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DECwriter
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.[1] The teletype was an example of an early day hardcopy terminal,[2], and predated the use of a computer screen by decades.[3] Early terminals were inexpensive devices but very slow compared to punched cards or paper tape for input, but as the technology improved and video displays were introduced, terminals pushed these older forms of interaction from the industry. A related development was timesharing systems, which evolved in parallel and made up for any inefficiencies of the user's typing ability with the ability to support multiple users on the same machine, each at their own terminal. The function of a terminal is confined to display and input of data; a device with significant local programmable data processing capability may be called a "smart terminal" or fat client
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Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, and peripherals. Their PDP and successor VAX
VAX
products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq
Compaq
was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq
Compaq
had less presence. However, Compaq
Compaq
had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own
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Escape Sequences
An escape sequence is a series of characters used to change the state of computers and their attached peripheral devices, rather than to be displayed or printed as regular data bytes would be. These are also known as control sequences, reflecting their use in device control, beginning with the Control Sequence Initiator - originally the "Escape character" ASCII
ASCII
code - character 27 (decimal) - often written "Esc" on keycaps. With the introduction of ANSI terminals most escape sequences began with the two characters "ESC" then "[" or a specially-allocated CSI character with a code 155 (decimal)
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Characters Per Line
In typography and computing characters per line (CPL) or terminal width refers to the maximal number of monospaced characters that may appear on a single line. It is similar to line length in typesetting.Contents1 History 2 In modern computing 3 In programming 4 Human perception 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit]The ruler on the carriage of an Olivetti Lettera 22. This typewriter can print only 87 characters in a lineThe limit of the line length in 70–80 characters may well be originated from various technical limitations of various equipment. The American teletypewriters could type only 72 CPL, while the British ones even less, 70 CPL.[1] In the era of typewriters, most designs of the typewriter carriage were limited to 80–90 CPL
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Central Processing Unit
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s.[1] Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O
I/O
circuitry.[2] The form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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Logic Gates
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device[1] (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison). Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches, but can also be constructed using vacuum tubes, electromagnetic relays (relay logic), fluidic logic, pneumatic logic, optics, molecules, or even mechanical elements
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Large Scale Integration
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics
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ASCII
ASCII
ASCII
(/ˈæski/ ( listen) ASS-kee),[1]:6 abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication
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EBCDIC
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code[1] (EBCDIC[1]; /ˈɛbsɪdɪk/) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
midrange computer operating systems
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ADM-3
The ADM-3A
ADM-3A
was one of the first video display terminals. First shipped in 1976,[1] it was manufactured by Lear Siegler
Lear Siegler
and had a 12 inch screen displaying 12 or 24 lines of 80 characters. It set a new industry low single unit price of $995. Its "dumb terminal" nickname came from some of the original trade publication advertisements.[2] It quickly became commercially successful because of the rapid increase of computer communications speeds, and because of new minicomputer systems released to the market which required inexpensive operator consoles.Contents1 Antecedents 2 ADM-3 3 ADM-3 options 4 ADM-3A 5 Hardware 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksAntecedents[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Data General
Data General
Data General
was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s. Three of the four founders were former employees of Digital Equipment Corporation. Their first product, the Data General
Data General
Nova, was a 16-bit minicomputer. This used their own operating system, Data General RDOS (DG/RDOS), and in conjunction with programming languages like " Data General
Data General
Business Basic" they provided a multi-user operating system with record locking and built-in databases far ahead of many contemporary systems. The Nova was followed by the Supernova and Eclipse product lines, all of which were used in many applications for the next two decades. The company employed an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) sales strategy to sell to third parties who incorporated Data General
Data General
computers into the OEM's specific product lines
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RS-232
In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232[1] is a standard introduced in 1960[2] for serial communication transmission of data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a DTE (data terminal equipment) such as a computer terminal, and a DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment or data communication equipment), such as a modem. The RS-232
RS-232
standard had been commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors
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Digital Current Loop Interface
For serial communications, a current loop is a communication interface that uses current instead of voltage for signaling. Current loops can be used over moderately long distances (tens of kilometres), and can be interfaced with optically isolated links.Contents1 History 2 Electrical characteristics 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Long before the RS-232
RS-232
standard, current loops were used to send digital data in serial form for teleprinters. More than two teleprinters could be connected on a single circuit allowing a simple form of networking.[1] Older teleprinters used a 60 mA current loop. Later machines, such as the Teletype Model 33, operated on a lower 20 mA current level and most early minicomputers featured a 20 mA current loop interface, with an RS-232
RS-232
port generally available as a more expensive option
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ADM-3A
The ADM-3A was one of the first video display terminals. First shipped in 1976,[1] it was manufactured by Lear Siegler and had a 12 inch screen displaying 12 or 24 lines of 80 characters. It set a new industry low single unit price of $995. Its "dumb terminal" nickname came from some of the original trade publication advertisements.[2] It quickly became commercially successful because of the rapid increase of computer communications speeds, and because of new minicomputer systems released to the market which required inexpensive operator consoles.Contents1 Antecedents 2 ADM-3 3 ADM-3 options 4 ADM-3A 5 Hardware 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksAntecedents[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Lear Siegler, Inc
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Datapoint 3300
The DataPoint 3300 was the first computer terminal manufactured by the Computer Terminal Corporation (later renamed to Datapoint Corporation), announced in 1967[1] and shipping in 1969.[2] Since this terminal was intended to replace a teleprinter such as those made by Teletype Corporation
Teletype Corporation
it was one of the first glass TTYs (glass for the screen, TTY as the abbreviation for "Teletype") ever produced. As well as being sold under its own name, it was also sold as the DEC VT06 and the HP 2600A (introduced in 1972).[3]Contents1 Details 2 Hardware 3 References 4 See also 5 External linksDetails[edit] The Datapoint
Datapoint
3300 emulated a Teletype Model 33, but went beyond what a Teletype could achieve with its paper output. It supported control codes to move the cursor up, down, left and right, to the top left of the screen, or to the start of the bottom line
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ADDS
Applied Digital Data Systems (ADDS) was a supplier of video display computer terminals, founded in 1969 by Leeam Lowin and William J. Catacosinos.[1][2] Lowin simultaneously founded Solid State Data Sciences (SSDS). SSDS was one of the first developers of the MOS/LSI integrated circuits that were key to ADDS's product line.[1] It became a subsidiary of NCR Corporation
NCR Corporation
in 1980, which sold the Mentor 2000 professional computer in the United States
United States
in 1986. The Mentor 2000 ran at 5 MHz using a Zilog
Zilog
processor, 640 KB RAM, and included one 60MB hard disk. It used the Pick operating system and database management system
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