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Democracy
DEMOCRACY (Greek : δημοκρατία, _dēmokratía_ literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament . Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of the majority". Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle repeatedly for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules. Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic , where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity . The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents
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Liberal Democracy
LIBERAL DEMOCRACY is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism . It is also called western democracy . It is characterized by fair, free, and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties , a separation of powers into different branches of government , the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society , and the equal protection of human rights , civil rights , civil liberties , and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution , either formally written or uncodified , to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract . After a period of sustained expansion throughout the 20th century, liberal democracy became the predominant political system in the world. A liberal democracy may take various constitutional forms: it may be a constitutional monarchy (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom) or a republic (France, India, Ireland, the United States ). It may have a parliamentary system (Australia, India, Ireland, the United Kingdom), a presidential system (Indonesia, the United States), or a semi-presidential system (France). Liberal democracies usually have universal suffrage , granting all adult citizens the right to vote regardless of race, gender or property ownership
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Democracy (other)
DEMOCRACY is a political concept or form of government. DEMOCRACY may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Politics * 2 Books and journals * 3 Film, TV and games * 4 Music * 5 See also POLITICS * When used as a noun, the phrase "a democracy" is often used as substitute for the continental European concept of a Rechtsstaat
Rechtsstaat
* "The Democracy", a late 19th-century term for the U.S
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Democrat (other)
DEMOCRAT or DEMOCRATIC may refer to: * A proponent of democracy , or democratic government; rule of the people or rule by many.* A member of a Democratic Party: * Democratic Party (United States)
Democratic Party (United States)
( Democrat Party, D) * Democratic Party (Italy)
Democratic Party (Italy)
(Partico Democratico, PD) * Democratic Party (Japan)
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2007 French Presidential Election
Jacques Chirac UMP ELECTED PRESIDENT Nicolas Sarkozy UMP The 2007 FRENCH PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION , the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France
France
(and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra ) for a five-year term. The winner, decided on 5 and 6 May 2007, was Nicolas Sarkozy . The first round of voting took place on Saturday 21 April 2007 (French territories in the Americas and the Eastern Pacific) and Sunday, 22 April 2007 (French territories in the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, and Metropolitan France
France
). As no candidate obtained a majority (50 percent plus one), a second round between the two leading candidates, Nicolas Sarkozy and Ségolène Royal
Ségolène Royal
, took place on Saturday 5 May and Sunday, 6 May 2007. Sarkozy and Royal both represented a generational change. Both main candidates were born after World War II, along with the first to have seen adulthood under the Fifth Republic , and the first not to have been in politics under Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle

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History Of Democracy
A democracy is a political system , or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization, in which all members have an equal share of power. Modern democracies are characterized by two capabilities that differentiate them fundamentally from earlier forms of government: the capacity to intervene in their own societies and the recognition of their sovereignty by an international legalistic framework of similarly sovereign states. Democratic government is commonly juxtaposed with oligarchic and monarchic systems, which are ruled by a minority and a sole monarch respectively. Democracy
Democracy
in its earliest forms is generally associated with the efforts of the ancient Greeks and Romans, who were themselves considered the founders of Western civilization by the 18th century intellectuals who attempted to leverage these early democratic experiments into a new template for post-monarchical political organization. The extent to which these 18th century democratic revivalists succeeded in turning the democratic ideals of the ancient Greeks and Romans into the dominant political institution of the next 300 years is hardly debatable, even if the moral justifications they often employed might be
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Types Of Democracy
TYPES OF DEMOCRACY refers to kinds of governments or social structures which allow people to participate equally, either directly or indirectly. CONTENTS * 1 Direct democracies * 2 Representative democracies * 3 Types based on location * 4 Types based on level of freedom * 5 Religious democracies * 6 Other types of democracy * 7 See also * 7.1 Further types * 8 References * 9 External links DIRECT DEMOCRACIESA direct democracy or pure democracy is a type of democracy where the people govern directly. It requires wide participation of citizens in politics. Athenian democracy or classical democracy refers to a direct democracy developed in ancient times in the Greek city-state of Athens. A popular democracy is a type of direct democracy based on referendums and other devices of empowerment and concretization of popular will. An industrial democracy is an arrangement which involves workers making decisions, sharing responsibility and authority in the workplace (see also workplace )). REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACIESA representative democracy is an indirect democracy where sovereignty is held by the people's representatives
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Athenian Democracy
ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis ) of Athens , comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica , and is the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens'. It was a system of direct democracy , in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills. Participation was not open to all residents: to vote one had to be an adult, male citizen i.e. neither a resident alien nor a slave , and the number of these "varied between 30,000 and 50,000 out of a total population of around 250,000 to 300,000" or "no more than 30 percent of the total adult population." The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles . After his death, Athenian democracy was twice briefly interrupted by oligarchic revolutions towards the end of the Peloponnesian War . It was modified somewhat after it was restored under Eucleides ; the most detailed accounts of the system are of this fourth-century modification rather than the Periclean system. Democracy was suppressed by the Macedonians in 322 BC. The Athenian institutions were later revived, but how close they were to a real democracy is debatable
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Anticipatory Democracy
ANTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY is a theory of civics relying on democratic decision making that takes into account predictions of future events that have some credibility with the electorate. The phrase was coined by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and was expanded on in the 1978 book Anticipatory Democracy, edited by Clement Bezold . Other well-known advocates of the anticipatory approach include Newt Gingrich , Heidi Toffler
Heidi Toffler
, K. Eric Drexler , and Robin Hanson . They all advocate approaches where the public, not just experts, participate in this "anticipation". The FutureMAP program of the Information Awareness Office
Information Awareness Office
program of the United States government proposed a prediction market prior to its cancellation on July 29, 2003. CONTENTS * 1 Variants * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography VARIANTS Bioregional democracy can appear as a variant of anticipatory democracy in that it anticipates (using a similar scientific process) the ecological health outcomes of any given action. However it usually relies more on far less fragile means, and less on compared measures and quantities. An alternative, deliberative democracy , may combine with either the anticipatory or the bioregional model. It relies less on formal models and a market system for betting on future events, and more on discussion
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Cellular Democracy
As developed by geolibertarian political economist Fred E. Foldvary , CELLULAR DEMOCRACY is a model of democracy based on multi-level bottom-up structure based on either small neighborhood governmental districts or contractual communities. CONTENTS * 1 Councils * 2 Secession * 3 Taxation * 4 Barangay * 5 See also * 6 References COUNCILSIn cellular democracy, a jurisdiction such as a county or city is divided into neighborhood districts with a population of about 500 people, with about 100 to 200 households. The voters in the district would elect a council. The small size of districts would allow for more informed voters at a smaller cost. Representatives, plus one alternate, would be elected to the council. This would be a "level-1 council". A region containing 10 to 20 neighborhood districts would then vote for a "level-2 council". Each level-1 council elects a regular representative and an alternate to the level-2 council from its own regular membership. A further region containing several level-2 councils would comprise a level-3 council, each level-2 council again electing a regular and an alternate representative to level 3. The level-2 representative sent up to the level-3 council would be replaced by his or her alternative. The hierarchy would continue indefinitely, depending on the size of the state, or even going on to the top of the world
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Consensus Democracy
CONSENSUS DEMOCRACY is the application of consensus decision-making to the process of legislation in a democracy . It is characterized by a decision-making structure which involves and takes into account as broad a range of opinions as possible, as opposed to systems where minority opinions can potentially be ignored by vote-winning majorities. Consensus democracy also features increased citizen participation both in determining the political agenda and in the decision-making process itself. Some have pointed to developments in information and communication technology as potential facilitators of such systems, for example the usage of DemocracyOS being used in Buenos Aires. CONTENTS* 1 Examples * 1.1 Canada * 1.2 Guernsey * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links EXAMPLES Consensus democracy is most closely embodied in certain countries such as Switzerland , Germany , Denmark , Lebanon , Sweden , Iraq , and Belgium , where consensus is an important feature of political culture, particularly with a view to preventing the domination of one linguistic or cultural group in the political process. The term consociational state is used in political science to describe countries with such consensus based political systems. An example of such a system could be the Dutch Poldermodel
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Conservative Democracy
CONSERVATIVE DEMOCRACY (Turkish : Muhafazakâr demokrasi) is a dog-whistle term coined by the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) of Turkey
Turkey
to describe Islamic democracy
Islamic democracy
. Forming as a modernist breakaway party from former Islamist movements, the AKP's conservative democratic ideology has been described as a departure from or moderation of Islamic democracy
Islamic democracy
and the endorsement of more secular and democratic values . The electoral success and the Neo-Ottoman foreign policy of the AKP that aims to broaden Turkey's regional influence has led to the party's conservative democratic ideals to be mirrored in other countries, such as by the Justice and Development Party in Morocco
Morocco
and the Ennahda Movement in Tunisia
Tunisia
. In its broadest sense, the term 'conservative democracy' highlights the compatibility of Islam
Islam
with democracy , a western-oriented foreign policy, neoliberal economics and secularism within government. Since the view has been reflected in several economic, foreign, domestic and social policy initiatives, the term 'conservative democracy' has been referred to as a floating signifier that encompasses a broad coalition of ideas
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Cosmopolitan Democracy
COSMOPOLITAN DEMOCRACY is a political theory which explores the application of norms and values of democracy at the transnational and global sphere. It argues that global governance of the people, by the people, for the people is possible and needed. Writers advocating cosmopolitan democracy include Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
, David Held , Daniele Archibugi , Richard Falk
Richard Falk
, and Mary Kaldor . In the cosmopolitan democracy model, decisions are made by those affected, avoiding a single hierarchical form of authority. According to the nature of the issues at stake, democratic practice should be reinvented to take into account the will of stakeholders. This can be done either through direct participation or through elected representatives. The model advocated by cosmopolitan democrats is confederal and decentralized—global governance without world government —unlike those models of global governance supported by classic World Federalism thinkers, such as Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
. CONTENTS * 1 Origin and development * 2 Political programme * 3 References * 4 External links * 5 See also ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENTThe victory of Western liberal states ending the Cold War
Cold War
inspired the hope that international relations could be guided by the ideals of democracy and the rule of law
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Delegative Democracy
DELEGATIVE DEMOCRACY, also known as LIQUID DEMOCRACY, is a form of democratic control whereby an electorate vests voting power in delegates rather than in representatives . The term is a generic description of either already-existing or proposed popular-control apparatuses. CONTENTS * 1 The delegative form * 2 Contrasted with representative democracy * 3 Contrasted with direct democracy * 4 Examples * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links THE DELEGATIVE FORMThe prototypical delegative democracy has been summarized by Bryan Ford in his paper, Delegative Democracy, as containing the following principles: * CHOICE OF ROLE: Each member can choose to take either a passive role as an individual or an active role as a delegate, differentiating this from representative forms in which only specified representatives are allowed. Delegates have further choices as to how active they are and in what areas. * LOW BARRIER TO PARTICIPATION: The difficulty and cost of becoming a delegate is small, and in particular does not require political campaigning or winning a competitive election . * DELEGATED AUTHORITY: Delegates exercise power in organizational processes on behalf of themselves and those individuals who select them as their delegate
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Deliberative Democracy
DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY or DISCURSIVE DEMOCRACY is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to decision-making . It adopts elements of both consensus decision-making and majority rule . Deliberative democracy differs from traditional democratic theory in that authentic deliberation, not mere voting , is the primary source of legitimacy for the law . Deliberative democracy is compatible with both representative democracy and direct democracy . Some practitioners and theorists use the term to encompass representative bodies whose members authentically deliberate on legislation without unequal distributions of power, while others use the term exclusively to refer to decision-making directly by lay citizens, as in direct democracy. The term "deliberative democracy" was originally coined by Joseph M. Bessette in his 1980 work Deliberative Democracy: The Majority Principle in Republican Government
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Direct Democracy
DIRECT DEMOCRACY (also known as PURE DEMOCRACY) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern democracies, which are representative democracies . CONTENTS * 1 Related democratic processes * 2 History * 3 Examples * 3.1 Ancient Athens * 3.2 Switzerland * 3.3 United States * 4 Democratic reform trilemma * 5 Electronic direct democracy * 6 Relation to other movements * 7 In schools * 8 Contemporary movements * 9 See also * 10 Notes and references * 11 Bibliography * 12 Further reading * 13 External links * 13.1 Multimedia RELATED DEMOCRATIC PROCESSES Direct democracy is similar to, but distinct from, representative democracy , in which people vote for representatives who then enact policy initiatives. Depending on the particular system in use, direct democracy might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortition , making laws , directly electing or dismissing officials, and conducting trials . Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy . Semi direct democracies in which representatives administer day-to-day governance, but the citizens remain the sovereign, allow for three forms of popular action: referendum (plebiscite), initiative , and recall
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