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Determinism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e DETERMINISM is the philosophical position that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event. "There are many determinisms, depending on what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event or action." Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations. Some forms of determinism can be empirically tested with ideas from physics and the philosophy of physics . The opposite of determinism is some kind of indeterminism (otherwise called nondeterminism). Determinism
Determinism
is often contrasted with free will
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Path Dependence
PATH DEPENDENCE explains how the set of decisions one faces for any given circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past, even though past circumstances may no longer be relevant. In economics and the social sciences , path dependence can refer either to outcomes at a single moment in time, or to long-run equilibria of a process. In common usage, the phrase implies either: * (A) that "history matters" — a broad concept, or * (B) that predictable amplifications of small differences are a disproportionate cause of later circumstances. And, in the "strong" form, that this historical hang-over is inefficient . The first usage, (A): "history matters" is trivially true in the explanatory context; everything has causes. And in these fields, the direct influence of earlier states isn't notable (unlike "path-dependent" options in finance , where the influence of history can be non-standard )
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Prediction
A PREDICTION ( Latin
Latin
præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or FORECAST , is a statement about an uncertain event . It is often, but not always, based upon experience or knowledge. There is no universal agreement about the exact difference between the two terms; different authors and disciplines ascribe different connotations . Although guaranteed accurate information about the future is in many cases impossible, prediction can be useful to assist in making plans about possible developments; Howard H. Stevenson writes that prediction in business "..
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Causa Sui
CAUSA SUI ( Latin
Latin
pronunciation: , meaning "cause of itself" in Latin ) denotes something which is generated within itself. This concept was central to the works of Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
, Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
, Jean-Paul Sartre , and Ernest Becker , where it relates to the purpose that objects can assign to themselves. In Freud and Becker's case, the concept was often used as an immortality vessel, where something could create meaning or continue to create meaning beyond its own life. Norman O. Brown , in his masterpiece, Life Against Death
Life Against Death
, argues Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
's Oedipal complex is essentially the causa Sui (father-of-oneself) project where, after the traumatic recognition that we are separate from the mother; that we are 'other,' we seek for reunification with the mother
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Leucippus
LEUCIPPUS (/luːˈsɪpəs/ ; Greek : Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism —the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms . Leucippus
Leucippus
often appears as the master to his pupil Democritus
Democritus
, a philosopher also touted as the originator of the atomic theory. However, a brief notice in Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laertius
’s life of Epicurus
Epicurus
says that on the testimony of Epicurus
Epicurus
, Leucippus
Leucippus
never existed. As the philosophical heir of Democritus, Epicurus's word has some weight, and indeed a controversy over this matter raged in German scholarship for many years at the close of the 19th century
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Thought Experiment
A THOUGHT EXPERIMENT (German : Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken experiment or Gedankenerfahrung ) considers some hypothesis , theory , or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. Given the structure of the experiment , it may not be possible to perform it, and even if it could be performed, there need not be an intention to perform it. The common goal of a thought experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about potential consequents (or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent)" (Yeates, 2004, p. 150)
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Law
LAW is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior . Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes , by the executive through decrees and regulations , or established by judges through precedent , normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts , including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution , written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics , economics , history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people
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Predictability
PREDICTABILITY is the degree to which a correct prediction or forecast of a system 's state can be made either qualitatively or quantitatively. CONTENTS * 1 Predictability and Causality * 2 In statistical physics * 3 In mathematics * 4 In human–computer interaction * 5 In human sentence processing * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links PREDICTABILITY AND CAUSALITY Causal determinism
Causal determinism
has a strong relationship with predictability. Perfect predictability implies strict determinism, but lack of predictability does not necessarily imply lack of determinism. Limitations on predictability could be caused by factors such as a lack of information or excessive complexity
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Multiverse
The MULTIVERSE (or META-UNIVERSE) is the hypothetical set of possible universes , including the universe in which we live. Together, these universes comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space , time , matter , energy , and the physical laws and constants that describe them. The various universes within the multiverse are called "parallel universes", "other universes", or "alternative universes"
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Event (philosophy)
In philosophy , EVENTS are objects in time or instantiations of properties in objects. CONTENTS * 1 Kim’s property-exemplification * 2 Davidson * 3 Lewis * 4 Badiou * 5 Deleuze * 6 Kirkeby * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links KIM’S PROPERTY-EXEMPLIFICATION Jaegwon Kim theorized that events are structured. They are composed of three things: * Object(s) , * a property and * time or a temporal interval .Events are defined using the operation . A unique event is defined by two principles: a) the existence condition and b) the identity condition. The existence condition states “ exists if and only if object x exemplifies the n-adic P at time t”. This means a unique event exists if the above is met. The identity condition states “ is if and only if x=y, P=Q and t=t`]
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Uncertainty
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e Situations often arise wherein a decision must be made when the results of each possible choice are uncertain. UNCERTAINTY has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description". It describes a situation involving ambiguous and/or unknown information . It applies to predictions of future events, to physical measurements that are already made, or to the unknown. Uncertainty
Uncertainty
arises in partially observable and/or stochastic environments, as well as due to ignorance , indolence , or both
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Doubt
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e DOUBT characterises a status in which the mind remains suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them. Doubt
Doubt
on an emotional level is indecision between belief and disbelief. Doubt
Doubt
involves uncertainty , distrust or lack of sureness of an alleged fact , an action, a motive, or a decision . Doubt questions a notion of a perceived "reality ", and may involve delaying or rejecting relevant action out of concerns for mistakes or faults or appropriateness. (Compare paradox )
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Presupposition (philosophy)
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e In epistemology , a PRESUPPOSITION relates to a belief system, or Weltanschauung , that is required for the argument to make sense. A variety of Christian
Christian
apologetics , called presuppositional apologetics , argues that the existence or non-existence of God
God
is the basic presupposition of all human thought, and that all people arrive at a worldview which is ultimately determined by the theology they presuppose
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Approximation
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e An APPROXIMATION is anything that is similar but not exactly equal to something else. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and usage * 2 Mathematics * 3 Science * 4 Unicode
Unicode
* 5 LaTeX Symbols * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGY AND USAGEThe word approximation is derived from Latin
Latin
approximatus, from proximus meaning very near and the prefix ap- (ad- before p) meaning to. Words like approximate, approximately and approximation are used especially in technical or scientific contexts. In everyday English, words such as roughly or around are used with a similar meaning
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Agnosticism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e AGNOSTICISM is the view that the existence of God
God
or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable . According to the philosopher William L. Rowe , "agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God
God
exists or the belief that God
God
does not exist". Agnosticism
Agnosticism
is a doctrine or set of tenets rather than a religion . English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley coined the word "agnostic" in 1869
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Hypothesis
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e A HYPOTHESIS (plural HYPOTHESES) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon . For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory " are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory . A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research . A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic , to denote the antecedent of a proposition ; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent
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