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Dermatitis
DERMATITIS, also known as ECZEMA, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin . These diseases are characterized by itchiness , red skin , and a rash. In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened . The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body. Dermatitis
Dermatitis
is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis , allergic contact dermatitis , irritant contact dermatitis , and stasis dermatitis . The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear. Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy , and poor venous return . The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person's history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet
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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY, or SPECIALITY, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST. CONTENTS * 1 History of medical specialization * 2 Classification of medical specialization * 3 Specialties that are common worldwide * 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area * 5 List of North American medical specialties and others * 6 Physician compensation * 7 Specialties by country * 7.1 Australia and New Zealand * 7.2 Canada * 7.3 Germany * 7.4 India * 7.5 United States
United States
* 8 Other uses * 9 Training * 10 Satisfaction * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References HISTORY OF MEDICAL SPECIALIZATIONTo a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Dermatology
DERMATOLOGY (from ancient Greek δέρμα, _derma_ which means skin and λογία, _logia)_ is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin , nails , hair and its diseases . It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Training * 3.1 United States * 4 Fields * 4.1 Cosmetic dermatology * 4.2 Dermatopathology * 4.3 Immunodermatology * 4.4 Mohs surgery * 4.5 Pediatric dermatology * 4.6 Teledermatology * 4.7 Dermatoepidemiology * 5 Therapies * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYAttested in English in 1819, the word _dermatology_ derives from the Greek δέρματος (_dermatos_), genitive of δέρμα (_derma_), "skin" (itself from δέρω _dero_, "to flay" ) and -λογία _-logia_
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Itch
ITCH (also known as PRURITUS) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch. Itch
Itch
has resisted many attempts to classify it as any one type of sensory experience. Modern science has shown that itch has many similarities to pain , and while both are unpleasant sensory experiences, their behavioral response patterns are different. Pain
Pain
creates a withdrawal reflex, whereas itch leads to a scratch reflex . Unmyelinated nerve fibers for itch and pain both originate in the skin ; however, information for them is conveyed centrally in two distinct systems that both use the same nerve bundle and spinothalamic tract
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Erythema
ERYTHEMA (from the Greek _erythros_, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation. Examples of erythema not associated with pathology include nervous blushes. CONTENTS * 1 Causes * 2 Diagnosis * 3 Types * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CAUSESIt can be caused by infection , massage , electrical treatment, acne medication, allergies , exercise, solar radiation (sunburn ), cutaneous radiation syndrome , mercury toxicity, blister agents , niacin administration, or waxing and tweezing of the hairs—any of which can cause the capillaries to dilate, resulting in redness. Erythema is a common side effect of radiotherapy treatment due to patient exposure to ionizing radiation
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Complication (medicine)
COMPLICATION, in medicine , is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease , a health condition or a therapy . The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects and/or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic , i.e., literally brought forth by the physician. Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age , health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily
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Skin Infection
INFECTION OF THE SKIN is distinguished from dermatitis , which is inflammation of the skin, but a skin infection can result in skin inflammation. Skin
Skin
inflammation due to skin infection is called infective dermatitis. Bacterial skin infections affected about 155 million people and cellulitis occurred in about 600 million people in 2013. CONTENTS* 1 Cause * 1.1 Bacterial * 1.2 Fungal * 1.3 Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites * 1.4 Viral * 2 Research * 3 References CAUSEBACTERIAL Further information: List of cutaneous conditions § Bacterium-related Example of cellulitis showing 3+ edema of left leg Bacterial skin infections include: * Folliculitis
Folliculitis
is an infection of the hair follicle that can resemble pimples. * Impetigo
Impetigo
is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection most common among pre-school children
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Atopic Dermatitis
ATOPIC DERMATITIS (AD), also known as ATOPIC ECZEMA, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis ). It results in itchy , red, swollen, and cracked skin. Clear fluid may come from the affected areas, which often thicken over time. The condition typically starts in childhood with changing severity over the years. In children under one year of age much of the body may be affected. As children get older, the back of the knees and front of the elbows are the most common areas affected. In adults the hands and feet are the most commonly affected areas. Scratching worsens symptoms and affected people have an increased risk of skin infections . Many people with atopic dermatitis develop hay fever or asthma . The cause is unknown but believed to involve genetics , immune system dysfunction, environmental exposures, and difficulties with the permeability of the skin. If one identical twin is affected, there is an 85% chance the other also has the condition
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Allergic Contact Dermatitis
ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (ACD) is a form of contact dermatitis that is the manifestation of an allergic response caused by contact with a substance; the other type being irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Although less common than ICD, ACD is accepted to be the most prevalent form of immunotoxicity found in humans. By its allergic nature, this form of contact dermatitis is a hypersensitive reaction that is atypical within the population. The mechanisms by which these reactions occur are complex, with many levels of fine control. Their immunology centres on the interaction of immunoregulatory cytokines and discrete subpopulations of T lymphocytes. CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Cause * 3 Mechanism * 3.1 Memory Response * 4 Diagnosis * 5 Treatment * 6 References SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSThe symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis are very similar to the ones caused by irritant contact dermatitis, which makes the first even harder to diagnose
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Irritant Contact Dermatitis
IRRITANT CONTACT DERMATITIS is a form of contact dermatitis that can be divided into forms caused by chemical irritants and those caused by physical irritants. CONTENTS * 1 Chemical irritant contact dermatitis * 2 Physical irritant contact dermatitis * 2.1 Low humidity * 2.2 Plants * 3 References CHEMICAL IRRITANT CONTACT DERMATITISChemical irritant contact dermatitis is either acute or chronic, which is usually associated with strong and weak irritants respectively. The following definition is provided by Mathias and Maibach (1978): The mechanism of action varies. Detergents, surfactants, extremes of pH, and organic solvents all directly affecting the barrier properties of the epidermis. These effects include removing fat emulsion, defatting of dermal lipids, inflicting cellular damage on the epithelium, and increasing the transepidermal water loss by damaging the horny layer water-binding mechanisms and damaging the DNA, which causes the layer to thin
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Stasis Dermatitis
STASIS DERMATITIS refers to the skin changes that occur in the leg as a result of "stasis" or blood pooling from insufficient venous return; the alternative name of VARICOSE ECZEMA comes from a common cause of this being varicose veins . Insufficient venous return results in increased pressure in the capillaries with the result that both fluid and cells may "leak" out of the capillaries. This results in red cells breaking down, with iron containing hemosiderin possibly contributing to the pathology of this entity
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Diagnostic Method
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS (abbreviated DX or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs . It is most often referred to as DIAGNOSIS with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, such as diagnostic tests , are also done during the process. Sometimes Posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific . For example, redness of the skin (erythema ), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus doesn't tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis , in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Differential Diagnosis
In medicine , a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features. Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient , or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis (for example, bronchitis could be a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of a cough that ends up with a final diagnosis of common cold ). More generally, a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible
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Scabies
SCABIES, previously known as the SEVEN-YEAR ITCH, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei . The most common symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple -like rash. Occasionally, tiny burrows may be seen in the skin. In a first ever infection a person will usually develop symptoms in between two and six weeks. During a second infection symptoms may begin in as little as 24 hours. These symptoms can be present across most of the body or just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the waistline. The head may be affected, but this is typically only in young children. The itch is often worse at night. Scratching may cause skin breakdown and an additional bacterial infection of the skin. Scabies
Scabies
is caused by infection with the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis . The mites burrow into the skin to live and deposit eggs
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Psoriasis
PSORIASIS is a long-lasting autoimmune disease which is characterized by patches of abnormal skin. These skin patches are typically red , itchy, and scaly. They may vary in severity from small and localized to complete body coverage. Injury to the skin can trigger psoriatic skin changes at that spot, which is known as the Koebner phenomenon . There are five main types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate , inverse , pustular, and erythrodermic . Plaque psoriasis, also known as psoriasis vulgaris, makes up about 90% of cases. It typically presents with red patches with white scales on top. Areas of the body most commonly affected are the back of the forearms, shins, around the navel, and the scalp. Guttate psoriasis has drop-shaped lesions. Pustular psoriasis presents with small non-infectious pus -filled blisters. Inverse psoriasis forms red patches in skin folds
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Dermatitis Herpetiformis
DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS (DH), or DUHRING\'S DISEASE, is a chronic blistering skin condition, characterised by blisters filled with a watery fluid. Despite its name, DH is neither related to nor caused by herpes virus : the name means that it is a skin inflammation having an appearance similar to herpes . DH was first described by Louis Adolphus Duhring in 1884. A connection between DH and celiac disease was recognised in 1967, although the exact causal mechanism is not known. DH is a specific manifestation of celiac disease. The age of onset is usually about 15-40, but DH can also affect children and the elderly. Men and women are equally affected. Estimates of DH prevalence vary from 1 in 400 to 1 in 10,000. It is most common in patients of northern European/northern Indian ancestry, and is associated with the HLA-DQ2 haplotype along with coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity
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