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Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states. It was formerly the related unit of mass (the Ottoman dram) in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and old Persian states. The name derives from the ancient Greek currency the drachma.[1]

Contents

1 Unit of mass 2 History

2.1 Dirham
Dirham
in Jewish
Jewish
orthodox law

3 Modern-day currency 4 See also 5 References

Unit of mass[edit] The dirham was a unit of weight used across North Africa, the Middle East, and Persia, with varying values. In the late Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(Ottoman Turkish درهم), the standard dirham was 3.207 g;[2] 400 dirhem equal one oka. The Ottoman dirham was based on the Sassanian
Sassanian
drachm, which was itself based on the Roman dram/drachm. In Egypt
Egypt
in 1895, it was equivalent to 47.661 troy grains (3.088 g).[3] There is currently a movement within the Islamic world to revive the Dirham
Dirham
as a unit of mass for measuring silver, although the exact value is disputed (either 3 grams or 2.975 grams)[citation needed]. History[edit]

Silver hoard from Lublin-Czechów, comprising 214 silver dirhams issued between 711/712 and 882/883 AD, Lublin
Lublin
Museum.

The word "dirham" comes from drachma (δραχμή), the Greek coin.[1] The Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
controlled the Levant
Levant
and traded with Arabia, circulating the coin there in pre-Islamic times and afterward. It was this currency which was initially adopted as an Arab word; then near the end of the 7th century the coin became an Islamic currency bearing the name of the sovereign and a religious verse. The dirham was struck in many Mediterranean countries, including Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(Moorish Spain) and the Byzantine Empire (miliaresion), and could be used as currency in Europe
Europe
between the 10th and 12th centuries, notably in areas with Viking
Viking
connections, such as Viking
Viking
York[4] and Dublin. Dirham
Dirham
in Jewish
Jewish
orthodox law[edit] The dirham is frequently mentioned in Jewish
Jewish
orthodox law as a unit of weight used to measure various requirements in religious functions, such as the weight in silver specie pledged in Marriage Contracts (Ketubbah), the quantity of flour requiring the separation of the dough-portion, etc.  Jewish
Jewish
physician and philosopher, Maimonides, uses the Egyptian dirham to approximate the quantity of flour for dough-portion, writing in Mishnah
Mishnah
Eduyot 1:2: "...And I found the rate of the dough-portion in that measurement to be approximately five-hundred and twenty dirhams of wheat flour, while all these dirhams are the Egyptian [dirham]." This view is repeated by Maran's Shulhan Arukh
Shulhan Arukh
(Hil. Hallah, Yoreh Deah § 324:3) in the name of the Tur. In Maimonides' commentary of the Mishnah
Mishnah
( Eduyot 1:2, note 18), Rabbi Yosef Qafih explains that the weight of each Egyptian dirham was approximately 3.333 grammes,[5] or what was the equivalent to 16 carob-grains[6] which, when taken together, the minimum weight of flour requiring the separation of the dough-portion comes to appx. 1 kilo and 733 grammes. Rabbi Ovadiah Yosef, in his Sefer Halikhot ʿOlam (vol. 1, pp. 288-291),[7] makes use of a different standard for the Egyptian dirham, saying that it weighed appx. 3.0 grammes, meaning the minimum requirement for separating the priest's portion is 1 kilo and 560 grammes. Others (e.g. Rabbi Avraham Chaim Naeh) say the Egyptian dirham weighed appx. 3.205 grammes,[8] which total weight for the requirement of separating the dough-portion comes to 1 kilo and 666 grammes. Rabbi Shelomo Qorah (Chief Rabbi of Bnei Barak) writes that the traditional weight used in Yemen
Yemen
for each dirham weighed 3.36 grammes,[9] making the total weight for the required separation of the dough-portion to be 1 kilo and 770.72 grammes. The word drachmon (Hebrew: דרכמון‬), used in some translations of Maimonides' commentary of the Mishnah, has in all places the same connotation as dirham.[10] Modern-day currency[edit] Currently the valid national currencies with the name dirham are :

the Moroccan dirham the United Arab Emirates dirham

Modern currencies with the subdivision dirham or diram are:

1 Libyan dinar is subdivided into 1,000 Dirham 1 Qatari riyal is subdivided into 100 Dirham 1 Jordanian dinar
Jordanian dinar
is subdivided into 10 Dirham 1 Tajikistani somoni
Tajikistani somoni
is subdivided into 100 Diram

Also the unofficial coinage the Modern gold dinar
Modern gold dinar
is divided into dirham. See also[edit]

Dinar Gold dinar Fals

References[edit]

^ a b Oxford English Dictionary, 1st edition, s.v. 'dirhem' ^ based on an oka of 1.2828 kg; Diran Kélékian gives 3.21 g (Dictionnaire Turc-Français, Constantinople: Imprimerie Mihran, 1911) ; Γ. Μπαμπινιώτης gives 3.203 g (Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας, Athens, 1998) ^ OED ^ In addition to Islamic dirhams in ninth and tenth century English hoards, a counterfeit dirham was found at Coppergate, York, struck as if for Isma'il ibn Achmad (ruling at Samarkand, 903-07/8), of copper covered by a once-silvery wash of tin (illustrated in Richard Hall, Viking
Viking
Age Archaeology, [series Shire Archaeology] 2010:17, fig. 7). ^ Mishnah
Mishnah
- with a Commentary of Rabbi Moses ben Maimon, ed. Yosef Qafih, vol. 2 - Seder Neziqim, pub. Mossad Harav Kook: Jerusalem 1965, p. 189 (Hebrew title: משנה עם פירוש הרמב"ם) ^ Mishnah
Mishnah
- with a Commentary of Rabbi Moses ben Maimon (ed. Yosef Qafih), vol. 3, Mossad Harav Kook: Jerusalem 1967, s.v. Introduction to Tractate Menahoth, p. 68 (note 35) (Hebrew) ^ Ovadiah Yosef, Sefer Halikhot ʿOlam, vol. 1, Jerusalem 2002 (Hebrew title: ספר הליכות עולם) ^ Ovadiah Yosef, Sefer Halikhot ʿOlam, vol. 1, Jerusalem 2002, p. 288, sec. 11; Abraham Chaim Naeh, Sefer Kuntres ha-Shi'urim, Jerusalem 1943, p. 4 (Hebrew) ^ Shelomo Qorah, ʿArikhat Shūlḥan - Yilqūṭ Ḥayyīm, vol. 13 (Principles of Instruction and Tradition), Benei Barak 2012, p. 206 (Hebrew title: עריכת שולחן - ילקוט חיים) ^ Mishnah
Mishnah
- with a Commentary of Rabbi Moses ben Maimon, ed. Yosef Qafih, vol. 3 - Seder Kodashim, pub. Mossad Harav Kook: Jerusalem 1967, s.v. Introduction to Tractate Menahoth, p. 68 (note 35) (Hebrew title: משנה עם פירוש הרמב"ם)

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Aqad Bai' al 'Inah Bai' Bithaman Ajil Bai' Muajjal Bai Salam Gharar Hibah Ijarah Istisna Muamalat Mudaraba Mudarib Murabaha Musawamah Musharaka Qard al-Hasan Qirad Riba Securities trading Sharia investments Sukuk Takaful Tawarruq Wadiah Wakalah Waqf

Currency

Dinar Dirham Fals Gold dinar Mithqal Modern gold dinar

Scholars

Abdul Azim Islahi Mohammad Najatuallah Siddiqui Rusni Hassan Umer Chapra

Works

Iqtisaduna The Econom

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