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Dirham
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states. It was formerly the related unit of mass (the Ottoman dram) in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and old Persian states. The name derives from the ancient Greek currency the drachma.[1]Contents1 Unit of mass 2 History2.1 Dirham
Dirham
in Jewish
Jewish
orthodox law3 Modern-day currency 4 See also 5 ReferencesUnit of mass[edit] The dirham was a unit of weight used across North Africa, the Middle East, and Persia, with varying values. In the late Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(Ottoman Turkish درهم), the standard dirham was 3.207 g;[2] 400 dirhem equal one oka
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Sassanid
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Yosef Karo
HaMechaber MaranArtistic conception of Karo's appearancePersonal detailsBirth name Joseph ben Ephraim KaroBorn 1488 ToledoDied March 24, 1575 Safed, Ottoman SyriaBuried Safed, IsraelSignatureJoseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan
Nisan
5335 A.M.),[1] was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews
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Viking
Vikings
Vikings
(Old English: wicing—"pirate",[1] Danish and Bokmål: vikinger; Swedish and Nynorsk: vikingar; Icelandic: víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.[2][3] The term is also commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Viking home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age
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Jorvik
Scandinavian York (also referred to as Jórvík) or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria (modern day Yorkshire) during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, used to refer to the city (York) controlled by these kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before eventually being annexed into England in 954.[1][2] It was closely associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period.Contents1 History1.1 Aftermath2 Kings of Jórvík 3 Archaeological findings 4 See also 5 References5.1 Bibliography6 External linksHistory[edit]A map of the routes taken by the Great Heathen Army from 865 to 878York had been founded as the Roman legionary fortress
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Jewish
Jews
Jews
(Hebrew: יְהוּדִים‬ ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation [jehuˈdim]) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group[12] and a nation[13][14][15] originating from the Israelites,[16][17][18] or Hebrews,[19][20] of the Ancient Near East. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated,[21] as
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Halakha
Halakha (/hɑːˈlɔːxə/;[1] Hebrew: הֲלָכָה‬, Sephardic: [halaˈχa]; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) (Ashkenazic: [haˈloχo]) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah. It is based on biblical laws or "commandments" (mitzvot) (traditionally numbered as 613), subsequent Talmudic and rabbinic law and the customs and traditions compiled in the many books, one of the most famous of which is the 16th-century Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(literally "Prepared Table"). Halakha is often translated as " Jewish
Jewish
Law", although a more literal translation might be "the way to behave" or "the way of walking". The word derives from the root that means "to behave" (also "to go" or "to walk")
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Ketubbah
A ketubah (Hebrew: כְּתוּבָּה, "written thing"; pl. ketubot) is a special type of Jewish prenuptial agreement. It is considered an integral part of a traditional Jewish marriage, and outlines the rights and responsibilities of the groom, in relation to the bride. In modern practice, the ketubah has no agreed monetary value, and is never enforced.[1]Contents1 History 2 Composition2.1 Content2.1.1 Bat-Kohen variation2.2 Design and language3 Usage3.1 Role in wedding ceremony 3.2 Display 3.3 Conditio sine qua non4 Gallery of illuminated ketubot 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The rabbis in ancient times insisted on the marriage couple entering into the ketubah as a protection for the wife. It acted as a replacement of the biblical mohar[2][3][4][5][6] – the price paid by the groom to the bride, or her parents, for the marriage (i.e., the bride price)
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Hallah (Talmud)
Hallah (Hebrew: חלה, literally "Loaf"), although in the biblical sense that which refers to the "dough-offering," is the ninth tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and of the Talmud, treating on one of the twenty-four sacerdotal gifts mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.[1] During the period of the Jewish Temple, this "Hallah" was separated from bread made from either one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, spelt, oats [var. goatgrass] and wild barley [var. rye]) and given unto a priest of Aaron's lineage (Kohen). Today, since the priests are no longer ritually clean, the "dough-portion" is separated and burnt in the oven, or fed to birds in a few Jewish communities
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Maimonides
30 March[1] or 6 April[2] 1135 Possibly born 28 March[3] or 4 April[4] 1138 Córdoba, Almoravid Empire
Almoravid Empire
(present-day Spain)Died 12 December 1204 (aged 69) Fostat, Ayyubid Sultanate
Ayyubid Sultanate
(present-day Eg
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
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Eduyot
For Jewish law on damages, see Damages (Jewish law)This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Nezikin (Hebrew: נזיקין‬ Neziqin, "Damages") or Seder Nezikin (סדר נזיקין‬, "The Order of Damages") is the fourth Order of the Mishna
Mishna
(also the Tosefta
Tosefta
and Talmud). It deals largely with Jewish criminal and civil law and the Jewish court system. Nezikin contains ten volumes (or "tractates"): Bava Kamma (בבא קמא‬, First Gate) deals with civil matters, largely damages and compensation. 10 chapters. (See also Shomer) Bava Metzia (בבא מציעא‬, Middle Gate) deals with civil matters, largely torts and property law
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Shulhan Arukh
The Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew: שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‬ [ʃulˈħan ʕaˈʁuχ], literally: "Set Table"),[1] also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the Code of Jewish Law," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel) by Joseph Karo in 1563 and published in Venice two years later.[2] Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch generally follow Sephardic law and customs, whereas Ashkenazi Jews will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles, whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ. These glosses are widely referred to as the mappah (literally: the "tablecloth") to the Shulchan Aruch's "Set Table"
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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Yoreh Deah
Yoreh De'ah (Hebrew: יורה דעה‬) is a section of Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob ben Asher's compilation of halakha (Jewish law), Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
around 1300. This section treats all aspects of Jewish law not pertinent to the Hebrew calendar, finance, torts, marriage, divorce, or sexual conduct. (Nevertheless there exists occasional overlap into the excluded areas). Yoreh De'ah is therefore the most diversified area of Jewish law. Later, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Karo
Yosef Karo
modeled the framework of his own compilation of practical Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, after the Arba'ah Turim
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Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
(Hebrew: אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‬), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain
Toledo, Spain
c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch.Contents1 Meaning of the name 2 Arrangement and contents 3 Later developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMeaning of the name[edit] The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's breastplate
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