative Darrell Issa (R-CA) and co-sponsore ...
, which would have prohibited open-access mandates for U.S. federally-funded research and severely restricted the sharing of scientific data. Following this, a petition advocating noncooperation with Elsevier (that is, not submitting papers to Elsevier journals, not refereeing articles in Elsevier journals, and not participating in journal editorial boards), appeared on the site "The Cost of Knowledge". By February 2012, this petition had been signed by over 5,000 academics, growing to over 17,000 by November 2018. The firm disputed the claims, claiming that their prices are below the industry average, and stating that bundling is only one of several different options available to buy access to Elsevier journals. The company also claimed that its profit margins are "simply a consequence of the firm's efficient operation". The academics replied that their work was funded by public money, thus should be freely available. On 27 February 2012, Elsevier issued a statement on its website that declared that it has withdrawn support from the Research Works Act. Although the Cost of Knowledge movement was not mentioned, the statement indicated the hope that the move would "help create a less heated and more productive climate" for ongoing discussions with research funders. Hours after Elsevier's statement, the sponsors of the bill, US House Representatives
Darrell Issa Darrell Edward Issa ( ; born November 1, 1953) is an American businessman and politician who is the U.S. Representative for California's 50th congressional district. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served in the United States H ...

Darrell Issa
and
Carolyn Maloney Carolyn Bosher Maloney (née Carolyn Jane Bosher, February 19, 1946) is an American politician serving as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Representative for since 2013, a Democrat, and previously for from 1993 to 2013. The d ...
, issued a joint statement saying that they would not push the bill in Congress.


Plan S

The
Plan S Plan S is an initiative for open-access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves ...
open-access initiative, which began in Europe and has since spread to some US research funding agencies, would force researchers receiving some grants to publish in open-access journals by 2020. A spokesman for Elsevier said "If you think that information should be free of charge, go to Wikipedia". In September 2018,
UBS UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational and company founded and based in . Co-headquartered in the cities of and , it maintains a presence in all major financial centres as the and the in the world. UBS client services are known for their ...

UBS
advised to sell Elsevier (RELX) stocks, noting that Plan S could affect 5-10% of scientific funding and may force Elsevier to reduce pricing.


Relationship with academic institutions


Finland

In 2015, Finnish research organizations paid a total of 27 million euros in subscription fees. Over one-third of the total costs went to Elsevier. The information was revealed after successful court appeal following a denied request on the subscription fees, due to confidentiality clauses in contracts with the publishers. Establishing of this fact lead to creation of tiedonhinta.fi petition demanding more reasonable pricing and open access to content signed by more than 2800 members of the research community. While deals with other publishers have been made, this was not the case for Elsevier, leading to the nodealnoreview.org boycott of the publisher signed more than 600 times. In January 2018, it was confirmed that a deal had been reached between those concerned.


France

The French Couperin consortium agreed in 2019 to a 4-year contract with Elsevier, despite criticism from the scientific community. The French
École Normale Supérieure École may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. ...
has stopped having Elsevier publish the journal '' Annales Scientifiques de l'École Normale Supérieure'' (as of 2008). Effective on 1 January 2020, the
French Academy of Sciences The French Academy of Sciences (French: ''Académie des sciences'') is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discip ...
stopped publishing its 7 journals
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences ''Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences'' (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, ...
with Elsevier and switched to Centre Mersenne.


Germany

Almost no academic institution in Germany is subscribed to Elsevier. Germany's DEAL project ( Projekt DEAL), which includes over 60 major research institutions, has announced that all of its members are cancelling their contracts with Elsevier, effective 1 January 2017. The boycott is in response to Elsevier's refusal to adopt "transparent business models" to "make publications more openly accessible". Horst Hippler, spokesperson for the DEAL consortium states that "taxpayers have a right to read what they are paying for" and that "publishers must understand that the route to open-access publishing at an affordable price is irreversible". In July 2017, another 13 institutions announced that they would also be cancelling their subscriptions to Elsevier journals. In August 2017, at least 185 German institutions had cancelled their contracts with Elsevier. In 2018, whilst negotiations were ongoing, around 200 German universities that cancelled their subscriptions to Elsevier journals were granted complimentary open access to them until this ended in July of the year. On 19 December 2018, the Max Planck Society (MPS) announced that the existing subscription agreement with Elsevier would not be renewed after the expiration date of 31 December 2018. MPS counts 14,000 scientists in 84 research institutes, publishing 12,000 articles each year.


Hungary

In March 2018, the Hungarian ''Electronic Information Service National Programme'' entered negotiations on its 2019 Elsevier subscriptions, asking for a read-and-publish deal. Negotiations were ended by the Hungarian consortium in December 2018, and the subscription was not renewed.


Iran

In 2013, Elsevier changed its policies in response to sanctions announced by the US Office of Foreign Assets Control that year. This included a request that all Elsevier journals avoid publishing papers by Iranian nationals who are employed by the Iranian government. Elsevier executive Mark Seeley expressed regret on behalf of the company, but did not announce an intention to challenge this interpretation of the law.


Italy

CRUI (an association of Italian universities) sealed a 5-year-long deal for 2018–2022, despite protests from the scientific community, protests focused on aspects such as the lack of prevention of cost increases by means of the Double dipping (publishing), double dipping.


Netherlands

In 2015, a consortium of all of Netherlands' 14 universities threatened to boycott Elsevier if it could not agree that articles by Dutch authors would be made open access and settled with the compromise of 30% of its Dutch papers becoming open access by 2018. Gerard Meijer, president of Radboud University in Nijmegen and lead negotiator on the Dutch side noted, "it's not the 100% that I hoped for".


Norway

In March 2019, the Norwegian government on behalf of 44 institutions — universities, university colleges, research institutes, and hospitals — decided to break negotiations on renewal of their subscription deal with Elsevier, because of disagreement regarding open-access policy and Elsevier's unwillingness to reduce the cost of reading access.


South Korea

In 2017, over 70 university libraries confirmed a "contract boycott" movement involving three publishers including Elsevier. As of January 2018, whilst negotiations remain underway, a decision will be made as to whether or not continue the participating libraries will continue the boycott. It was subsequently confirmed that an agreement had been reached.


Sweden

In May 2018, the Bibsam Consortium, which negotiates license agreements on behalf of all Swedish universities and research institutes, decided not to renew their contract with Elsevier, alleging that the publisher does not meet the demands of transition towards a more open-access model, and referring to the rapidly increasing costs for publishing. Swedish universities will still have access to articles published before 30 June 2018. Astrid Söderbergh Widding, chairman of the Bibsam Consortium, said, "the current system for scholarly communication must change and our only option is to cancel deals when they don't meet our demands for a sustainable transition to open access". Sweden has a goal of open access by 2026. In November 2019 the negotiations concluded, with Sweden paying for reading access to Elsevier journals and open access publishing for all its researchers' articles.


Taiwan

In Taiwan, more than 75% of universities, including the region's top 11 institutions, have joined a collective boycott against Elsevier. On 7 December 2016, the Taiwanese consortium, CONCERT, which represents more than 140 institutions, announced it would not renew its contract with Elsevier.


United States

In March 2018, Florida State University's faculty elected to cancel its $2 million subscription to a bundle of several journals. Starting in 2019, it will instead buy access to titles'' à la carte''. In February 2019, the
University of California The University of California (UC) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university, research university system in the U.S. state of California. The system is composed of the campuses at University of Califor ...
said it would terminate subscriptions "in [a] push for open access to publicly funded research." After months of negotiations over open access to research by UC researchers and prices for subscriptions to Elsevier journals, a press release by the UC Office of the President issued Thursday, 28 February 2019 stated "Under Elsevier’s proposed terms, the publisher would have charged UC authors large publishing fees on top of the university’s multimillion dollar subscription, resulting in much greater cost to the university and much higher profits for Elsevier." On July 10, 2019 Elsevier began restricting access to all new paywalled articles and approximately 5% of paywalled articles published before 2019. In April 2020, the University of North Carolina elected not to renew its bundled Elsevier package, citing a failure "to provide an affordable path". Rather than extend the license, which was stated to cost $2.6 million annually, the university decided to continue subscribing to a smaller set of individual journals. The State University of New York Libraries Consortium also announced similar outcome, with the help of estimates from Unpaywall Journals. Similarly, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT announced in June 2020 that it would no longer pay for access to new Elsevier articles.


Ukraine

In June 2020 the Ukrainian government cancelled subscriptions for all universities in the country after failed negotiations. The Ministry of Education stated that Elsevier indexes journals in its register which call themselves Russian but are from occupied territories.


Dissemination of research


Lobbying efforts against open access

Elsevier have been known to be involved in lobbying against open access. These have included the likes of: *The Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPPA) *The
Research Works Act The Research Works Act, 102 H.R. 3699, was a bill (proposed law), bill that was introduced in the United States House of Representatives at the 112th United States Congress on December 16, 2011, by Representative Darrell Issa (R-CA) and co-sponsore ...
*PRISM. In the case of PRISM, the Association of American Publishers hired Eric Dezenhall, the so-called "Pit Bull Of Public Relations". *Horizon 2020 *Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) *The European Union's Open science, Open Science Monitor was criticised after Elsevier were confirmed as a subcontractor. *UK Research and Innovation


Selling open-access articles

In 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, Elsevier was found to be selling some articles that should have been open access, but had been put behind a paywall. A related case occurred in 2015, when Elsevier charged for downloading an open-access article from a journal published by John Wiley & Sons. However, whether Elsevier was in violation of the license under which the article was made available on their website was not clear.


Action against academics posting their own articles online

In 2013, Digimarc, a company representing Elsevier, told the University of Calgary to remove articles published by faculty authors on university web pages; although such self-archiving of academic articles may be legal under the fair dealing provisions in Canadian copyright law, the university complied.
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
and the University of California, Irvine also received Notice and take down, takedown notices for self-archived academic articles, a first for Harvard, according to Peter Suber. Months after its acquisition of Academia.edu rival
Mendeley Mendeley is a company based in London, UK, which provides products and services for academic researchers. It is most known for its reference manager which is used to manage and share research papers and generate bibliographies 250px, Bibliograp ...
, Elsevier sent thousands of takedown notices to Academia.edu, a practice that has since ceased following widespread complaint by academics, according to Academia.edu founder and chief executive Richard Price. After Elsevier acquired the repository
SSRN The SSRN, formerly known as Social Science Research Network, is a Institutional repository, repository for preprints devoted to the rapid dissemination of scholarly research in the social sciences and humanities and more. Elsevier bought SSRN fro ...
in May 2016, academics started complaining that some of their work has been removed without notice. The action was explained as a technical error.


Sci-Hub and LibGen lawsuit

In 2015, Elsevier filed a lawsuit against the sites Sci-Hub and Library Genesis, LibGen, which make copyright-protected articles available for free. Elsevier also claimed illegal access to institutional accounts.


Rejection of the Initiative for Open Citations

Among the major academic publishers, Elsevier alone declined to join the Initiative for Open Citations. In the context of the resignation of the ''Journal of Informetrics editorial board, the firm stated: "Elsevier invests significantly in citation extraction technology. While these are made available to those who wish to license this data, Elsevier cannot make such a large corpus of data, to which it has added significant value, available for free."


Imprints

Elsevier uses its Imprint (trade name), imprints (that is, Brand, brand names used in publishing) to market to different consumer segments. Many of the imprints have previously been the names of publishing companies that were purchased by Reed Elsevier. *Academic Press *Baillière Tindall *BC Decker *Butterworth–Heinemann *CMP *Cell Press *Churchill Livingstone *Digital Press *Elsevier *Gulf Professional Publishing *GW Medical Publishing *Hanley & Belfus *Masson (publisher), Masson *Medicine Publishing *Morgan Kaufmann Publishers *Mosby (publisher), Mosby *Newnes *North-Holland Publishing Company *Pergamon Press *Pergamon Flexible Learning *Saunders (publisher), Saunders *Syngress *Urban & Fischer *William Andrew (publisher), William Andrew *Woodhead Publishing (including Chandos and Horwood)


See also

* List of Elsevier periodicals * 2collab, a free researcher collaboration tool launched by Elsevier in 2007 and discontinued in 2011 * Sci-Hub, a website providing free access to otherwise paywalled academic papers on a massive scale that is involved in a legal case with Elsevier * Bertelsmann * Holtzbrinck Publishing Group * Lagardère Publishing * McGraw Hill Education * News Corp * Pearson plc * Scholastic Corporation * Thomson Reuters * Wiley (publisher)


References


Citations


Sources

*


External links

*
Campaign success: Reed Elsevier sells international arms fairs
* {{authority control Elsevier, Elsevier Academic publishing companies Bibliographic database providers Companies based in Amsterdam Multinational companies headquartered in the Netherlands Publishing companies established in 1880 Publishing companies of the Netherlands Dutch companies established in 1880