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Procedural Programming
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming,[citation needed] based on the concept of the procedure call. Procedures (a type of routine or subroutine) simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself. The first major procedural programming languages appeared circa 1957–1964, including Fortran, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/I and BASIC.[1] Pascal and C were published circa 1970–1972. Computer processors provide hardware support for procedural programming through a stack register and instructions for calling procedures and returning from them. Hardware support for other types of programming is possible, but no attempt was commercially successful (for example Lisp machines or Java processors).[
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Complex System
Collective intelligence
Collective action
Self-organized criticality
Herd mentality
Phase transition
Agent-based modelling
Synchronization
Ant colony optimization
Particle swarm optimization
Swarm behaviour
Complex systems are chiefly concerned with the behaviors and properties of systems. A system, broadly defined, is a set of entities that, through their interactions, relationships, or dependencies, form a unified whole. It is always defined in terms of its boundary, which determines the entities that are or are not part of the system
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Cybernetics
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary[1] approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine".[2] Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop—originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship—that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in the system in some manner (feedback) that triggers a system change. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems
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Object-oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which can contain data and code: data in the form of fields (often known as attributes or properties), and code, in the form of procedures (often known as methods). A feature of objects is that an object's own procedures can access and often modify the data fields of itself (objects have a notion of this or self). In OOP, computer programs are designed by making them out of objects that interact with one another.[1][2] OOP languages are diverse, but the most popular ones are class-based, meaning that objects are instances of classes, which also determine their types. Many of the most widely used programming languages (such as C++, Java, Python, etc.) are multi-paradigm and they support object-oriented programming to a greater or lesser degree, typically in combination with imperative, procedural programming
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Particle Size
Particle size is a notion introduced for comparing dimensions of solid particles (flecks), liquid particles (droplets), or gaseous particles (bubbles). The notion of particle size applies to colloidal particles, particles in ecology, particles present in granular material (whether airborne or not), and particles that form a granular material (see also grain size). There are several methods for measuring particle size[1] and particle size distribution. Some of them are based on light, other on ultrasound[2], or electric field, or gravity, or centrifugation. The use of sieves is a common measurement technique, however this process can be more susceptible to human error and is time consuming. Technology such as dynamic image analysis (DIA) can make particle size distribution analyses much easier. This approach can be seen in instruments like Retsch Technology's CAMSIZER or the Sympatec QICPIC series of instruments
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Self-organization
Collective intelligence
Collective action
Self-organized criticality
Herd mentality
Phase transition
Agent-based modelling
Synchronization
Ant colony optimization
Particle swarm optimization
Swarm behaviour
Of course, Blumenfeld does not answer the further question of how those program-like structures emergOf course, Blumenfeld does not answer the further question of how those program-like structures emerge in the first place
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