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Determinism
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Determinism
Determinism
is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes. Determinism
Determinism
is usually understood to preclude free will because it entails that humans cannot act otherwise than they do. The theory holds that the universe is utterly rational because complete knowledge of any given situation assures that unerring knowledge of its future is also possible.[1] Some philosophers suggest variants around this basic definition.[2] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations
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Self-determination
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations
United Nations
as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.[1][2] It states that a people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity, have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference.[3] The concept was first expressed in the 1860s, and spread rapidly thereafter.[4][5] During and after World War I, the principle was encouraged by both Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and United States President Woodrow Wilson.[4][5] Having announced his Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
on 8 January 1918, on 11 February 1918 Wilson stated: "National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent
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Law
Law
Law
is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.[2] Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein
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Predictability
Predictability is the degree to which a correct prediction or forecast of a system's state can be made either qualitatively or quantitatively.Contents1 Predictability and Causality1.1 Laplace's Demon2 In statistical physics 3 In mathematics 4 In human–computer interaction 5 In human sentence processing 6 In biology 7 In popular culture 8 Techniques 9 In climate9.1 The Spring Predictability Barrier10 In macroeconomics 11 See also 12 References 13 External links
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Leucippus
Leucippus
Leucippus
(/luːˈsɪpəs/; Greek: Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism—the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms. Leucippus
Leucippus
often appears as the master to his pupil Democritus, a philosopher also touted as the originator of the atomic theory. However, a brief notice in Diogenes
Diogenes
Laertius’s life of Epicurus
Epicurus
says that on the testimony of Epicurus, Leucippus
Leucippus
never existed. As the philosophical heir of Democritus, Epicurus's word has some weight, and indeed a controversy over this matter raged in German scholarship for many years at the close of the 19th century
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Thought Experiment
A thought experiment (German: Gedankenexperiment,[1] Gedanken-Experiment[2] or Gedankenerfahrung[3]) considers some hypothesis, theory,[4] or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences
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God
In monotheistic thought, God
God
is conceived of as the Supreme Being
Supreme Being
and the principal object of faith.[3] The concept of God, as described by theologians, commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), divine simplicity, and as having an eternal and necessary existence. In agnostic thought, the existence of God
God
is unknown and/or unknowable
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Path Dependence
Path dependence explains how the set of decisions one faces for any given circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past or by the events that one has experienced, even though past circumstances may no longer be relevant.[1] In economics and the social sciences, path dependence can refer either to outcomes at a single moment in time, or to long-run equilibria of a process. In common usage, the phrase implies either:(A) that "history matters" — a broad concept,[2] or (B) that predictable amplifications of small differences are a disproportionate cause of later circumstances, and, in the "strong" form, that this historical hang-over is inefficient.[3]In the first usage, (A), "history matters" is trivially true in many contexts; everything has causes, and sometimes different causes lead to different outcomes
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Causa Sui
Causa sui
Causa sui
( Latin
Latin
pronunciation: [kawsa sʊi], meaning "cause of itself" in Latin) denotes something which is generated within itself. This concept was central to the works of Baruch Spinoza, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Ernest Becker, where it relates to the purpose that objects can assign to themselves. In Freud and Becker's case, the concept was often used as an immortality vessel, where something could create meaning or continue to create meaning beyond its own life. Norman O
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Prediction
A prediction ( Latin
Latin
præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about an uncertain event. It is often, but not always, based upon experience or knowledge. There is no universal agreement about the exact difference between the two terms; different authors and disciplines ascribe different connotations. (Contrast with estimation.) Although guaranteed accurate information about the future is in many cases impossible, prediction can be useful to assist in making plans about possible developments; Howard H. Stevenson writes that prediction in business "..
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Omniscience
Omniscience
Omniscience
/ɒmˈnɪʃəns/,[1] mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know
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Uncertainty
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eSituations often arise wherein a decision must be made when the results of each possible choice are uncertain. Uncertainty
Uncertainty
has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".[1] It describes a situation involving ambiguous and/or unknown information. It applies to predictions of future events, to physical measurements that are already made, or to the unknown
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Theory
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.[citation needed] Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several related meanings. Theories guide the enterprise of finding facts rather than of reaching goals, and are neutral concerning alternatives among values.[1]:131 A theory can be a body of knowledge, which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models. To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge.[2]:46 As already in Aristotle's definitions, theory is very often contrasted to "practice" (from Greek praxis, πρᾶξις) a Greek term for doing, which is opposed to theory because pure theory involves no doing apart from itself
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Event (philosophy)
In philosophy, events are objects in time or instantiations of properties in objects.Contents1 Kim’s property-exemplification 2 Davidson 3 Lewis 4 Badiou 5 Deleuze 6 Kirkeby 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksKim’s property-exemplification[edit] Jaegwon Kim theorized that events are structured. They are composed of three things:Object(s) [x], a property [P] and time or a temporal interval [t].Events are defined using the operation [x, P, t]. A unique event is defined by two principles:a) the existence condition and b) the identity condition.The existence condition states “[x, P, t] exists if and only if object x exemplifies the n-adic P at time t”. This means a unique event exists if the above is met
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Hypothesis
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.[1] A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent
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Multiverse
The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical set of various possible universes including the universe which humans live in. Together, these universes comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, energy, the physical laws and the constants that describe them.[1][2][3][4] The miscellaneous distinct universes within the multiverse are called the "parallel universes", "other universes" or "alternative universes".[5][6][7]Contents1 History of the concept 2 Brief explanation 3 Search for evidence 4 Proponents and skeptics 5 Arguments against multiverse theories 6 Classification schemes6.1 Max Tegmark's four levels6.1.1 Level I: An extension of our Universe 6.1.2 Level II: Universes with different physical constants 6.1.3 Level III: Many-worlds interpretation
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