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Design
Design
Design
is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).[1] Design
Design
has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases, the direct construction of an object (as in pottery, engineering, management, coding, and graphic design) is also considered to use design thinking. Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design
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Goal
A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envisions, plans and commits to achieve.[1] People endeavor to reach goals within a finite time by setting deadlines. A goal is roughly similar to a purpose or aim, the anticipated result which guides reaction, or an end, which is an object, either a physical object or an abstract object, that has intrinsic value.Contents1 Goal
Goal
setting1.1 Short-term goals2 Personal goals2.1 Achieving personal goals 2.2 Personal goal achievement and happiness3 Self-concordance model3.1 Self-concordant goals4 Goal
Goal
management in organizations 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading Goal
Goal
setting[edit] Main article: Goal
Goal
setting Goal-setting theory was formulated based on empirical research and has been called one of the most important theories in organizational psychology.[2] Edwin A
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Environment (systems)
In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system. It is also known as the surroundings or neighborhood, and in thermodynamics, as the reservoir. Depending on the type of system, it may interact with the environment by exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work), linear momentum, angular momentum, electric charge, or other conserved properties. In some disciplines, such as information theory, information may also be exchanged
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Plan (drawing)
Plans are a set of drawings or two-dimensional diagrams used to describe a place or object, or to communicate building or fabrication instructions. Usually plans are drawn or printed on paper, but they can take the form of a digital file. These plans are used in a range of fields from architecture, urban planning, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, industrial engineering to systems engineering.Contents1 Overview 2 Plan features2.1 Format 2.2 Scale 2.3 Views and projections 2.4 Planning approach3 See alsoOverview[edit] Plans are often for technical purposes such as architecture, engineering, or planning. Their purpose in these disciplines is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a site, building, product or component. Plans can also be for presentation or orientation purposes, and as such are often less detailed versions of the former
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Object (philosophy)
An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject. A subject is an observer and an object is a thing observed. For modern philosophers like Descartes, consciousness is a state of cognition that includes the subject—which can never be doubted as only it can be the one who doubts—and some object(S) that may be considered as not having real or full existence or value independent of the subject who observes it. Metaphysical frameworks also differ in whether they consider objects exist independently of their properties and, if so, in what way.[citation needed] The pragmatist Charles S. Peirce defines the broad notion of an object as anything that we can think or talk about.[1] In a general sense it is any entity: the pyramids, Alpha Centauri, the number seven, a disbelief in predestination or the fear of cats. In a strict sense it refers to any definite being. A related notion is objecthood. Objecthood is the state of being an object
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Institutional Memory
Institutional memory is a collective set of facts, concepts, experiences and knowledge held by a group of people.Contents1 Concept 2 Institutional knowledge 3 See also 4 FootnotesConcept[edit] Institutional memory has been defined as "the stored knowledge within the organization."[1] Institutional memory requires the ongoing transmission of these memories between members of this group. Elements of institutional memory may be found in corporations, professional groups, government bodies, religious groups, academic collaborations, and by extension in entire cultures. There are different ideas about how institutional memory is transferred, whether it is between people or through written sources. Institutional memory may be encouraged to preserve an ideology or way of work in such a group
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Constraint Optimization
In mathematical optimization, constrained optimization (in some contexts called constraint optimization) is the process of optimizing an objective function with respect to some variables in the presence of constraints on those variables
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Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
(also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body. Clothing
Clothing
can be made of textiles, animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type, social, and geographic considerations. Some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body
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Problem Solving
CognitionConcept Reasoning Decision making Problem solvingNumerical cognitionNumerosity adaptation effect Approximate number system Parallel individuation systemv t eNeuropsychologyTopics Brain
Brain
regions Clinical neuropsychology Cognitive
Cognitive
neuropsychology Cognitive
Cognitive
neuroscience Dementia Human brain Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology Neuropsychological assessment Neuropsychological rehabilitation Traumatic brain injury Brain
Brain
functionsArousal Attention Consciousness Decision making Executive functions Natural language Learning Memory Motor coordination Perception Planning Problem solving ThoughtPeopleArthur L. Benton David Bohm Antonio Damasio Phineas Gage Norman Geschwind Elkhonon Goldberg Patricia Goldman-Rakic Pasko Rakic Donald O. Hebb Kenneth Heilman Edith Kaplan Muriel Lezak Benjamin Libet Rodolfo Llinás Alexander Luria Brenda Milner Karl H
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Physical Model
Physical model
Physical model
(most commonly referred to simply as a model but in this context distinguished from a conceptual model) is a smaller or larger physical copy of an object. The object being modelled may be small (for example, an atom) or large (for example, the Solar System). The geometry of the model and the object it represents are often similar in the sense that one is a rescaling of the other; in such cases the scale is an important characteristic. However, in many cases the similarity is only approximate or even intentionally distorted. Sometimes the distortion is systematic with e.g. a fixed scale horizontally and a larger fixed scale vertically when modelling topography of a large area (as opposed to a model of a smaller mountain region, which may well use the same scale horizontally and vertically, and show the true slopes). Physical models allow visualization, from examining the model, of information about the thing the model represents
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Thought
Thought
Thought
refers to ideas or arrangements of ideas that are the result of the process of thinking. Though thinking is an activity considered essential to humanity, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood. Because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins, processes, and effects has been a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines including linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, artificial intelligence, biology, sociology and cognitive science. Thinking allows humans to make sense or, interpret, represent or model the world they experience, and to make predictions about that world. It is therefore helpful to an organism with needs, objectives, and desires as it makes plans or otherwise attempts to accomplish those goals.Contents1 Etymology and usage 2 Theories 3 Philosophy3.1 Mind–body dichotomy 3.2 Functionalism vs
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Research
Research
Research
comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications."[1] It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research
Research
projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole
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Rationalism
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge"[3] or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".[4] More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".[5] In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction
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Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 B.C.), though analysis as a formal concept is a relatively recent development.[1] The word comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἀνάλυσις (analysis, "a breaking up", from ana- "up, throughout" and lysis "a loosening").[2] As a formal concept, the method has variously been ascribed to Alhazen,[3] René Descartes
René Descartes
(Discourse on the Method), and Galileo Galilei
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Document
A document is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought. The word originates from the Latin documentum, which denotes a "teaching" or "lesson": the verb doceō denotes "to teach". In the past, the word was usually used to denote a written proof useful as evidence of a truth or fact. In the computer age, "document" usually denotes a primarily textual computer file, including its structure and format, e.g. fonts, colors, and images. Contemporarily, "document" is not defined by its transmission medium, e.g., paper, given the existence of electronic documents. "Documentation" is distinct because it has more denotations than "document"
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Pottery
Pottery
Pottery
is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares,[1] of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made by a potter is also called a pottery (plural "potteries"). The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products."[2] Pottery
Pottery
is one of the oldest human inventions, originating before the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, with ceramic objects like the Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Venus of Dolní Věstonice
Venus of Dolní Věstonice
figurine discovered in the Czech Republic date back to 29,000–25,000 BC,[3] and pottery vessels that were discovered in Jiangxi, China, which date back to 18,000 BC
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