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Dreamliner
The Boeing
Boeing
787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size widebody, twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing
Boeing
Commercial Airplanes. Its variants seat 242 to 335 passengers in typical three-class seating configurations. It is the first airliner with an airframe constructed primarily of composite materials. The 787 was designed to be 20% more fuel efficient than the Boeing
Boeing
767, which it was intended to replace. The 787 Dreamliner's distinguishing features include mostly electrical flight systems, raked wingtips, and noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles. It shares a common type rating with the larger Boeing 777 to allow qualified pilots to operate both models. The aircraft's initial designation was the 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005. The first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 8, 2007 at Boeing's Everett factory
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European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Aviation Safety Agency
European Aviation Safety Agency
(EASA) is an agency of the European Union
European Union
(EU) with regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety
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Type Rating
A type rating is a regulating agency's certification of an airplane pilot to fly a certain aircraft type that requires additional training beyond the scope of the initial license and aircraft class training. What aircraft require a type rating is decided by the local aviation authority. In many countries pilots of single-engined aircraft under a certain maximum weight (5,700 kg or 12,500 lb, typically) do not require a type rating for each model, all or most such aircraft being covered by one class rating instead. There are exceptions to this, e.g. under Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) regulations the piston version of the Piper Malibu
Piper Malibu
does require its own type rating. In New Zealand
New Zealand
and South Africa
South Africa
there is no class rating, each aircraft model requiring its own rating
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Regional Jet
A regional jet (RJ) is a class of short to medium-range turbofan powered regional airliners.Contents1 History1.1 90's 50-seaters 1.2 U.S. scope clauses 1.3 Larger jets 1.4 Crossover jets 1.5 Short Range widebody2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The term "regional jet" describes a range of short to medium-haul turbofan-powered aircraft, whose use throughout the world expanded after the advent of airline deregulation in the United States in 1978.Polish government Yakovlev Yak-40
Yakovlev Yak-40
at the Polish Aviation Museum. Regional jet
Regional jet
airliners are not a new concept in aviation. Starting in the late 1960s Aeroflot, for example, used Yakolev Yak-40
Yak-40
regional sized mini-jet airliners, when its airline functioned as a state controlled national directive
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Airport
AirPort
AirPort
is the name given to a series of products by Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
using the (Wi-Fi) protocols (802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac). These products comprise a number of wireless routers and wireless cards
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Focus Group
A focus group is a small, but demographically diverse group of people and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population.[1][2][3] It is a form of qualitative research consisting of interviews in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. During this process, the researcher either takes notes or records the vital points he or she is getting from the group
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Point-to-point Transit
Point-to-point transit refers to a transportation system in which a plane, bus, or train travels directly to a destination, rather than going through a central hub. This differs from the spoke-hub distribution paradigm in which the transportation goes to a central location where passengers change to another train, bus, or plane to reach their destination.Contents1 Use in airlines 2 Advantages 3 Disadvantages 4 See also 5 ReferencesUse in airlines[edit] The point-to-point model is used widely by low cost carriers, including Allegiant Air
Allegiant Air
and Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines
in the U.S., and European carriers such as Ryanair, easyJet and Wizzair.[1] Many such airlines sell each flight leg independently and have no concept of round-trip ticketing or connecting flights so baggage must be collected and rechecked even to transfer between flights booked at the same time on the same airline
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Spoke-hub Distribution Paradigm
The spoke-hub distribution paradigm is a form of transport topology optimization in which traffic routes are organized as a series of 'spokes' that connect outlying points to a central 'hub.' Simple forms of this distribution/connection model may be contrasted with point-to-point transit systems in which each point has a direct route to every other point, and which was the principal method of transporting passengers and freight until the 1970s. The spoke-hub distribution model was pioneered by Delta Airlines
Delta Airlines
in 1955, and revolutionized the transportation logistics industry after Federal Express demonstrated the value of the concept in the early 1970s
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September 11, 2001 Attacks
The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11)[a] were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States
United States
on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage.[2][3] Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers ( United Airlines
United Airlines
and American Airlines) – all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States
United States
bound for California – were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists
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Mach Number
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number
Mach number
(M or Ma) (/mɑːx/; German: [maχ]) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.[1][2] M = u c , displaystyle mathrm M = frac u c , where:M is the Mach number, u is the local flow velocity with respect to the boundaries (either internal, such as an object immersed in the flow, or external, like a channel), and c is the speed of sound in the medium.By definition, at Mach 1 the local flow velocity u is equal to the speed of sound
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Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
The Japan
Japan
Civil Aviation Bureau (航空局, Kōkūkyoku, JCAB) is the civil aviation authority of Japan
Japan
and a division of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). Its head office is in the MLIT building in Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo.[1] It is the Japanese equivalent of the U.S
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Airline Hub
Airline
Airline
hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport. They serve as transfer (or stop-over) points to get passengers to their final destination.[a][b] It is part of the hub-and-spoke system. An airline operates flights from several non-hub (spoke) cities to the hub airport, and passengers traveling between spoke cities need to connect through the hub. This paradigm creates economies of scale that allow an airline to serve (via an intermediate connection) city-pairs that could otherwise not be economically served on a non-stop basis. This system contrasts with the point-to-point model, in which there are no hubs and nonstop flights are instead offered between spoke cities
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Type Certificate
A type certificate is issued to signify the airworthiness of an aircraft manufacturing design or "type". The certificate is issued by a regulating body, and once issued, the design cannot be changed. The certificate reflects a determination made by the regulating body that the aircraft is manufactured according to an approved design, and that the design ensures compliance with airworthiness requirements. The regulating body compares design documents and processes to determine if the design meets requirements established for the type of equipment. Requirements established by a regulating body typically refer to Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS) and related documents (such as DO-178 series, DO-160 series and DO-254 series), which are developed jointly by RTCA, Inc. and EUROCAE. Once issued, the aircraft "type" meets appropriate requirements. The determination process includes a step called "First Article Inspection", for it and for each of its subassemblies
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Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation. These include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles.Contents1 Major functions 2 Organizations 3 Regions and Aeronautical Center Operations 4 History 5 21st century5.1 FAA reauthorization and air traffic control reform6 Criticism6.1 Conflicting roles 6.2 Changes to air traffic controller application process7 List of FAA Administrators 8 FAA process8.1 Designated Engineering Representative 8.2 Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR)9 See also 10 References 11 External linksMajor functions[edit] The FAA's roles include:Regulating U.S
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Pilot (aeronautics)
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls. Some other aircrew members, such as navigators or flight engineers, are also considered aviators, because they are involved in operating the aircraft's navigation and engine systems. Other aircrew members such as flight attendants, mechanics and ground crew, are not classified as aviators. In recognition of the pilots' qualifications and responsibilities, most militaries and many airlines worldwide award aviator badges to their pilots, and this includes naval aviators.Contents1 History 2 Civilian2.1 Airline2.1.1 Automation2.2 Africa
Africa
and Asia 2.3 Canada 2.4 United States3 Military 4 Unmanned aerial vehicles 5 Space 6 Pilot certifications 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] Hot air balloon
Hot air balloon
pilot and passenger in basketThis section needs expansion
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Cockpit
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Cockpit
Cockpit
of an Antonov An-124 Cockpit
Cockpit
of an A380. Most Airbus cockpits are glass cockpits featuring fly-by-wire technology.Swiss HB-IZX Saab 2000
Saab 2000
during flightRobin DR4001936 de Havilland Hornet MothThe cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel, and the controls that enable the pilot to fly the aircraft. In most airliners, a door separates the cockpit from the aircraft cabin
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