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Democracy
DEMOCRACY (Greek : δημοκρατία, _dēmokratía_ literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament . Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of the majority". Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle repeatedly for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules
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Liberal Democracy
LIBERAL DEMOCRACY is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism . It is also called western democracy . It is characterized by fair, free, and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties , a separation of powers into different branches of government , the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society , and the equal protection of human rights , civil rights , civil liberties , and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution , either formally written or uncodified , to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract . After a period of sustained expansion throughout the 20th century, liberal democracy became the predominant political system in the world
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Democracy (other)
DEMOCRACY is a political concept or form of government. DEMOCRACY may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Politics * 2 Books and journals * 3 Film, TV and games * 4 Music * 5 See also POLITICS * When used as a noun, the phrase _"a democracy"_ is often used as substitute for the continental European concept of _a Rechtsstaat _ * "The Democracy", a late 19th-century term for the U.S
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Democrat (other)
DEMOCRAT or DEMOCRATIC may refer to: * A proponent of democracy , or democratic government; rule of the people or rule by many.* A member of a Democratic Party: * Democratic Party (United States) ( Democrat Party, D) * Democratic Party (Italy) (Partico Democratico, PD) * Democratic Party (Japan) (Minshinto, DP) *
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2007 French Presidential Election
Jacques Chirac UMP ELECTED PRESIDENT Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
UMP The 2007 FRENCH PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION , the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France
France
(and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra ) for a five-year term. The winner, decided on 5 and 6 May 2007, was Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
. The first round of voting took place on Saturday, 21 April 2007 (French territories in the Americas and the Eastern Pacific) and Sunday, 22 April 2007 (French territories in the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, and Metropolitan France
France
). As no candidate obtained a majority (50 percent plus one), a second round between the two leading candidates, Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
and Ségolène Royal , took place on Saturday, 5 May and Sunday, 6 May 2007
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History Of Democracy
A democracy is a political system , or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization, in which all members have an equal share of power. Modern democracies are characterized by two capabilities that differentiate them fundamentally from earlier forms of government: the capacity to intervene in their own societies and the recognition of their sovereignty by an international legalistic framework of similarly sovereign states. Democratic government is commonly juxtaposed with oligarchic and monarchic systems, which are ruled by a minority and a sole monarch respectively. Democracy in its earliest forms is generally associated with the efforts of the ancient Greeks and Romans, who were themselves considered the founders of Western civilization by the 18th century intellectuals who attempted to leverage these early democratic experiments into a new template for post-monarchical political organization
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Types Of Democracy
TYPES OF DEMOCRACY refers to kinds of governments or social structures which allow people to participate equally, either directly or indirectly. CONTENTS * 1 Direct democracies * 2 Representative democracies * 3 Types based on location * 4 Types based on level of freedom * 5 Religious democracies * 6 Other types of democracy * 7 See also * 7.1 Further types * 8 References * 9 External links DIRECT DEMOCRACIESA direct democracy or pure democracy is a type of democracy where the people govern directly. It requires wide participation of citizens in politics. Athenian democracy or classical democracy refers to a direct democracy developed in ancient times in the Greek city-state of Athens. A popular democracy is a type of direct democracy based on referendums and other devices of empowerment and concretization of popular will
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Athenian Democracy
ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis ) of Athens , comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica , and is the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens'. It was a system of direct democracy , in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills. Participation was not open to all residents: to vote one had to be an adult, male citizen i.e. neither a resident alien nor a slave , and the number of these "varied between 30,000 and 50,000 out of a total population of around 250,000 to 300,000" or "no more than 30 percent of the total adult population." The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles
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Anticipatory Democracy
ANTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY is a theory of civics relying on democratic decision making that takes into account predictions of future events that have some credibility with the electorate. The phrase was coined by Alvin Toffler in his book _ Future Shock _ and was expanded on in the 1978 book _Anticipatory Democracy_, edited by Clement Bezold . Other well-known advocates of the anticipatory approach include Newt Gingrich , Heidi Toffler , K. Eric Drexler , and Robin Hanson . They all advocate approaches where the public, not just experts, participate in this "anticipation". The FutureMAP program of the Information Awareness Office program of the United States government proposed a prediction market prior to its cancellation on July 29, 2003
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Cellular Democracy
As developed by geolibertarian political economist Fred E. Foldvary , CELLULAR DEMOCRACY is a model of democracy based on multi-level bottom-up structure based on either small neighborhood governmental districts or contractual communities. CONTENTS * 1 Councils * 2 Secession * 3 Taxation * 4 Barangay * 5 See also * 6 References COUNCILSIn cellular democracy, a jurisdiction such as a county or city is divided into neighborhood districts with a population of about 500 people, with about 100 to 200 households. The voters in the district would elect a council. The small size of districts would allow for more informed voters at a smaller cost. Representatives, plus one alternate, would be elected to the council. This would be a "level-1 council". A region containing 10 to 20 neighborhood districts would then vote for a "level-2 council"
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Consensus Democracy
CONSENSUS DEMOCRACY is the application of consensus decision-making to the process of legislation in a democracy . It is characterized by a decision-making structure which involves and takes into account as broad a range of opinions as possible, as opposed to systems where minority opinions can potentially be ignored by vote-winning majorities. Consensus democracy also features increased citizen participation both in determining the political agenda and in the decision-making process itself. Some have pointed to developments in information and communication technology as potential facilitators of such systems, for example the usage of DemocracyOS being used in Buenos Aires
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Conservative Democracy
CONSERVATIVE DEMOCRACY (Turkish : _Muhafazakâr demokrasi_) is a dog-whistle term coined by the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) of Turkey to describe Islamic democracy . Forming as a modernist breakaway party from former Islamist movements, the AKP's conservative democratic ideology has been described as a departure from or moderation of Islamic democracy and the endorsement of more secular and democratic values . The electoral success and the Neo-Ottoman foreign policy of the AKP that aims to broaden Turkey's regional influence has led to the party's conservative democratic ideals to be mirrored in other countries, such as by the Justice and Development Party in Morocco and the Ennahda Movement in Tunisia
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Cosmopolitan Democracy
COSMOPOLITAN DEMOCRACY is a political theory which explores the application of norms and values of democracy at the transnational and global sphere. It argues that global governance of the people, by the people, for the people is possible and needed. Writers advocating cosmopolitan democracy include Immanuel Kant , David Held , Daniele Archibugi , Richard Falk , and Mary Kaldor . In the cosmopolitan democracy model, decisions are made by those affected, avoiding a single hierarchical form of authority. According to the nature of the issues at stake, democratic practice should be reinvented to take into account the will of stakeholders. This can be done either through direct participation or through elected representatives
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Delegative Democracy
DELEGATIVE DEMOCRACY, also known as LIQUID DEMOCRACY, is a form of democratic control whereby an electorate vests voting power in delegates rather than in representatives . The term is a generic description of either already-existing or proposed popular-control apparatuses. CONTENTS * 1 The delegative form * 2 Contrasted with representative democracy * 3 Contrasted with direct democracy * 4 Examples * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links THE DELEGATIVE FORMThe prototypical delegative democracy has been summarized by Bryan Ford in his paper, _Delegative Democracy,_ as containing the following principles: * CHOICE OF ROLE: Each member can choose to take either a passive role as an individual or an active role as a delegate, differentiating this from representative forms in which only specified representatives are allowed
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Deliberative Democracy
DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY or DISCURSIVE DEMOCRACY is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to decision-making . It adopts elements of both consensus decision-making and majority rule . Deliberative democracy differs from traditional democratic theory in that authentic deliberation, not mere voting , is the primary source of legitimacy for the law . Deliberative democracy is compatible with both representative democracy and direct democracy . Some practitioners and theorists use the term to encompass representative bodies whose members authentically deliberate on legislation without unequal distributions of power, while others use the term exclusively to refer to decision-making directly by lay citizens, as in direct democracy. The term "deliberative democracy" was originally coined by Joseph M. Bessette in his 1980 work _Deliberative Democracy: The Majority Principle in Republican Government_
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Direct Democracy
DIRECT DEMOCRACY (also known as PURE DEMOCRACY) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern democracies, which are representative democracies . CONTENTS * 1 Related democratic processes * 2 History * 3 Examples * 3.1 Ancient Athens * 3.2 Switzerland * 3.3 United States * 4 Democratic reform trilemma * 5 Electronic direct democracy * 6 Relation to other movements * 7 In schools * 8 Contemporary movements * 9 See also * 10 Notes and references * 11 Bibliography * 12 Further reading * 13 External links * 13.1 Multimedia RELATED DEMOCRATIC PROCESSES Direct democracy is similar to, but distinct from, representative democracy , in which people vote for representatives who then enact policy initiatives
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