Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin
infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The most common
symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple-like rash. Occasionally,
tiny burrows may be seen in the skin. In a first-ever infection a
person will usually develop symptoms in between two and six weeks.
During a second infection symptoms may begin in as little as 24
hours. These symptoms can be present across most of the body or
just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the
waistline. The head may be affected, but this is typically only in
young children. The itch is often worse at night. Scratching may
cause skin breakdown and an additional bacterial infection of the
Scabies is caused by infection with the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei
var. hominis. The mites burrow into the skin to live and deposit
eggs. The symptoms of scabies are due to an allergic reaction to
the mites. Often, only between 10 and 15 mites are involved in an
Scabies is most often spread during a relatively long
period of direct skin contact with an infected person (at least 10
minutes) such as that which may occur during sex or living
together. Spread of disease may occur even if the person has not
developed symptoms yet. Crowded living conditions, such as those
found in child-care facilities, group homes, and prisons, increase the
risk of spread. Areas with a lack of access to water also have
higher rates of disease. Crusted scabies is a more severe form of
the disease. It typically only occurs in those with a poor immune
system and people may have millions of mites, making them much more
contagious. In these cases, spread of infection may occur during
brief contact or by contaminated objects. The mite is very small
and usually not directly visible. Diagnosis is based on the signs
A number of medications are available to treat those infected,
including permethrin, crotamiton, and lindane creams and ivermectin
pills. Sexual contacts within the last month and people who live in
the same house should also be treated at the same time. Bedding
and clothing used in the last three days should be washed in hot water
and dried in a hot dryer. As the mite does not live for more than
three days away from human skin, more washing is not needed.
Symptoms may continue for two to four weeks following treatment.
If after this time symptoms continue, retreatment may be needed.
Scabies is one of the three most common skin disorders in children,
along with ringworm and bacterial skin infections. As of 2015, it
affects about 204 million people (2.8% of the world
population). It is equally common in both sexes. The young and
the old are more commonly affected. It also occurs more commonly in
the developing world and tropical climates. The word scabies is
from Latin: scabere, "to scratch". Other animals do not spread
human scabies. Infection in other animals is typically caused by
slightly different but related mites and is known as sarcoptic
1 Signs and symptoms
1.3 Crusted scabies
4.1 Differential diagnosis
9 Society and culture
10 Other animals
13 External links
Signs and symptoms
Commonly involved sites of rashes of scabies
The characteristic symptoms of a scabies infection include intense
itching and superficial burrows. The burrow tracks are often
linear, to the point that a neat "line" of four or more closely placed
and equally developed mosquito-like "bites" is almost diagnostic of
the disease. Because the host develops the symptoms
as a reaction to the mites' presence over time, typically a delay of
four to six weeks occurs between the onset of infestation and the
onset of itching. Similarly, symptoms often persist for one to several
weeks after successful eradication of the mites. As noted, those
re-exposed to scabies after successful treatment may exhibit symptoms
of the new infestation in a much shorter period—as little as one to
In the classic scenario, the itch is made worse by warmth, and is
usually experienced as being worse at night, possibly because
distractions are fewer. As a symptom, it is less common in the
The superficial burrows of scabies usually occur in the area of the
finger webs, feet, ventral wrists, elbows, back, buttocks, and
external genitals. Except in infants and the immunosuppressed,
infection generally does not occur in the skin of the face or scalp.
The burrows are created by excavation of the adult mite in the
In most people, the trails of the burrowing mites are linear or
S-shaped tracks in the skin often accompanied by rows of small,
pimple-like mosquito or insect bites. These signs are often found in
crevices of the body, such as on the webs of fingers and toes, around
the genital area, in stomach folds of the skin, and under the breasts
Symptoms typically appear two to six weeks after infestation for
individuals never before exposed to scabies. For those having been
previously exposed, the symptoms can appear within several days after
infestation. However, symptoms may appear after several months or
years. Acropustulosis, or blisters and pustules on the palms and
soles of the feet, are characteristic symptoms of scabies in
Scabies of the foot
Scabies of the arm
Scabies of the hand
Scabies of the finger
Crusted scabies in a person with AIDS
The elderly, disabled, and people with an impaired immune system, such
as HIV, cancer, or those on immunosuppressive medications, are
susceptible to crusted scabies (also called Norwegian
scabies). On those with weaker immune systems, the host
becomes a more fertile breeding ground for the mites, which spread
over the host's body, except the face. The mites in crusted scabies
are not more virulent than in noncrusted scabies; however, they are
much more numerous (up to two million). People with crusted scabies
exhibit scaly rashes, slight itching, and thick crusts of skin that
contain the large numbers of scabies mites. Due to being infected
thus, persons with crusted scabies are more contagious to other
persons. Such areas make eradication of mites particularly
difficult, as the crusts protect the mites from topical
miticides/scabicides, necessitating prolonged treatment of these
Main article: Sarcoptes scabiei
Video of the
Sarcoptes scabiei mite
Life cycle of scabies
In the 18th century, Italian biologist
Diacinto Cestoni (1637–1718)
described the mite now called Sarcoptes scabiei, variety hominis, as
the cause of scabies. Sarcoptes is a genus of skin parasites and part
of the larger family of mites collectively known as scab mites. These
organisms have eight legs as adults, and are placed in the same
phylogenetic class (Arachnida) as spiders and ticks.
S. scabiei mites are under 0.5 mm in size, but are sometimes
visible as pinpoints of white. Gravid females tunnel into the dead,
outermost layer (stratum corneum) of a host's skin and deposit eggs in
the shallow burrows. The eggs hatch into larvae in three to ten days.
These young mites move about on the skin and molt into a "nymphal"
stage, before maturing as adults, which live three to four weeks in
the host's skin. Males roam on top of the skin, occasionally burrowing
into the skin. In general, the total number of adult mites infesting a
healthy hygienic person with noncrusted scabies is small, about 11
females in burrows, on average.
The movement of mites within and on the skin produces an intense itch,
which has the characteristics of a delayed cell-mediated inflammatory
response to allergens.
IgE antibodies are present in the serum and the
site of infection, which react to multiple protein allergens in the
body of the mite. Some of these cross-react to allergens from house
dust mites. Immediate antibody-mediated allergic reactions (wheals)
have been elicited in infected persons, but not in healthy persons;
immediate hypersensitivity of this type is thought to explain the
observed far more rapid allergic skin response to reinfection seen in
persons having been previously infected (especially having been
infected within the previous year or two).
Scabies is contagious and can be contracted through prolonged physical
contact with an infested person. This includes sexual intercourse,
although a majority of cases are acquired through other forms of
skin-to-skin contact. Less commonly, scabies infestation can happen
through the sharing of clothes, towels, and bedding, but this is not a
major mode of transmission; individual mites can only survive for two
to three days, at most, away from human skin at room
temperature. As with lice, a latex condom is ineffective
against scabies transmission during intercourse, because mites
typically migrate from one individual to the next at sites other than
the sex organs.
Healthcare workers are at risk of contracting scabies from patients,
because they may be in extended contact with them.
The symptoms are caused by an allergic reaction of the host's body to
mite proteins, though exactly which proteins remains a topic of study.
The mite proteins are also present from the gut, in mite feces, which
are deposited under the skin. The allergic reaction is both of the
delayed (cell-mediated) and immediate (antibody-mediated) type, and
IgE (antibodies, it is presumed, mediate the very rapid
symptoms on reinfection). The allergy-type symptoms (itching)
continue for some days, and even several weeks, after all mites are
killed. New lesions may appear for a few days after mites are
eradicated. Nodular lesions from scabies may continue to be
symptomatic for weeks after the mites have been killed.
Rates of scabies were negatively related to temperature and positively
related to humidity.
A photomicrograph of an itch mite (S. scabiei)
Scabies may be diagnosed clinically in geographical areas where it is
common when diffuse itching presents along with either lesions in two
typical spots or itchiness is present in another household member.
The classical sign of scabies is the burrow made by a mite within the
skin. To detect the burrow, the suspected area is rubbed with ink
from a fountain pen or a topical tetracycline solution, which glows
under a special light. The skin is then wiped with an alcohol pad. If
the person is infected with scabies, the characteristic zigzag or S
pattern of the burrow will appear across the skin; however,
interpreting this test may be difficult, as the burrows are scarce and
may be obscured by scratch marks. A definitive diagnosis is made
by finding either the scabies mites or their eggs and fecal
pellets. Searches for these signs involve either scraping a
suspected area, mounting the sample in potassium hydroxide and
examining it under a microscope, or using dermoscopy to examine the
Symptoms of early scabies infestation mirror other skin diseases,
including dermatitis, syphilis, erythema multiforme, various
urticaria-related syndromes, allergic reactions, ringworm-related
diseases, and other ectoparasites such as lice and fleas.
Mass-treatment programs that use topical permethrin or oral ivermectin
have been effective in reducing the prevalence of scabies in a number
of populations. No vaccine is available for scabies. The
simultaneous treatment of all close contacts is recommended, even if
they show no symptoms of infection (asymptomatic), to reduce rates of
recurrence. Since mites can survive for only two to three days
without a host, other objects in the environment pose little risk of
transmission except in the case of crusted scabies, thus cleaning is
of little importance. Rooms used by those with crusted scabies
require thorough cleaning.
A number of medications are effective in treating scabies. Treatment
should involve the entire household, and any others who have had
recent, prolonged contact with the infested individual. Options to
control itchiness include antihistamines and prescription
anti-inflammatory agents. Bedding, clothing and towels used during
the previous three days should be washed in hot water and dried in a
Permethrin is the most effective treatment for scabies, and
remains the treatment of choice. It is applied from the neck
down, usually before bedtime, and left on for about eight to 14 hours,
then washed off in the morning. Care should be taken to coat the
entire skin surface, not just symptomatic areas; any patch of skin
left untreated can provide a "safe haven" for one or more mites to
survive. One application is normally sufficient, as permethrin kills
eggs and hatchlings, as well as adult mites, though many physicians
recommend a second application three to seven days later as a
precaution. Crusted scabies may require multiple applications, or
supplemental treatment with oral ivermectin (below).
Permethrin may cause slight irritation of the skin that is usually
Oral ivermectin is effective in eradicating scabies, often in a single
dose. It is the treatment of choice for crusted scabies, and is
sometimes prescribed in combination with a topical agent. It
has not been tested on infants, and is not recommended for children
under six years of age.
Topical ivermectin preparations have been shown to be effective for
scabies in adults, though only one such formulation is available in
the United States at present, and it is not FDA-approved as a scabies
treatment. It has also been useful for sarcoptic mange (the
veterinary analog of human scabies).
Other treatments include lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton,
malathion, and sulfur preparations.
Lindane is effective, but
concerns over potential neurotoxicity have limited its availability in
many countries. It is banned in California, but may be used in
other states as a second-line treatment.
Sulfur ointments or
benzyl benzoate are often used in the developing world due to their
low cost; Some 10% sulfur solutions have been shown to be
effective, and sulfur ointments are typically used for at least a
week, though many people find the odor of sulfur products
Crotamiton has been found to be less effective than
permethrin in limited studies.
Crotamiton or sulfur preparations
are sometimes recommended instead of permethrin for children, due to
concerns over dermal absorption of permethrin.
Day 8 (treatment begins)
Day 12 (under treatment)
Scabies is endemic in many developing countries, where it tends to
be particularly problematic in rural and remote areas. In such
settings, community-wide control strategies are required to reduce the
rate of disease, as treatment of only individuals is ineffective due
to the high rate of reinfection. Large-scale mass drug administration
strategies may be required where coordinated interventions aim to
treat whole communities in one concerted effort. Although such
strategies have shown to be able to reduce the burden of scabies in
these kinds of communities, debate remains about the best strategy to
adopt, including the choice of drug.
The resources required to implement such large-scale interventions in
a cost-effective and sustainable way are significant. Furthermore,
since endemic scabies is largely restricted to poor and remote areas,
it is a public health issue that has not attracted much attention from
policy makers and international donors.
Scabies is one of the three most common skin disorders in children,
along with tinea and pyoderma. As of 2010, it affects about
100 million people (1.5% of the population) and is equally common
in both genders. The mites are distributed around the world and
equally infect all ages, races, and socioeconomic classes in different
Scabies is more often seen in crowded areas with
unhygienic living conditions. Globally as of 2009, an estimated
300 million cases of scabies occur each year, although various
parties claim the figure is either over- or underestimated.
About 1–10% of the global population is estimated to be infected
with scabies, but in certain populations, the infection rate may be as
high as 50–80%.
Wax figurine of a man with Norwegian scabies
Scabies has been observed in humans since ancient times. Archeological
evidence from Egypt and the Middle East suggests scabies was present
as early as 494 BC. The first recorded reference to
scabies is believed to be from the
Bible – it may be a type of
"leprosy" mentioned in
Leviticus c. 1200 BC or be mentioned
among the curses of Deuteronomy 28. In the fourth century BC,
Aristotle reported on "lice" that "escape from little pimples if they
are pricked" – a description consistent with scabies.
The Roman encyclopedist and medical writer
Aulus Cornelius Celsus
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (c.
25 BC – 50 AD) is credited with naming the disease "scabies" and
describing its characteristic features. The parasitic etiology of
scabies was documented by the Italian physician Giovanni Cosimo Bonomo
(1663–1696) in his 1687 letter, "Observations concerning the
fleshworms of the human body". Bonomo's description established
scabies as one of the first human diseases with a well-understood
In Europe in the late 19th through mid-20th centuries, a
sulfur-bearing ointment called by the medical eponym of Wilkinson's
ointment was widely used for topical treatment of scabies. The
contents and origins of several versions of the ointment were detailed
in correspondence published in the British Medical Journal in
Society and culture
Public health worker Stefania Lanzia using a soft toy scabies mite to
publicise the condition in a 2016 campaign
The International Alliance for the Control of
Scabies was started in
2012, and brings together over 70 researchers, clinicians,
and public-health experts from more than 15 different countries. It
has managed to bring the global health implications of scabies to the
attention of the World Health Organization. Consequently, the WHO
has included scabies on its official list of neglected tropical
diseases and other neglected conditions.
Sarcoptic mange and Acariasis
A street dog in Bali, Indonesia, suffers from sarcoptic mange.
Scabies may occur in a number of domestic and wild animals; the mites
that cause these infestations are of different subspecies from the one
typically causing the human form. These subspecies can infest
animals that are not their usual hosts, but such infections do not
last long. Scabies-infected animals suffer severe itching and
secondary skin infections. They often lose weight and become
The most frequently diagnosed form of scabies in domestic animals is
sarcoptic mange, caused by the subspecies
Sarcoptes scabiei canis,
most commonly in dogs and cats.
Sarcoptic mange is transmissible to
humans who come into prolonged contact with infested animals, and
is distinguished from human scabies by its distribution on skin
surfaces covered by clothing. Scabies-infected domestic fowl suffer
what is known as "scaly leg". Domestic animals that have gone feral
and have no veterinary care are frequently afflicted with scabies and
a host of other ailments. Nondomestic animals have also been
observed to suffer from scabies. Gorillas, for instance, are known to
be susceptible to infection by contact with items used by humans.
Moxidectin is being evaluated as a treatment for scabies. It is
established in veterinary medicine to treat a range of parasites,
including sarcoptic mange. Its advantage over ivermectin is its longer
half life in humans and, thus, potential duration of action. Tea
tree oil appears to be effective in a Petri dish.
^ a b Gates, Robert H. (2003). Infectious disease secrets (2. ed.).
Philadelphia: Elsevier, Hanley Belfus. p. 355.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Parasites –
Scabies Disease". Center for
Disease Control and Prevention. November 2, 2010. Archived from the
original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Epidemiology & Risk Factors". Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention. November 2, 2010. Archived from
the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
^ a b c "WHO -Water-related Disease". World Health Organization.
Archived from the original on 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
^ a b c d "Scabies". World Health Organization. Archived from the
original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
^ Ferri, Fred F. (2010). "Chapter S". Ferri's differential
diagnosis : a practical guide to the differential diagnosis of
symptoms, signs, and clinical disorders (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA:
Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0323076998.
^ a b "Parasites –
Scabies Medications". Center for Disease Control
and Prevention. November 2, 2010. Archived from the original on 30
April 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
^ a b GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence,
Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national
incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310
diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the
Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053):
1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577 .
^ Dressler, C; Rosumeck, S; Sunderkötter, C; Werner, RN; Nast, A (14
November 2016). "The Treatment of Scabies". Deutsches Arzteblatt
international. 113 (45): 757–62. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2016.0757.
PMC 5165060 . PMID 27974144.
^ a b c d e f "Parasites -
Scabies Treatment". Center for Disease
Control and Prevention. November 2, 2010. Archived from the original
on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Andrews RM, McCarthy J,
Carapetis JR, Currie BJ (December 2009). "Skin disorders, including
pyoderma, scabies, and tinea infections". Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 56
(6): 1421–40. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2009.09.002.
^ a b Vos, T (Dec 15, 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for
1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic
analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380
(9859): 2163–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2.
^ Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary (4 ed.).
Mosby-Year Book Inc. 1994. p. 1395.
^ Georgis' Parasitology for Veterinarians (10 ed.). Elsevier Health
Sciences. 2014. p. 68. ISBN 9781455739882. Archived from the
original on 2016-03-05.
^ a b CDC web site > DPDx – Laboratory Identification of
Parasites of Public Health Concern >
Scabies "Archived copy".
Archived from the original on 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2009-02-09.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Hay RJ (2009). "
pyodermas—diagnosis and treatment". Dermatol Ther. 22 (6): 466–74.
doi:10.1111/j.1529-8019.2009.01270.x. PMID 19889132.
^ a b c Markell, Edward K.; John, David C.; Petri, William H. (2006).
Markell and Voge's medical parasitology (9th ed.). St. Louis, Mo:
Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-4793-6.
^ a b "Scabies" (PDF). DermNet NZ. New Zealand Dermatological Society
Incorporated. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-03-27.
^ a b c Bouvresse, S.; Chosidow, O. (Apr 2010). "
Scabies in healthcare
settings". Curr Opin Infect Dis. 23 (2): 111–18.
doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e328336821b. PMID 20075729.
^ Hicks MI, Elston DM (2009). "Scabies". Dermatol Ther. 22 (4):
^ a b "DPDx – Scabies". Laboratory Identification of Parasites of
Public Health Concern. CDC. Archived from the original on
^ a b c d Walton, SF; Currie, BJ (April 2007). "Problems in Diagnosing
Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations". Clinical
Microbiology Reviews. 20 (2): 268–79. doi:10.1128/CMR.00042-06.
PMC 1865595 . PMID 17428886. Archived from the original on
^ Walton SF, Currie BJ (2007). "Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a
Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations". Clinical Microbiology
Reviews. 20 (2): 268–79. doi:10.1128/CMR.00042-06.
PMC 1865595 . PMID 17428886.
^ Carol Turkington; Jeffrey S. Dover, M.D. (2006). The Encyclopedia of
Skin and Skin Disorders. New York: Facts on
Scabies Causes". WebMD. October 2010. Archived from the original on
2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
^ Chosidow O (April 2006). "Clinical practices. Scabies". N. Engl. J.
Med. 354 (16): 1718–27. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp052784.
Scabies – Fast Facts". American Social Health Association.
Archived from the original on 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
^ FitzGerald, Deirdre; Grainger, Rachel J.; Reid, Alex (2014).
"Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close
contacts of people with scabies". The Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews. 2: CD009943. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009943.pub2.
ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 24566946.
^ Liu, Jui-Ming; Wang, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Liu, Yueh-Ping;
Chiu, Feng-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Hsu, Ren-Jun
(2016). "The effects of climate factors on scabies. A 14-year
population-based study in Taiwan". Parasite. 23: 54.
doi:10.1051/parasite/2016065. ISSN 1776-1042.
PMC 5134670 . PMID 27905271.
^ Arlian, LG (1989). "Biology, host relations, and epidemiology of
Sarcoptes scabiei". Annual Review of Entomology. 34 (1): 139–61.
doi:10.1146/annurev.en.34.010189.001035. PMID 2494934.
^ "Prevention and Control – Scabies". Center for Disease Control and
Prevention. Archived from the original on 2010-03-07. Retrieved
^ Vañó-Galván, S; Moreno-Martin, P (2008). "Generalized pruritus
after a beach vacation. Diagnosis: scabies". Cleveland Clinic journal
of medicine. 75 (7): 474, 478. doi:10.3949/ccjm.75.7.474.
^ "Parasites - Scabies". cdc.gov. November 2, 2010. Archived from the
original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
^ Strong M, Johnstone PW (2007). Strong, Mark, ed. "Interventions for
treating scabies". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD000320.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000320.pub2. PMID 17636630.
^ a b "Scabies". Illinois Department of Public Health. January 2008.
Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2010-10-07.
^ The Pill Book. Bantam Books. 2010. pp. 867–69.
^ Victoria J, Trujillo R (2001). "
Topical ivermectin: a new successful
treatment for scabies". Pediatr Dermatol. 18 (1): 63–65.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1470.2001.018001063.x. PMID 11207977.
^ Soll M. D., d'Assonville J. A., Smith C. J. Z. (1992). "Efficacy of
topically applied invermectin against sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes
scabiei var.bovis) of cattle". Parasitology Research. 78: 120–122.
doi:10.1007/BF00931652. Retrieved 2010-11-14. CS1 maint: Multiple
names: authors list (link)
^ Humphreys, EH; Janssen, S; Heil, A; Hiatt, P; Solomon, G; Miller, MD
(March 2008). "Outcomes of the
California ban on pharmaceutical
lindane: clinical and ecologic impacts". Environmental Health
Perspectives. 116 (3): 297–302. doi:10.1289/ehp.10668.
PMC 2265033 . PMID 18335094.
^ "FDA Public Health Advisory: Safety of
Lindane Products for
the Treatment of
Scabies and Lice". Fda.gov. 2009-04-30. Archived from
the original on 2010-11-26. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
^ Jin-Gang A, Sheng-Xiang X, Sheng-Bin X, et al. (March 2010).
"Quality of life of patients with scabies". J Eur Acad Dermatol
Venereol. 24 (10): 1187–91. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03618.x.
^ Andrews, RM; McCarthy, J; Carapetis, JR; Currie, BJ (Dec 2009).
"Skin disorders, including pyoderma, scabies, and tinea infections".
Pediatric clinics of North America. 56 (6): 1421–40.
doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2009.09.002. PMID 19962029.
^ a b c Hay, RJ; Steer, AC; Chosidow, O; Currie, BJ (Apr 2013).
"Scabies: a suitable case for a global control initiative". Current
Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 26 (2): 107–09.
doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835e085b. PMID 23302759.
^ a b c d Engelman, D; Kiang, K; Chosidow, O; McCarthy, J; Fuller, C;
Lammie, P; Hay, R; Steer, A; Members Of The International Alliance For
The Control Of,
Scabies (2013). "Toward the global control of human
scabies: introducing the International Alliance for the Control of
Scabies". PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 7 (8): e2167.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002167. PMC 3738445 .
^ Green MS (1989). "Epidemiology of scabies". Epidemiol Rev. 11 (1):
126–50. PMID 2509232.
^ Hicks, MI; Elston, DM (Jul–Aug 2009). "Scabies". Dermatologic
therapy. 22 (4): 279–92. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8019.2009.01243.x.
^ a b "
Scabies homepage". Stanford University. Archived from the
original on 2010-05-13. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
^ See translations Archived 2014-04-19 at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b c Roncalli RA (July 1987). "The history of scabies in veterinary
and human medicine from biblical to modern times". Vet. Parasitol. 25
(2): 193–98. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(87)90104-X.
^ Goldsmith, WN (1945), "Wilkinson's ointment" (PDF), Br Med J, 1
(4392): 347–48, doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4392.347-c, PMC 2056959 ,
archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-09-10.
^ "Scabies". Neglected tropical diseases. World Health Organization.
Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February
^ "International Alliance for the Control of Scabies". International
Alliance for the Control of Scabies. Archived from the original on 2
February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
^ "The 17 neglected tropical diseases". Neglected tropical diseases.
World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 22 February
2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
^ Borgman W (June 30, 2006). Dog mange called scabies can transfer to
humans. Orlando Sentinel archive Archived 2015-02-16 at the Wayback
Machine.. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
Bali Animal Welfare Association". Archived from the original on
2010-02-26. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
^ "Uganda: Out of the Wild". Frontline. Transcript A Death In Tehran
FRONTLINE PBS (section on rare diseases in Uganda). PBS. Archived
from the original on 2013-11-05. Retrieved Nov 4, 2013.
^ Mounsey, Kate E.; Bernigaud, Charlotte; Chosidow, Olivier; McCarthy,
James S. (2016-03-17). "Prospects for
Moxidectin as a New Oral
Treatment for Human Scabies". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 10
(3): e0004389. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004389. ISSN 1935-2727.
PMC 4795782 . PMID 26985995.
^ Prichard, Roger; Ménez, Cécile; Lespine, Anne (2012-12-01).
Moxidectin and the avermectins: Consanguinity but not identity".
International Journal for Parasitology. Drugs and Drug Resistance. 2:
134–53. doi:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2012.04.001. ISSN 2211-3207.
PMC 3862425 . PMID 24533275.
^ Thomas, Jackson; Dettwiller, Pascale; Spelman, Tim; Carson,
Christine F.; Davey, Rachel C.; Baby, Kavya E.; Cooper, Gabrielle M.;
Kyle, Greg; Naunton, Mark (2016-02-03). "Therapeutic Potential of Tea
Tree Oil for Scabies". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and
Hygiene. 94 (2): 258–266. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0515.
V · T · D
eMedicine: derm/382 emerg/517 ped/2047
Patient UK: Scabies
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scabies.
American Academy of
Dermatology pamphlet on Scabies
Scabies FAQ from the National
Diseases of the skin and appendages by morphology
epidermal inclusion cyst
dermatofibroma (benign fibrous histiocytoma)
infantile digital fibromatosis
granular cell tumor
lichen simplex chronicus
langerhans cell histiocytosis
systemic lupus erythematosus
pityriasis rubra pilaris
acute contact dermatitis
porphyria cutanea tarda
epidermolysis bullosa simplex
insect bite reactions
transient acantholytic dermatosis
pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta
subcorneal pustular dermatosis
idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis
hypopigmented mycosis fungoides
systemic lupus erythematosus
fixed drug eruption
disseminated intravascular coagulation
lichen sclerosis et atrophicus
systemic lupus erythematosus
loose anagen syndrome
acne keloidalis nuchae
mucous membrane pemphigoid
Diseases from arthropods and ectoparasitics (B85–B89, 132–134)
Body louse (pediculosis corporis) /
Head louse (head lice infestation)
Crab louse (phthiriasis)
Bed bug (cimicosis)
Dermatobia hominis /
Cordylobia anthropophaga / Cochliomyia
Tunga penetrans (tungiasis)
Acariasis / mange (mites)
House dust mite
House dust mite (house dust mite allergy, oral mite anaphylaxis)
Demodex brevis /
Demodex folliculorum (demodicosis, Demodex mite bite)
Trombicula (trombiculosis, chigger bite)
Sarcoptes scabiei (scabies)
Dermanyssus gallinae (gamasoidosis)
Liponyssoides sanguineus (rickettsialpox)
Linguatula serrata (linguatulosis)
Porocephalus crotali /
Armillifer armillatus (porocephaliasis)
Sexually transmitted infection
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) (primarily A50–A64, 090–099)
Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
Lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis)
Donovanosis or Granuloma Inguinale (Klebsiella granulomatis)
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
Mycoplasma hominis infection
Mycoplasma hominis infection (Mycoplasma hominis)
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
Ureaplasma infection (Ureaplasma urealyticum)
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
Cervical cancer, vulvar cancer & Genital warts (condyloma), Penile
Anal cancer (
Human papillomavirus (HPV))
Hepatitis B (
Hepatitis B virus)
Herpes simplex (HSV1/HSV2)
Molluscum contagiosum (MCV)
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)