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Dermatology
DERMATOLOGY (from ancient Greek δέρμα, _derma_ which means skin and λογία, _logia)_ is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin , nails , hair and its diseases . It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Training * 3.1 United States * 4 Fields * 4.1 Cosmetic dermatology * 4.2 Dermatopathology * 4.3 Immunodermatology * 4.4 Mohs surgery * 4.5 Pediatric dermatology * 4.6 Teledermatology * 4.7 Dermatoepidemiology * 5 Therapies * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYAttested in English in 1819, the word _dermatology_ derives from the Greek δέρματος (_dermatos_), genitive of δέρμα (_derma_), "skin" (itself from δέρω _dero_, "to flay" ) and -λογία _-logia_. HISTORY Main article: History of dermatology Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan's, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert\'s , 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time
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Dermatologic Surgery (journal)
DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY is a monthly peer-reviewed journal that deals with the subject matter of dermatology. The journal is published by American Society for Dermatologic Surgery , Lippincott
Lippincott
, Williams "> * ^ "Dermatologic Surgery". 2014 Journal Citation Reports . Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters

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Skin
SKIN is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates . Other animal coverings , such as the arthropod exoskeleton , have different developmental origin , structure and chemical composition . The adjective CUTANEOUS means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
_cutis_, skin). In mammals , the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue , and guards the underlying muscles , bones , ligaments and internal organs . Skin
Skin
of a different nature exists in amphibians , reptiles , and birds . All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals like whales , dolphins , and porpoises which appear to be hairless. The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors. For example, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation , temperature regulation, sensation, and the production of vitamin D folates. Severely damaged skin may heal by forming scar tissue . This is sometimes discoloured and depigmented. The thickness of skin also varies from location to location on an organism. In humans for example, the skin located under the eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin in the body at 0.5 mm thick, and is one of the first areas to show signs of aging such as "crows feet" and wrinkles
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Skin Cancer
SKIN CANCERS are cancers that arise from the skin . They are due to the development of abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. There are three main types of skin cancers: basal-cell skin cancer (BCC), squamous-cell skin cancer (SCC) and melanoma . The first two, along with a number of less common skin cancers, are known as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Basal-cell cancer grows slowly and can damage the tissue around it but is unlikely to spread to distant areas or result in death. It often appears as a painless raised area of skin, that may be shiny with small blood vessel running over it or may present as a raised area with an ulcer . Squamous-cell skin cancer is more likely to spread. It usually presents as a hard lump with a scaly top but may also form an ulcer. Melanomas are the most aggressive. Signs include a mole that has changed in size, shape, color, has irregular edges, has more than one color, is itchy or bleeds. Greater than 90% of cases are caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
Sun
. This exposure increases the risk of all three main types of skin cancer. Exposure has increased partly due to a thinner ozone layer . Tanning beds are becoming another common source of ultraviolet radiation. For melanomas and basal-cell cancers exposure during childhood is particularly harmful
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Skin Infection
INFECTION OF THE SKIN is distinguished from dermatitis , which is inflammation of the skin, but a skin infection can result in skin inflammation. Skin
Skin
inflammation due to skin infection is called infective dermatitis. Bacterial skin infections affected about 155 million people and cellulitis occurred in about 600 million people in 2013. CONTENTS* 1 Cause * 1.1 Bacterial * 1.2 Fungal * 1.3 Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites * 1.4 Viral * 2 Research * 3 References CAUSEBACTERIAL Further information: List of cutaneous conditions § Bacterium-related Example of cellulitis showing 3+ edema of left leg Bacterial skin infections include: * Folliculitis
Folliculitis
is an infection of the hair follicle that can resemble pimples. * Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection most common among pre-school children. It is primarily caused by Staphylococcus aureus , and sometimes by Streptococcus pyogenes
Streptococcus pyogenes

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Eczema
DERMATITIS, also known as ECZEMA, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin . These diseases are characterized by itchiness , red skin , and a rash. In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened . The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body. Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis , allergic contact dermatitis , irritant contact dermatitis , and stasis dermatitis . The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear. Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy , and poor venous return . The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person's history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet. Allergic contact dermatitis, however, can occur following brief exposures to substances a person is sensitive to. Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams. The steroid creams should generally be of mid- to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time as side effects can occur. Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection . Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant. Antihistamines may help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching
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Skin Biopsy
SKIN BIOPSY is a biopsy technique in which a skin lesion is removed to be sent to a pathologist to render a microscopic diagnosis . It is usually done under local anesthetic in a physician's office, and results are often available in 4 to 10 days. It is commonly performed by dermatologists. Skin biopsies are also done by family physicians, internists, surgeons, and other specialties. However, performed incorrectly, and without appropriate clinical information, a pathologist's interpretation of a skin biopsy can be severely limited, and therefore doctors and patients may forgo traditional biopsy techniques and instead choose Mohs surgery . There are four main types of skin biopsies: shave biopsy, punch biopsy, excisional biopsy, and incisional biopsy. The choice of the different skin biopsies is dependent on the suspected diagnosis of the skin lesion. Like most biopsies, patient consent and anesthesia (usually lidocaine injected into the skin) are prerequisites. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Shave biopsy * 1.2 Punch biopsy * 1.3 Incisional biopsy * 1.4 Excisional biopsy * 1.5 Curettage biopsy * 1.6 Fine needle aspirate * 1.7 Saucerization biopsy * 2 Pathology
Pathology
report * 3 References * 4 External links TYPESSHAVE BIOPSYA shave biopsy is done with either a small scalpel blade or a curved razor blade
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language
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Medicine
MEDICINE is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others. Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism . In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science , most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied , under the umbrella of MEDICAL SCIENCE). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science
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Nail (anatomy)
A NAIL is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals . Nails are similar to claws in other animals. Fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protective protein called keratin . This protein is also found in the hooves and horns of different animals. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Parts of the nail * 2 Function * 2.1 Growth * 2.2 Permeability * 3 Clinical significance * 3.1 Health and care * 3.2 Effect of nutrition * 4 Society and culture * 4.1 Fashion * 4.2 Length records * 5 Evolution
Evolution
in primates * 6 See also * 7 References STRUCTURE Human nails Fingernails Toenails A. Nail plate; B. lunula; C. root; D. sinus; E. matrix; F. nail bed; G. hyponychium; H. free margin. The bed part of the nail after its removal The nail consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix and the nail bed below it, and the grooves surrounding it. PARTS OF THE NAILThe MATRIX, sometimes called the _matrix unguis_, keratogenous membrane, nail matrix, or onychostroma, is the tissue (or germinal matrix ) which the nail protects. It is the part of the nail bed that is beneath the nail and contains nerves , lymph and blood vessels . The matrix is responsible for producing cells that become the nail plate
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Hair
HAIR is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis , or skin. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals . The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin , is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fine vellus hair . Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth , hair types and hair care , but hair is also an important biomaterial primarily composed of protein, notably alpha-keratin . Attitudes towards different hair, such as hairstyles and hair removal , vary widely across different cultures and historical periods, but it is often used to indicate a person's personal beliefs or social position, such as their age, sex, or religion
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Skin Disease
A CUTANEOUS CONDITION is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system —the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin , hair , nails , and related muscle and glands . The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment. Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails ). While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying causes and pathogenetics are often not known. Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (for example, conditions of the mucous membrane ), morphology (chronic blistering conditions ), cause (skin conditions resulting from physical factors ), and so on. Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition is made by gathering pertinent information regarding the presenting skin lesion(s), including the location (such as arms, head, legs), symptoms (pruritus , pain), duration (acute or chronic), arrangement (solitary, generalized, annular, linear), morphology (macules, papules , vesicles ), and color (red, blue, brown, black, white, yellow)
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List Of Dermatologists
This is a LIST OF DERMATOLOGISTS who have made notable contributions to the field of dermatology . NAME LIFESPAN NATIONALITY NOTABLE CONTRIBUTION(S) Alibert, Jean-Louis-Marc Jean-Louis-Marc Alibert
Jean-Louis-Marc Alibert
1768–1837 French Authored one of the first dermatologic atlases, entitled "Descriptions des maladies de la peau" Astruc, Jean Jean Astruc
Jean Astruc
1684–1766 American Wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and considered, by some, to be the "founder of modern dermatology" Bentley, Robert J. Robert J. Bentley
Robert J. Bentley
1943– American Governor of Alabama Crocker, Henry Radcliffe Henry Radcliffe Crocker 1846–1909 English Wrote Diseases of the Skin: their Description, Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment, which established him as a leading figure in the field Goldman, Mitchel P. Mitchel P. Goldman 1955– American Author of twenty one medical textbooks on the subject Klein, Jeffrey A. Jeffrey A
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History Of Dermatology
Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. Avicenna 's _ The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
_ (1025) described treatments for a variety of skin conditions , including skin cancer . The preferred medication it recommended was zinc oxide . Though today it is no longer used for treating skin cancer, it is still widely used today to treat a variety of other skin conditions, in products such as baby powder and creams to treat diaper rashes , calamine cream, anti-dandruff shampoos , and antiseptic ointments. In 1572, Geronimo Mercuriali of Forlì, Italy, completed _De morbis cutaneis_ (translated "On the diseases of the skin"), and is known as the first scientific work to be dedicated to dermatology. One source lists Jean Astruc (1684-1766) as the founder of modern dermatology. In 1799, Francesco Bianchi wrote the book _Dermatologia_ which is the first comprehensive textbook of modern dermatology written for the students of medicine. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan's, 1798-1808) and atlases (Alibert\'s , 1806-1814) appeared in print during the same period of time
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Hôpital Saint-Louis
HôPITAL SAINT-LOUIS is a hospital in Paris
Paris
, France
France
. It is part of the Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris
Paris
hospital system, and it is located at 1 avenue Claude-Vellefaux, in the 10th arrondissement near the metro station: Goncourt . Its address is 1 avenue Claude-Vellefaux (previously called rue Claude-Vellefaux), just north of rue Bichat. It was founded by King Henry IV (1553–1610) (King of France
France
and Navarre) on May 17, 1607 to decongest the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris
Paris
during the plague . He named it St. Louis in memory of Louis IX
Louis IX
, who died of the plague that devastated Tunis
Tunis
in 1270. Today, Hôpital Saint-Louis
Hôpital Saint-Louis
uses its historical premises (parts of which are classified as historical monuments) for administrative functions. Following the 1980s new modern additions were made to house the current hospital and teaching hospital . Its primary specialties are dermatology and hematology , as well as oncology . The dermatology library was founded by Dr Henri Feulard . The hospital employs 2,500 people, one thousand of which are in the medical profession. It houses the INSERM
INSERM
Institute of Research on Skin and the René Touraine Foundation
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Jean-louis-marc Alibert
JEAN-LOUIS-MARC ALIBERT (May 2, 1768 – November 4, 1837) was a French dermatologist born in Villefranche-de-Rouergue , Aveyron
Aveyron
. He was a pioneer of French dermatology. CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 See also * 3 Selected bibliography * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND WORKOriginally planning to enter the priesthood , Alibert did not begin studying medicine until he was 26 years old. As a medical student in Paris
Paris
, he studied with renowned physicians that included Pierre-Joseph Desault
Pierre-Joseph Desault
(1744–1795), Jean-Nicolas Corvisart (1755-1821), Marie Francois Xavier Bichat
Marie Francois Xavier Bichat
(1771–1802) and Philippe Pinel (1745–1826). In 1801 he was appointed médecin adjoint to the Hôpital Saint-Louis (then known as the Hospice du Nord), where he administered to patients with skin disorders, syphilis and leprosy . Following the Restoration of the French monarchy, Alibert became a personal physician to Louis XVIII
Louis XVIII
. Later he was a personal physician to Charles X , and was awarded with the title of "baron ". Being that there was no chair of dermatology in Paris, Alibert was appointed professor of materia medica and therapeutics in 1823
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