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Dune
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.[1] Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water. Most kinds of dunes are longer on the stoss (upflow) side, where the sand is pushed up the dune, and have a shorter "slip face" in the lee side. The valley or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune field" or erg is an area covered by extensive dunes. Dunes occur in some deserts and along some coasts. Some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach. In most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea. Although the most widely distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, the largest complexes of dunes are found inland in dry regions and associated with ancient lake or sea beds
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Seaweed
Seaweed
Seaweed
or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.[1] The term includes some types of red, brown, and green macroalgae. Seaweed
Seaweed
offer excellent opportunities for its industrial exploitation as they could be a source of multiple compounds (i.e. polysaccharides, proteins and phenols) with applications as food [2][3] and animal feed,[3] pharmaceuticals [4] or fertilizersContents1 Taxonomy 2 Structure 3 Ecology 4 Uses4.1 Food 4.2 Herbalism 4.3 Filtration 4.4 Other uses4.4.1 Photo essay showing women in Zanzibar, Tanzania farming seaweed and making seaweed soap5 Health risks 6 Genera 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksTaxonomy[edit] "Seaweed" is a colloquial term and lacks a formal definition. A seaweed may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae
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Permafrost
In geology, permafrost is ground,[1] including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years. Most permafrost is located in high latitudes (in and around the Arctic and Antarctic regions), but at lower latitudes alpine permafrost occurs at higher elevations. Ground ice is not always present, as may be in the case of non-porous bedrock, but it frequently occurs and it may be in amounts exceeding the potential hydraulic saturation of the ground material
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Salt Spray
Sea spray refers to aerosol particles that are formed directly from the ocean, mostly by ejection into the atmosphere by bursting bubbles at the air-sea interface.[1]Contents1 Composition 2 Effects 3 Chemical resistance 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksComposition[edit] Sea salt aerosol (SSA) contains both inorganic salts and organic matter from the ocean.[2] It is thought that the amount of organic matter transferred to SSA depends on microbiological activity.[3] The organic matter in sea spray can contain dissolved organic matter[4] or even microbes themselves, like bacteria and viruses.[5] Effects[edit] Salt spray is largely responsible for corrosion of metallic objects near the coastline, as the salts accelerate the corrosion process in the presence of abundant atmospheric oxygen and moisture
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Feedback Loop
Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviourNetworks Scale-free networks Social network analysis Small-world networks Community identification Centrality Motifs Graph Theory Scaling Robustness Systems biology Dynamic networks Adaptive networks Evolution
Evolution
and adaptation Artificial neural networks Evolutionary computation Genetic algorithms Genetic programming Artificial life Machine learning Evolutionary developmental biology Artificial intelligence Evolutionary robo
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Vortex
In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes[1][2]) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.[3][4] Vortices form in stirred fluids, and may be observed in smoke rings, whirlpools in the wake of boat, or the winds surrounding a tornado or dust devil. Vortices are a major component of turbulent flow. The distribution of velocity, vorticity (the curl of the flow velocity), as well as the concept of circulation are used to characterize vortices. In most vortices, the fluid flow velocity is greatest next to its axis and decreases in inverse proportion to the distance from the axis. In the absence of external forces, viscous friction within the fluid tends to organize the flow into a collection of irrotational vortices, possibly superimposed to larger-scale flows, including larger-scale vortices. Once formed, vortices can move, stretch, twist, and interact in complex ways
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Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500. Until the advent of Modern Dutch
Modern Dutch
after 1500, there was no overarching standard language but the dialects were all mutually intelligible
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International Space Station
The International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth
Earth
orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, the last pressurised module was fitted in 2011, and the station is expected to be used until 2028. Development and assembly of the station continues, with components scheduled for launch in 2018 and 2019. The ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth
Earth
orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth.[8][9] The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components
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Paha (landform)
Paha are landforms composed of prominent hills that are oriented from northwest to southeast and typically have large loess deposits. They developed during the period of mass erosion that developed the Iowan surface, and are considered erosional remnants and are often at interstream divides
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Gravel
Gravel
Gravel
/ˈɡrævəl/ is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel is categorized into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). ISO 14688 grades gravels as fine, medium, and coarse with ranges 2 mm to 6.3 mm to 20 mm to 63 mm. One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds). Gravel
Gravel
is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic
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Lake
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.[1] Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are also larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions.[2] Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Sea
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.[1][2][a] More broadly, "the sea" is the interconnected system of Earth's salty, oceanic waters—considered as one global ocean or as several principal oceanic divisions. The sea moderates Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle
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Tundra
In physical geography, tundra (/ˈtʌndrə, ˈtʊn-/) is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра (tûndra) from the Kildin Sami word тӯндар (tūndâr) meaning "uplands", "treeless mountain tract".[1] There are three types of tundra: Arctic
Arctic
tundra,[2] alpine tundra,[2] and Antarctic tundra.[3] In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra regions. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline.Contents1 Arctic1.1 Relationship with global warming2 Antarctic 3 Alpine 4 Climatic classification 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksArctic Arctic
Arctic
tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt
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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming
/waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/ ( listen) is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous and the second least densely populated state in the country. Wyoming
Wyoming
is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota
South Dakota
and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho. The state population was estimated at 586,107 in 2015, which is less than 31 of the most populous U.S. cities including neighboring Denver.[8] Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with population estimated at 63,335 in 2015.[9] The western two-thirds of the state is covered mostly by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains
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