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DECwriter
A COMPUTER TERMINAL is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. Early terminals were inexpensive devices but very slow compared to punched cards or paper tape for input, but as the technology improved and video displays were introduced, terminals pushed these older forms of interaction from the industry. A related development was timesharing systems, which evolved in parallel and made up for any inefficiencies of the user's typing ability with the ability to support multiple users on the same machine, each at their own terminal. The function of a terminal is confined to display and input of data; a device with significant local programmable data processing capability may be called a "smart terminal" or fat client . A terminal that depends on the host computer for its processing power is called a "dumb terminal" or thin client . A personal computer can run terminal emulator software that replicates the function of a terminal, sometimes allowing concurrent use of local programs and access to a distant terminal host system
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Thin Client
A THIN CLIENT is a lightweight computer that is purpose-built for remoting into a server (typically cloud or desktop virtualization environments). It depends heavily on another computer (its server) to fulfill its computational roles. This is different from a conventional desktop PC (fat client ), which is a computer designed to take on these roles by itself. The specific roles assumed by the server may vary, from hosting a shared set of virtualized applications, a shared desktop stack or virtual desktop, to data processing and file storage on the client's or user's behalf. Thin clients occur as components of a broader computing infrastructure, where many clients share their computations with a server or server farm . The server-side infrastructure makes use of cloud computing software such as application virtualization, hosted shared desktop (HSD) or desktop virtualization (VDI). This combination forms what is known today as a cloud based system where desktop resources are centralized into one or more data centers. The benefits of centralization are hardware resource optimization, reduced software maintenance, and improved security
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Digital Equipment Corporation
DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION, also known as DEC and using the trademark DIGITAL, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, and peripherals . Their PDP and successor VAX
VAX
products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq , in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq had less presence. However, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own. The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard (HP) in May 2002. As of 2007 some of DEC's product lines were still produced under the HP name. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Products * 3 Research * 4 Accomplishments and legacy * 5 User organizations * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Main article: History of Digital Equipment Corporation From 1957 until 1992, DEC's headquarters were located in a former wool mill in Maynard, Massachusetts (since renamed Clock Tower Place, and now home to many companies)
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VT100
The VT100
VT100
is a video terminal , introduced in August 1978 by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). It was one of the first terminals to support ANSI escape codes for cursor control and other tasks, and added a number of extended codes for special features like controlling the status lights on the keyboard. This led to rapid uptake of the ANSI standard, becoming the de facto standard for terminal emulators . The VT100s, especially the VT102, was extremely successful in the market, and made DEC the leading terminal vendor. The VT100
VT100
series was replaced by the VT200 series starting in 1983, which proved just as successful. Ultimately, over six million terminals in the VT series would be sold, based largely on the success of the VT100s. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Variants * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONDEC's first successful video terminal was the VT50 , introduced in 1974 and quickly replaced by the VT52 in 1975. The VT52 featured a text display with 80 columns and 24 rows, bidirectional scrolling, and a custom control language that allowed the cursor to be moved about the screen
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Computer Hardware
COMPUTER HARDWARE is the collection of physical components that constitute a computer system . Computer
Computer
hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as monitor , keyboard , computer data storage , graphic card , sound card , motherboard , and so on, all of which are tangible objects. By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction . A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system
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Computer
A COMPUTER is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sequences of operations, called _programs _, enable them to perform a wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices . This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls , factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design , but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones . The Internet is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution , some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms . More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II . The speed, power, and versatility of computers has increased continuously and dramatically since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element , typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory
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Computing
COMPUTING is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating a mathematical sequence of steps known as an algorithm — e.g. through computers . Computing includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media. The field of computing includes computer engineering , software engineering , computer science , information systems , and information technology
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Punched Card
A PUNCHED CARD or PUNCH CARD is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. The information might be data for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery . Punched cards were widely used through much of the 20th century in what became known as the data processing industry, where specialized and increasingly complex unit record machines , organized into semiautomatic data processing systems , used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data . While punched cards are now obsolete as a recording medium , as of 2012, some voting machines still use punched cards to record votes. A general-purpose punched card from the mid twentieth century
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Paper Tape
PUNCHED TAPE or PERFORATED PAPER TAPE is a form of data storage , consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. Now effectively obsolete, it was widely used during much of the twentieth century for teleprinter communication, for input to computers of the 1950s and 1960s, and later as a storage medium for minicomputers and CNC machine tools . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Tape formats * 2.1 Dimensions * 2.2 Chadless tape * 3 Applications * 3.1 Communications * 3.2 Minicomputers * 3.3 Data transfer for ROM and EPROM programming * 3.4 Cash registers * 3.5 Newspaper industry * 3.6 Automated machinery * 3.7 Cryptography * 3.7.1 Paper tape canister * 4 Limitations * 5 Advantages * 6 Punched tape in art * 7 Current use * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links ORIGIN A paper tape, constructed from punched cards, in use in a Jacquard loom . The large holes on each edge are sprocket holes, used to pull the paper tape through the loom. Paper tapes constructed from punched cards were widely used throughout the 19th century for controlling looms. Perforated paper tapes were first used by Basile Bouchon in 1725 to control looms. However, the paper tapes were expensive to create, fragile, and difficult to repair
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Video Display
A DISPLAY DEVICE is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people). When the input information is supplied has an electrical signal, the display is called an electronic display. Common applications for electronic visual displays are televisions or computer monitors . CONTENTS* 1 Segment displays * 1.1 Underlying technologies * 2 Full-area 2-dimensional displays * 2.1 Applications * 2.2 Underlying technologies * 3 Three-dimensional * 4 Mechanical types * 5 History * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links SEGMENT DISPLAYS Digital clocks display changing numbers. Some displays can show only digits or alphanumeric characters. They are called SEGMENT DISPLAYS, because they are composed of several segments that switch on and off to give appearance of desired glyph . The segments are usually single LEDs or liquid crystals . They are mostly used in digital watches and pocket calculators . There are several types: The common segment displays shown side by side: 7-segment , 9-segment , 14-segment and 16-segment displays
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Timesharing
In computing , TIME-SHARING is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time. Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the prominent model of computing in the 1970s represented a major technological shift in the history of computing. By allowing a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one, and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Batch processing * 1.2 Time-sharing * 1.3 Development * 1.4 Time-sharing business * 1.4.1 Rise and Fall * 1.4.1.1 Rapidata as an example * 1.5 The computer utility * 1.6 Security * 2 Notable time-sharing systems * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORYBATCH PROCESSING Main article: Batch processing The earliest computers were extremely expensive devices, and very slow in comparison to later models. Machines were typically dedicated to a particular set of tasks and operated by control panels, the operator manually entering small programs via switches in order to load and run a series of programs. These programs might take hours, or even weeks, to run
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Fat Client
A FAT CLIENT (also called HEAVY, RICH or THICK CLIENT) is a computer (client ) in client–server architecture or networks that typically provides rich functionality independent of the central server . Originally known as just a "client" or "thick client" the name is contrasted to thin client , which describes a computer heavily dependent on a server's applications. A fat client still requires at least periodic connection to a network or central server, but is often characterised by the ability to perform many functions without that connection. In contrast, a thin client generally does as little processing as possible and relies on accessing the server each time input data needs to be processed or validated. CONTENTS* 1 Introduction * 1.1 History * 1.2 Centrally hosted thick client applications * 2 Advantages * 3 See also * 4 References INTRODUCTIONIn designing a client–server application, a decision is to be made as to which parts of the task should be executed on the client, and which on the server. This decision can crucially affect the cost of clients and servers, the robustness and security of the application as a whole, and the flexibility of the design to later modification or porting . The characteristics of the user interface often force the decision on a designer
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Terminal Emulator
A TERMINAL EMULATOR, TERMINAL APPLICATION, or TERM, is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture. Though typically synonymous with a shell or text terminal , the term _terminal_ covers all remote terminals, including graphical interfaces. A terminal emulator inside a graphical user interface is often called a TERMINAL WINDOW. A terminal window allows the user access to a text terminal and all its applications such as command-line interfaces (CLI) and text user interface (TUI) applications. These may be running either on the same machine or on a different one via telnet , ssh , or dial-up . On Unix-like operating systems, it is common to have one or more terminal windows connected to the local machine. Terminals usually support a set of escape sequences for controlling color, cursor position, etc. Examples include the family of terminal control sequence standards known as ECMA-48 , ANSI X3.64 or ISO/IEC 6429
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Teletype Model 33
The TELETYPE MODEL 33 is an electromechanical teleprinter designed for light-duty office. It is less rugged and less expensive than earlier Teletype machines. The Teletype Corporation
Teletype Corporation
introduced the Model 33 as a commercial product in 1963 after being originally designed for the US Navy. There are three versions of the Model 33: * the Model 33 ASR, (Automatic Send and Receive), which has a built-in 8-level punched tape reader and tape punch; * the Model 33 KSR (Keyboard Send and Receive), which lacks the paper tape reader and punch; * the Model 33 RO (Receive Only) which has neither a keyboard nor a reader/punch.The Model 33 was one of the first products to employ the newly standardized ASCII
ASCII
code. A companion Model 32 used the more established five-level Baudot code
Baudot code
. Because of its low price and ASCII-compatibility, the Model 33 was widely used with early minicomputers . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Model 33 ASR vis-à-vis ASR-33 * 2 Technical information * 2.1 Communications Interface * 3 Related machines * 4 Historical impact * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYTeletype Corporation's Model 33 terminal, introduced in 1963, was one of the most popular terminals in the data-communications industry. Over a half-million Model 32s and 33s were made by 1975, and the 500,000th was plated with gold and placed on special exhibit
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Z3 (computer)
The Z3 was an electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse . It was the world's first working programmable , fully automatic digital computer. The Z3 was built with 2,000 relays , implementing a 22-bit word length that operated at a clock frequency of about 5–10 Hz . Program code and constant data were stored on punched film . The Z3 was completed in Berlin in 1941. The German Aircraft Research Institute used it to perform statistical analyses of wing flutter . Zuse asked the German government for funding to replace the relays with fully electronic switches, but funding was denied during World War II since such development was deemed "not war-important". :148 The original Z3 was destroyed in 1943 during an Allied bombardment of Berlin . The Z3 was originally called V3 (Versuchsmodell 3 or Experimental Model 3) but was renamed to not be confused with Germany's V-weapons . A fully functioning replica was built in the 1960s by Zuse's company, Zuse KG , and is on permanent display at Deutsches Museum in Munich . The Z3 was demonstrated in 1998 to be, in principle, Turing-complete . However, because it lacked conditional branching, the Z3 only meets this definition by speculatively computing all possible outcomes of a calculation. Thanks to this machine and its predecessors, Konrad Zuse is often regarded as the inventor of the computer
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