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Democritus
Democritus
Democritus
(/dɪˈmɒkrɪtəs/; Greek: Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people"; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.[3] Democritus
Democritus
was born in Abdera, Thrace,[4] around 460 BC, although some thought it was 490 BC. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from those of his mentor Leucippus, as they are often mentioned together in texts
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Michel Onfray
Michel Onfray
Michel Onfray
(French: [miʃɛl ɔ̃fʁɛ]; born 1 January 1959) is a contemporary French writer and philosopher who promotes hedonism, atheism,[2] and anarchism.[3] He is a highly prolific author on philosophy, having written more than 100 books.[4][5] He has gained notoriety for writing such works as Traité d'athéologie: Physique de la métaphysique (translated into English as
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Ancient Athens
Athens
Athens
is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.[1] Situated in southern Europe, Athens
Athens
became the leading city of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
in the first millennium BC, and its cultural achievements during the 5th century BC laid the foundations of western civilization. During the early Middle Ages, the city experienced a decline, then recovered under the later Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and was relatively prosperous during the period of the Crusades
Crusades
(12th and 13th centuries), benefiting from Italian trade
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Hendrick Ter Brugghen
Hendrick Jansz ter Brugghen (or Terbrugghen) (1588 – 1 November 1629) was a painter at the start of Dutch Golden Age painting
Dutch Golden Age painting
and a leading member of the Dutch followers of Caravaggio–the so-called Utrecht
Utrecht
Caravaggisti. Along with Gerrit van Hondhorst and Dirck van Baburen, Ter Brugghen was one of the most important Dutch painters to have been influenced by Caravaggio.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Work and impact 3 Selected works 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit]Bacchante with an Ape (1627), 100 x 90 cm, Getty Museum, Los AngelesChrist Crowned with Thorns (1620), 240 x 207 cm, Statens Museum for Kunst, CopenhagenThe Supper at Emmaus (1621), 109 x 141 cm, Sanssouci Picture Gallery, BerlinThe Incredulity of St. Thomas (c
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Rembrandt
Rembrandt
Rembrandt
Harmenszoon van Rijn (/ˈrɛmbrænt, -brɑːnt/;[2] Dutch: [ˈrɛmbrɑnt ˈɦɑrmə(n)soːn vɑn ˈrɛin] ( listen); 15 July 1606[1] – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker. An innovative and prolific master in three media,[3] he is generally considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history.[4] Unlike most Dutch masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt's works depict a wide range of style and subject matter, from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes, allegorical and historical scenes, biblical and mythological themes as well as animal studies
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Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
Nietzsche
(/ˈniːtʃə/[6] or /ˈniːtʃi/;[7] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtʃə] ( listen); 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin
Latin
and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.[8][9][10][11] He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy
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Karl Marx
Karl Marx[6] (/mɑːrks/;[7] German: [ˈkaɐ̯l ˈmaɐ̯ks]; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist. Born in Trier
Trier
to a middle-class family, Marx studied law and Hegelian philosophy. Due to his political publications Marx became stateless and lived in exile in London, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
and publish his writings. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist
Communist
Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital
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Milesians (Greek)
The Milesians were the inhabitants of Miletus, an ancient Greek city in Anatolia, modern-day Turkey, near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and at the mouth of the Meander River. Settlers from Crete
Crete
moved to Miletus
Miletus
sometime in 16th century BC. By the 6th century BC, Miletus had become a maritime empire, and the Milesians spread out across Anatolia
Anatolia
and even as far as the Crimea
Crimea
and Olbia, Ukraine, founding new colonies. Noted Milesians:Miletus, the mythological founder of the city Cadmus of Miletus, a historian, perhaps mythical Arctinus of Miletus, 8th century BC Greek epic poet Thales
Thales
(c. 624–c. 546 BC), considered by many the "first" Greek natural philosopher; "the father of science" Anaximander
Anaximander
(c. 610–c
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Montaigne
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (/mɒnˈteɪn/;[3] French: [miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ]; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes[4] and autobiography with serious intellectual insight; his massive volume Essais
Essais
contains some of the most influential essays ever written. Montaigne had a direct influence on Western writers, including Francis Bacon, René Descartes,[5] Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Albert Hirschman, William Hazlitt,[6] Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer,[7] Isaac Asimov, and possibly on the later works of William Shakespeare. In his own lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author
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Olympiad
An Olympiad
Olympiad
(Greek: Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
of the Ancient Greeks. During the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, it was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad
Olympiad
began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad
Olympiad
would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd year of the 699th Olympiad
Olympiad
begins in (Northern-Hemisphere) mid-summer 2018. A modern Olympiad
Olympiad
refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
for the summer sports
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Apollodorus Of Athens
Apollodorus of Athens
Athens
(Greek: Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, Apollodōros ho Athēnaios; c. 180 BC – after 120 BC) son of Asclepiades, was a Greek scholar, historian and grammarian. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon, Panaetius
Panaetius
the Stoic, and the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace. He left (perhaps fled) Alexandria
Alexandria
around 146 BC, most likely for Pergamon, and eventually settled in Athens. Literary works[edit]Chronicle (Χρονικά), a Greek history in verse from the fall of Troy
Troy
in the 12th century BC to roughly 143 BC (although later it was extended as far as 109 BC), and based on previous works by Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
of Cyrene. Its dates are reckoned by its references to the archons of Athens
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John Burnet (classicist)
John Burnet, FBA (/bərˈnɛt, ˈbɜːrnɪt/; 9 December 1863 – 26 May 1928) was a Scottish classicist. He was born in Edinburgh and died in St Andrews.[1]Contents1 Life and work1.1 Early Greek Philosophy2 Legacy 3 Bibliography3.1 Major works 3.2 Editions edited and annotated by Burnet4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife and work[edit] Burnet was educated at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, the University of Edinburgh, and Balliol College, Oxford, receiving his M.A. degree in 1887. In 1887 Burnet became an assistant to Lewis Campbell at the University of St. Andrews. From 1890 to 1915, he was a Fellow at Merton College, Oxford; he was a professor of Latin at Edinburgh; from 1892 to 1926, he was Professor of Greek at the University of St. Andrews. He became a Fellow of the British Academy in 1916
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Xerxes I Of Persia
Xerxes I
Xerxes I
(/ˈzɜːrksiːz/; Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a ( Khashayarsha (help·info)) "ruling over heroes",[4] Greek Ξέρξης [ksérksɛːs]; 518–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty
Achaemenid dynasty
of Persia. Like his predecessor Darius I, he ruled the empire at its territorial apex. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard. Xerxes I
Xerxes I
is one of the Persian kings identified as Ahasuerus
Ahasuerus
in the biblical Book of Esther.[5][6][7] He is also notable in Western history for his failed invasion of Greece
Greece
in 480 BC
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Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual. The rules of inheritance differ between societies and have changed over time.Contents1 Terminology 2 History2.1 Jewish
Jewish
laws 2.2 Christian laws 2.3 Islamic laws3 Inequality3.1 Social stratification 3.2 Sociological and economic effects of inheritance inequality4 Taxation 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTerminology[edit] In law, an heir is a person who is entitled to receive a share of the deceased's (the person who died) property, subject to the rules of inheritance in the jurisdiction of which the deceased was a citizen or where the deceased (decedent) died or owned property at the time of death. The inheritance may be either under the terms of a will or by intestate laws if the deceased had no will
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Babylon
Babylon
Babylon
(𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠KAN4.DIĜIR.RAKI Akkadian: Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; Arabic: بَابِل‎, Bābil; Hebrew: בָּבֶל‎, Bavel; Classical Syriac: ܒܒܠ‎, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The city was built on the Euphrates
Euphrates
river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods
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