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Dreamliner
The BOEING 787 DREAMLINER is an American long-haul , mid-size widebody , twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing
Boeing
Commercial Airplanes . Its variants seat 242 to 335 passengers in typical three-class seating configurations. It is the first airliner with an airframe constructed primarily of composite materials . The 787 was designed to be 20% more fuel efficient than the Boeing 767
Boeing 767
, which it was intended to replace. The 787 Dreamliner's distinguishing features include mostly electrical flight systems, raked wingtips , and noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles . It shares a common type rating with the larger Boeing 777
Boeing 777
to allow qualified pilots to operate both models. The aircraft's initial designation was the 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005. The first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 8, 2007 at Boeing's Everett factory
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Spoke-hub Distribution Paradigm
The SPOKE-HUB DISTRIBUTION PARADIGM (or MODEL or NETWORK) is a system of connections arranged like a wire wheel in which all traffic moves along spokes connected to the hub at the center. The model is commonly used in industry, particularly in transport , telecommunications , freight , and distributed computing (where it is known as a star network ). The hub-and-spoke model is most frequently compared to the point-to-point transit model. CONTENTS * 1 Benefits * 2 Drawbacks * 3 Commercial aviation * 4 Transportation * 5 Industrial distribution * 6 East Asian relations * 7 See also * 8 References BENEFITS * For a network of n nodes, only n - 1 routes are necessary to connect all nodes so the upper bound is n - 1, and the complexity is O(n). That compares favorably to the n ( n 1 ) 2 {displaystyle {frac {n(n-1)}{2}}} routes, or O(n2), which would be required to connect each node to every other node in a point-to-point network
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Point-to-point Transit
POINT-TO-POINT TRANSIT refers to a transportation system in which a plane, bus, or train travels directly to a destination, rather than going through a central hub . This differs from the spoke-hub distribution paradigm in which the transportation goes to a central location where passengers change to another train, bus, or plane to reach their destination. CONTENTS * 1 Use in airlines * 2 Advantages * 3 Disadvantages * 4 See also * 5 References USE IN AIRLINESThe point-to-point model is used widely by low cost carriers , including Allegiant Air and Southwest Airlines in the U.S., and European carriers such as Ryanair , easyJet and Wizzair . Many such airlines sell each flight leg independently and have no concept of round-trip ticketing or connecting flights so baggage must be collected and rechecked even to transfer between flights booked at the same time on the same airline
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Focus Group
A FOCUS GROUP is a small, but demographically diverse group of people whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population. It is a form of qualitative research consisting of interviews in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. During this process, the researcher either takes notes or records the vital points he or she is getting from the group. Researchers should select members of the focus group carefully for effective and authoritative responses
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September 11, 2001 Attacks
The SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States
United States
on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others , and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers ( United Airlines
United Airlines
and American Airlines
American Airlines
) — all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States
United States
bound for California — were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists
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Mach Number
In fluid dynamics , the MACH NUMBER (M or MA) (/mɑːx/ ; German: ) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound . M = u c , {displaystyle mathrm {M} ={frac {u}{c}},} where: M is the Mach number, u is the local flow velocity with respect to the boundaries (either internal, such as an object immersed in the flow, or external, like a channel), and c is the speed of sound in the medium. By definition, Mach 1 is equal to the speed of sound. Mach 0.65 is 65% of the speed of sound (subsonic), and Mach 1.35 is 35% faster than the speed of sound (supersonic). The local speed of sound, and thereby the Mach number, depends on the condition of the surrounding medium, in particular the temperature. The Mach number
Mach number
is primarily used to determine the approximation with which a flow can be treated as an incompressible flow . The medium can be a gas or a liquid
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Federal Aviation Administration
The FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation . These include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management , the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. CONTENTS * 1 Major functions * 2 Organizations * 3 Regions and Aeronautical Center Operations * 4 History * 5 21st century * 5.1 FAA reauthorization and air traffic control reform * 6 Criticism * 6.1 Conflicting roles * 6.2 Changes to air traffic controller application process * 7 List of FAA Administrators * 8 FAA process * 8.1 Designated Engineering Representative * 8.2 Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR) * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links MAJOR FUNCTIONSThe FAA's roles include: * Regulating U.S
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Type Certificate
A TYPE CERTIFICATE is issued to signify the airworthiness of an aircraft manufacturing design or "type". The certificate is issued by a regulating body, and once issued, the design cannot be changed. The certificate reflects a determination made by the regulating body that the aircraft is manufactured according to an approved design, and that the design ensures compliance with airworthiness requirements. The regulating body compares design documents and processes to determine if the design meets requirements established for the type of equipment. Requirements established by a regulating body typically refer to Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS) and related documents (such as DO-178 series, DO-160 series and DO-254 series), which are developed jointly by RTCA, Inc. and EUROCAE . Once issued, the aircraft "type" meets appropriate requirements
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Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
The JAPAN CIVIL AVIATION BUREAU (航空局, Kōkūkyoku, JCAB) is the civil aviation authority of Japan
Japan
and a division of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). Its head office is in the MLIT building in Kasumigaseki
Kasumigaseki
, Chiyoda, Tokyo
Chiyoda, Tokyo
. It is the Japanese equivalent of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration

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Airport
An AIRPORT is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, and a control tower . An airport consists of a landing area , which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad , and often includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers , hangars and terminals . Larger airports may have fixed-base operator services , airport aprons , taxiway bridges , air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges , and emergency services . An airport with a helipad for rotorcraft but no runway is called a heliport . An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base . Such a base typically includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings , and seaplane docks for tying-up
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Regional Jet
A REGIONAL JET (RJ) is a class of short to medium-range turbofan powered regional airliners . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 90\'s 50-seaters * 1.2 U.S. scope clauses * 1.3 Larger jets * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe term "regional jet" describes a range of short to medium-haul turbofan -powered aircraft, whose use throughout the world expanded after the advent of airline deregulation in the United States in 1978. Polish government Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
at the Polish Aviation Museum . Regional jet
Regional jet
airliners are not a new concept in aviation. Starting in the late 1960s Aeroflot
Aeroflot
, for example, used Yakolev Yak-40 regional sized mini-jet airliners , when its airline functioned as a state controlled national directive
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Denver
DENVER (/ˈdɛnvər/ ), officially the CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Colorado
Colorado
. Denver
Denver
is in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains . The Denver
Denver
downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River , approximately 12 mi (19 km) east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver
Denver
is nicknamed the Mile-High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile ( 5280 feet or 1609.3 meters) above sea level, making it the highest major city in the United States
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Moscow
MOSCOW (/ˈmɒskoʊ/ or /ˈmɒskaʊ/ ; Russian : Москва́, tr. Moskva, IPA: ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of Russia
Russia
, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area . Moscow
Moscow
has the status of a Russian federal city . Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent . By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world\'s largest cities , being the 14th largest metro area , the 18th largest agglomeration , the 15th largest urban area , and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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New Delhi
NEW DELHI (/ˌnjuː ˈdɛli/ ( listen )) is the capital of India and one of Delhi
Delhi
city's 11 districts . Although colloquially Delhi
Delhi
and New Delhi
Delhi
are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi
Delhi
along with adjoining districts. It is surrounded by Haryana on three sides and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
on the east. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India
India
during the Delhi
Delhi
Durbar of 1911
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Narita Airport
NARITA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (成田国際空港, Narita Kokusai Kūkō) (IATA : NRT, ICAO : RJAA), also known as TOKYO NARITA AIRPORT, formerly and originally known as NEW TOKYO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (新東京国際空港, Shin Tōkyō Kokusai Kūkō), is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area
of Japan. It is located approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of central Tokyo
Tokyo
in Chiba Prefecture
Chiba Prefecture
, straddling the border between the city of Narita and the adjacent town of Shibayama . Narita is the predominant international airport in Japan, handling around 50% of the country's international passenger traffic and 60% of its international air cargo traffic
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Vertical Stabilizer
The VERTICAL STABILIZERS, VERTICAL STABILISERS, or FINS, of aircraft , missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide direction stability. It is analogous to a skeg on boats and ships. On aircraft, vertical stabilizers generally point upwards. These are also known as the vertical tail, and are part of an aircraft's empennage . This upright mounting position has two major benefits: The drag of the stabilizer increases at speed, which creates a nose-up moment that help to slow down the aircraft that prevent dangerous overspeed, and when the aircraft banks the stabilizer produces lift which counters the banking moment and keeps the aircraft upright at the absence of control input. If the vertical stabilizer was mounted on the underside, it would produce a positive feedback whenever the aircraft dove or banked, which is inherently unstable
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