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Democritus
DEMOCRITUS (/dɪˈmɒkrɪtəs/ ; Greek : Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people"; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an influential Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe . Democritus
Democritus
was born in Abdera , Thrace
Thrace
, around 460 BC, although, some thought it was 490 BC. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from those of his mentor Leucippus
Leucippus
, as they are often mentioned together in texts. Their speculation on atoms, taken from Leucippus, bears a passing and partial resemblance to the 19th-century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus
Democritus
as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers; however, their ideas rested on very different bases
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Democritus (crater)
DEMOCRITUS is a lunar impact crater that is located on the northern part of the Moon
Moon
, just to the north of the Mare Frigoris
Mare Frigoris
. Just to the south of Democritus
Democritus
is the lava -flooded crater Gärtner , which forms a bay on the mare . Directly to the north is Arnold , another flooded formation. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Names * 3 Satellite craters * 4 References DESCRIPTIONThe rim of Democritus
Democritus
is generally sharp-edged and shows little sign of erosion. It forms not quite a circle, with outward notch-like bulges that give it a slightly irregular shape. The inner walls have single or double terraces that lead down to a relatively flat interior floor. Near the midpoint of the crater is a small central peak
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Abdera, Thrace
ABDERA (/əbˈdɪrə/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἄβδηρα) is a municipality and a former major Greek polis on the coast of Thrace
Thrace
. It lay 17 km east-northeast of the mouth of the Nestos River , almost directly opposite the island of Thasos
Thasos
. The site now lies in the Xanthi regional unit of Thrace
Thrace
, Greece
Greece
. The municipality of Abdera ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: Άβδηρα ) has 19,005 inhabitants (2011). The seat of the municipality is the town Genisea . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Municipality * 3 Landmarks * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links HISTORY Location of Abdera and its two successive metropolises , Clazomenae
Clazomenae
and Teos . The chief coin type, with griffon
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Thrace
THRACE (/ˈθreɪs/ ; Modern Greek : Θράκη, _Thráke_; Bulgarian : Тракия, _Trakiya_; Turkish : _Trakya_) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe
Europe
, now split between Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east
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Pre-Socratic Philosophy
PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY is ancient Greek philosophy before Socrates and schools contemporary to Socrates
Socrates
that were not influenced by him. In Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
, the Presocratic philosophers were called physiologoi (Greek : φυσιόλογοι; in English, physical or natural philosophers ). Aristotle
Aristotle
called them physikoi ("physicists", after physis, "nature ") because they sought natural explanations for phenomena , as opposed to the earlier theologoi (theologians), whose philosophical basis was supernatural. Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
divides the physiologoi into two groups: Ionian , led by Anaximander
Anaximander
, and the Italiote , led by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
. Hermann Diels popularized the term pre-socratic in Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (The Fragments of the Pre-Socratics) in 1903
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Western Philosophy
WESTERN PHILOSOPHY or EUROPEAN PHILOSOPHY is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world . Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture , beginning with Hellenic (i.e. Greek) philosophy of the Pre-Socratics such as Thales (c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word _philosophy_ itself originated from the Hellenic: _philosophia_ (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν _philein_, "to love" and σοφία _sophia _, "wisdom"). The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers , were _all_ intellectual endeavors
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Metaphysics
METAPHYSICS is a branch of philosophy exploring the fundamental nature of reality . While various views and methods have been called 'metaphysics' across history, this article approaches metaphysics first from the perspective of contemporary analytical philosophy, and then explores metaphysics in other traditions. In this vein, metaphysics seeks to answer two basic questions: * Ultimately, what is _there_? * What is _it like_?Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence , objects and their properties , space and time , cause and effect , and possibility . A central branch of metaphysics is ontology , the investigation into the basic categories of being and how they relate to one another. There are two broad conceptions about what "world" is studied by metaphysics. The strong, classical view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist independently of any observer, so that the subject is the most fundamental of all sciences
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Mathematics
MATHEMATICS (from Greek μάθημα _máthēma_, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers ), structure , space , and change . There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics . Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures . Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof . When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic , mathematics developed from counting , calculation , measurement , and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry
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Astronomy
ASTRONOMY (from Greek : αστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution . Objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; while the phenomena include supernova explosions , gamma ray bursts , and cosmic microwave background radiation . More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth\'s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history , such as the Babylonians , Greeks , Indians , Egyptians , Nubians , Iranians , Chinese , and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky
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Atomism
ATOMISM (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible" ) is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void. Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory , philosophical atoms come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes, each indestructible, immutable and surrounded by a void where they collide with the others or hook together forming a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world. References to the concept of atomism and its atoms are found in ancient India
India
and ancient Greece . In the West, atomism emerged in the 5th century BCE with Leucippus
Leucippus
and Democritus
Democritus

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Aetiology
ETIOLOGY (/iːtiˈɒlədʒi/ ; alternatively AETIOLOGY or æTIOLOGY) is the study of causation , or origination. The word is derived from the Greek αἰτιολογία, aitiología, "giving a reason for" (αἰτία, aitía, "cause"; and -λογία, -logía). The word is most commonly used in medical and philosophical theories, where it is used to refer to the study of why things occur, or even the reasons behind the way that things act, and is used in philosophy , physics , psychology , government , geography , spatial analysis , medicine , theology , and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena . An etiological myth is a myth intended to explain a name or create a mythic history for a place or family, an origin story
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Causality
CAUSALITY (also referred to as CAUSATION, or CAUSE AND EFFECT) is the natural or worldly agency or efficacy that connects one process (the _cause_) with another process or state (the _effect _), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first. In general, a process has many causes, which are said to be causal factors for it, and all lie in its past. An effect can in turn be a cause of, or causal factor for, many other effects, which all lie in its future. Causality is metaphysically prior to notions of time and space. Causality is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses, so basic a concept that it is more apt as an explanation of other concepts of progression than as something to be explained by others more basic. The concept is like those of agency and efficacy. For this reason, a leap of intuition may be needed to grasp it
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Milky Way
The MILKY WAY is the galaxy that contains our Solar System
Solar System
. The descriptive "milky" is derived from the appearance from Earth
Earth
of the galaxy – a band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye . The term _Milky Way_ is a translation of the Latin
Latin
_via lactea_, from the Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος (_galaxías kýklos_, "milky circle"). From Earth, the Milky Way
Milky Way
appears as a band because its disk-shaped structure is viewed from within. Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610. Until the early 1920s, most astronomers thought that the Milky Way
Milky Way
contained all the stars in the Universe
Universe

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Leucippus
LEUCIPPUS (/luːˈsɪpəs/ ; Greek : Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism —the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms . Leucippus
Leucippus
often appears as the master to his pupil Democritus
Democritus
, a philosopher also touted as the originator of the atomic theory. However, a brief notice in Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laertius
’s life of Epicurus
Epicurus
says that on the testimony of Epicurus
Epicurus
, Leucippus
Leucippus
never existed. As the philosophical heir of Democritus, Epicurus's word has some weight, and indeed a controversy over this matter raged in German scholarship for many years at the close of the 19th century
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