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Duke
A DUKE (male) ( British English
British English
: /djuːk/ or American English
American English
: /duːk/ ) or DUCHESS (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility , historically of highest rank below the monarch . The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux , 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy
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Germanic Monarchy
GERMANIC KINGSHIP is a thesis regarding the role of kings among the pre-Christianized Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
of the Migration period
Migration period
(c. 300–700 AD) and Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
(c. 700–1,000 AD). The thesis holds that the institution of feudal monarchy developed, through contact with the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Christian Church
Christian Church
, from an earlier custom of sacral and military kingship based on both birth status and popular consent. The term barbarian kingdom is used in the context of those Germanic rulers who after 476 AD and during the 6th century ruled territories formerly part of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, especially the Barbarian kings of Italy . In the same context, Germanic law is also derisively termed leges barbarorum "barbarian law" etc
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Megas Doux
The MEGAS DOUX (Greek : μέγας δούξ pronounced ; English: grand duke ) was one of the highest positions in the hierarchy of the later Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, denoting the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy . It is sometimes also given in English by the half-Latinizations MEGADUKE or MEGADUX. The Greek word δούξ is the Hellenized
Hellenized
form of the Latin
Latin
term dux , meaning leader or commander
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Celts
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Germanic Peoples
The GERMANIC PEOPLES (also called Teutonic , Suebian , or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages
Germanic languages
, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age . The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower , Upper , and Greater Germania
Germania
were referred to using this label by Roman scribes
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Feudal Monarchies
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Holy See
The HOLY SEE, also referred to as the SEE OF ROME, (Italian : Santa Sede; Latin
Latin
: Sancta Sedes; Ecclesiastical Latin: ) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Rome
Rome
, the episcopal see of the Pope
Pope
, and an independent sovereign entity . It serves as the central point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere and the focal point of communion due to its position as the pre-eminent episcopal see of the universal church. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches , Patriarchates and religious institutes . As an independent sovereign entity , holding the Vatican City
Vatican City
enclave in Rome
Rome
as sovereign territory , it maintains diplomatic relations with other states
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Peerage
A PEERAGE is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
, and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the de facto language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas
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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Eastern Roman Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Reign
A REIGN is the period of a person's or dynasty 's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation (e.g., Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Belgium , Andorra ), of a people (e.g., the Franks , the Zulus ) or of a spiritual community (e.g., Roman Catholicism , Tibetan Buddhism , Nizari Ismailism ). In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies (e.g., Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
) there have been no limits on the duration of a sovereign's reign or incumbency , nor is there a term of office . Thus, a reign usually lasts until the monarch dies, unless the monarchy itself is abolished or the monarch abdicates or is deposed. In elective monarchies , there may be a fixed period of time for the duration of the monarch's tenure in office (e.g., Malaysia )
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Gentleman
In modern parlance, the term GENTLEMAN (from gentle + man, translating the Old French
Old French
gentilz hom ) refers to any man of good, courteous conduct. It may also refer to all men collectively, as in indications of gender-separated facilities, or as a sign of the speaker's own courtesy when addressing others. The modern female equivalent is lady . In its original meaning, the term denoted a man of the lowest rank of the English gentry , standing below an esquire and above a yeoman . By definition, this category included the younger sons of the younger sons of peers and the younger sons of baronets , knights , and esquires in perpetual succession, and thus the term captures the common denominator of gentility (and often armigerousness ) shared by both constituents of the English aristocracy : the peerage and the gentry
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Esquire
ESQUIRE (British English: /ɪˈskwaɪə/ ; American English: /ˈɛsˌkwaɪr/ or /ᵻˈskwaɪr/ ; abbreviated ESQ.) is usually a courtesy title . In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Esquire
Esquire
historically was a title of respect accorded to men of higher social rank, particularly members of the landed gentry above the rank of gentleman and below the rank of knight . It later came to be used as a general courtesy title for any man in a formal setting, usually as a suffix to his name, as in "Todd Smith, Esq.", with no precise significance. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
today, it is still commonly used as a written style of address in formal or professional correspondence. In certain formal contexts, it remains an indication of a social status that is recognised in the formal Order of Precedence
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