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Cylindrophis
The CYLINDROPHIIDAE are a monotypic family of nonvenomous snakes containing the genus CYLINDROPHIS found in Asia
Asia
. These are burrowing snakes and all have checkered black-and-white bellies. Currently, eight species are recognized, with no subspecies. Common names include: Asian pipe snakes. CONTENTS * 1 Geographic range * 2 Description * 3 Species
Species
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links GEOGRAPHIC RANGEThey are found from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
east through Myanmar
Myanmar
, Thailand
Thailand
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
to as far east as Aru Islands off the southwestern coast of New Guinea
New Guinea

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Cylindrophis Ruffus
The RED-TAILED PIPE SNAKE, RED CYLINDER SNAKE, or COMMON PIPE SNAKE, CYLINDROPHIS RUFFUS is a snake species found in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. No subspecies are currently recognized. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Geographic range * 3 See also * 4 References DESCRIPTIONAdults can grow to 39 in (1 m) in length. The dorsal scales are smooth, in 19 or 21 rows, with 186-245 ventrals, which are not quite twice as large as the contiguous dorsal scales; the anal plate is divided, and five to 10 subcaudals
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Reptile
See text for extinct groups. Global reptile distributionREPTILES are tetrapod (four-limbed vertebrate) animals in the class REPTILIA, comprising today's turtles , crocodilians , snakes , amphisbaenians , lizards , tuatara , and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders , historically combined with that of modern amphibians , is called herpetology . Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping (or clade ). For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class
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Squamata
The SQUAMATA, or the SCALED REPTILES, are the largest recent order of reptiles , comprising all lizards and snakes . With over 10,000 species , it is also the second-largest order of extant vertebrates , after the perciform fish , and roughly equal in number to the Saurischia
Saurischia
(one of the two major groups of dinosaurs ). Members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny scales or shields. They also possess movable quadrate bones , making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the neurocranium . This is particularly visible in snakes, which are able to open their mouths very wide to accommodate comparatively large prey. They are the most variably sized order of reptiles, ranging from the 16 mm (0.63 in) dwarf gecko (_ Sphaerodactylus ariasae _) to the 5.21 m (17.1 ft) green anaconda (_ Eunectes murinus
Eunectes murinus
_) and the now-extinct mosasaurs , which reached lengths of 14 m (46 ft)
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Snake
SNAKES are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder SERPENTES. Like all squamates , snakes are ectothermic , amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales . Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws . To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung . Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca . Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty five times indepenently via convergent evolution , leading to many lineages of legless lizards and snakes
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Booidea
The BOOIDEA, also known as BOOID SNAKES, are a superfamily of snakes that contains boas (family Boidae ) and other closely related boa-like snakes (but not pythons , which are in a separate superfamily called Pythonoidea)
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Leopold Fitzinger
LEOPOLD JOSEPH FRANZ JOHANN FITZINGER (13 April 1802 – 20 September 1884) was an Austrian zoologist . Fitzinger was born in Vienna
Vienna
and studied botany at the University of Vienna
Vienna
under Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin
Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin
. He worked at the Vienna Naturhistorisches Museum
Naturhistorisches Museum
between 1817, when he joined as a volunteer assistant, and 1821, when he left to become secretary to the provincial legislature of Lower Austria
Austria
; after a hiatus he was appointed assistant curator in 1844 and remained at the Naturhistorisches Museum
Naturhistorisches Museum
until 1861. Later he became director of the zoos of Munich
Munich
and Budapest
Budapest

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Johann Georg Wagler
JOHANN GEORG WAGLER (28 March 1800 – 23 August 1832) was a German herpetologist . Wagler was assistant to Johann Baptist von Spix , and gave lectures in Zoology at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich after that was moved to Munich. He worked on the extensive collections brought back from Brazil
Brazil
by Spix, published partly together with him books on reptiles from Brazil. Wagler wrote Monographia Psittacorum (1832), which included the correct naming of the blue macaws . In 1832, Wagler died of an accidental self-inflicted gunshot wound while out collecting in München-Moosach . CONTENTS * 1 Legacy * 2 Publication * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links LEGACYWagler is commemorated in the scientific names of three species of reptiles: Atractus wagleri , Podarcis waglerianus , and Tropidolaemus wagleri
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Giorgio Jan
GIORGIO JAN (21 December 1791 in Vienna
Vienna
– 8 May 1866, Milan
Milan
) was an Italian taxonomist , zoologist , botanist , herpetologist , and writer. He is also known as GEORG JAN or GEORGES JAN. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Publications (incomplete list) * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYAfter having been an assistant at the University of Vienna
Vienna
, Jan obtained the post of professor of botany at the university of Parma
Parma
as well as becoming Director of the botanical garden. At that time, the duchy of Parma
Parma
was no longer under Austrian jurisdiction following the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
after the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
at Waterloo
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Leonhard Hess Stejneger
LEONHARD HESS STEJNEGER (30 October 1851 – 28 February 1943) was a Norwegian-born American ornithologist , herpetologist and zoologist . Stejneger specialized in vertebrate natural history studies. He gained his greatest reputation with reptiles and amphibians. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Legacy * 4 Selected bibliography * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEStejneger was born in Bergen, Norway
Bergen, Norway
. His father was Peter Stamer Steineger, a merchant and auditor; his mother was Ingeborg Catharine (Hess). He was the eldest of 7 children. Until 1880, the Steineger family had been one of the wealthy families in Bergen; at that time business reverses led to the father's declaring bankruptcy. Stejneger attended the Smith Theological School in Bergen from 1859–1860, and Bergen Latin School until 1869. His interests in zoology developed early
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Van Wallach
VAN STANLEY BARTHOLOMEW WALLACH (born 1947) is an American herpetologist and an expert on blindsnakes and on the systematics, internal anatomy, and taxonomy of snakes. He has contributed to the descriptions of at least 46 species of snakes and has conducted fieldwork on tropical snakes in the Philippines, Nicaragua, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. For many years Wallach worked as a Curatorial Assistant at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts . He retired from the museum in 2012, but he continues to work on snake taxonomy. Wallach was the lead editor of the 1,227 page authoritative reference book Snakes of the World . In the 2000s Wallach was one of several herpetologists who became embroiled in a dispute with Raymond Hoser , a self-published Australian herpetologist, over proper nomenclaturial acts
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