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Dithyramb
The dithyramb (Ancient Greek: διθύραμβος, dithyrambos) was an ancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god:[1] Plato, in The Laws, while discussing various kinds of music mentions "the birth of Dionysos, called, I think, the dithyramb."[2] Plato
Plato
also remarks in the Republic that dithyrambs are the clearest example of poetry in which the poet is the only speaker.[3] However, in The Apology Socrates went to the dithyrambs with some of their own most elaborate passage
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Classical Athens
The city of Athens
Athens
(Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai, modern pronunciation Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC)[1] was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League
Delian League
in the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
against Sparta
Sparta
and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
following the tyranny of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War)
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Ecstasy (philosophy)
Ecstasy (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἔκστασις ekstasis, "to be or stand outside oneself, a removal to elsewhere" from ek- "out," and stasis "a stand, or a standoff of forces") is a term used in Ancient Greek, Christian and Existential philosophy. The different traditions using the concept have radically different perspectives.Contents1 Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
philosophy 2 Christian mysticism 3 Existential philosophy 4 Other uses of the term 5 See also 6 References Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
philosophy[edit] According to Plotinus, ecstasy is the culmination of human possibility
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Pelasgian Language
The name Pelasgians
Pelasgians
(/pəˈlæzdʒiənz, -dʒənz, -ɡiənz/; Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by classical Greek writers to either refer to populations that were the ancestors/forerunners of the Greeks,[1][2] or to signify all pre-classical indigenes of Greece. In general, "Pelasgian" has come to mean more broadly all the indigenous inhabitants of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
region and their cultures, "a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably indigenous people in the Greek world".[3] During the classical period, enclaves under that name survived in several locations of mainland Greece, Crete, and other regions of the Aegean
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Phrygian Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Corinth
Corinth
Corinth
(/ˈkɒrɪnθ/; Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, pronounced [ˈkorinθos] ( listen)) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Archilochus
Archilochus
Archilochus
(/ɑːrˈkɪləkəs/; Greek: Ἀρχίλοχος Arkhilokhos; c. 680 – c. 645 BC)[nb 1] was a Greek lyric poet from the island of Paros
Paros
in the Archaic period
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Choregos
In the theatre of ancient Greece, the chorêgos (pl. chorêgoi; Greek: χορηγός, Greek etymology: χορός "chorus" + ἡγεῖσθαι "to lead")[n 1] was a wealthy Athenian citizen who assumed the public duty, or choregiai, of financing the preparation for the chorus and other aspects of dramatic production that were not paid for by the government of the polis or city-state.[3] Modern Anglicized forms of the word include choragus and choregus, with the accepted plurals being the Latin
Latin
forms choregi and choragi.[2] In modern Greek the word χορηγός is synonymous with the word "grantor".[4] Choregoi were appointed by the archon and the tribes of Athenian citizens from among the Athenian citizens of great wealth. Service as a choregos, though an honor, was a duty for wealthy citizens and was part of the liturgical system designed to improve the city-state's economic stability through the use of private wealth to fund public good
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Coryphaeus
In Attic drama, the coryphaeus, corypheus, or koryphaios (Greek κορυφαῖος koryphaîos, from κορυφή koryphḗ́, the top of the head) was the leader of the chorus. Hence the term (sometimes in an Anglicized form "coryphe") is used for the chief or leader of any company or movement. The coryphaeus spoke for all the rest, whenever the chorus took part in the action, in quality of a person of the drama, during the course of the acts. The term is sometimes used for the chief or principal of any company, corporation, sect, opinion, etc
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Relief
Relief
Relief
is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.[1] What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone (relief sculpture) or wood (relief carving) is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, and is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round, especially one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point, especially in stone
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Phrygian Mode
The Phrygian mode
Phrygian mode
(pronounced /ˈfrɪdʒiən/) can refer to three different musical modes: the ancient Greek tonos or harmonia sometimes called Phrygian, formed on a particular set of octave species or scales; the Medieval Phrygian mode, and the modern conception of the Phrygian mode
Phrygian mode
as a diatonic scale, based on the latter.Contents1 Ancient Greek Phrygian 2 Medieval Phrygian mode 3 Modern Phrygian mode3.1 Phrygian dominant scale4 Examples4.1 Ancient Greek 4.2 Medieval and Renaissance 4.3 Baroque 4.4 Romantic 4.5 Modern classical music 4.6 Film music 4.7 Jazz5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksAncient Greek Phrygian[edit] The Phrygian tonos or harmonia is named after the ancient kingdom of Phrygia
Phrygia
in Anatolia
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Satyr
In Greek mythology, a satyr (UK: /ˈsætə/, US: /ˈseɪtər/;[1] Greek: σάτυρος satyros,[2] pronounced [sátyros]) is the member of a troop of ithyphallic male companions of Dionysus; they usually have horse-like ears and tails, as well as permanent, exaggerated erections.[3] Early artistic representations sometimes include horse-like legs, but, in 6th-century BC black-figure pottery, human legs are the most common.[4] The faun is a similar woodland-dwelling creature from Roman mythology, which had the body of a man, but the legs, horns, and tail of a goat.[5] In myths, both are often associated with pipe-playing. Greek-speaking Romans often used the Greek term saturos when referring to the Latin faunus, and eventually syncretized the two. (The female "Satyresses" were a later invention of poets.) They are also known for their focus on sexual desires
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Greek Chorus
A Greek chorus, or simply chorus (Greek: χορός, khoros) in the context of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tragedy, comedy, satyr plays, and modern works inspired by them, is a homogeneous, non-individualised group of performers, who comment with a collective voice on the dramatic action.[1] The chorus consisted of between 12 and 50 players, who variously danced, sang or spoke their lines in unison and sometimes wore masks.Contents1 Etymology 2 Dramatic function 3 Choral structure and size 4 Stage management 5 Decline in antiquity 6 Modern choruses 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEtymology[edit] Historian H. D. F
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Delos
The island of Delos
Delos
(/ˈdiːlɒs/; Greek: Δήλος [ˈðilos]; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades
Cyclades
archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical and archaeological sites in Greece
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