Coordinates : 2°30′N 112°30′E / 2.500°N 112.500°E /
Flag Coat of arms
MOTTO: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu"
"Unity Is Strength"
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683
2°56′35″N 101°41′58″E / 2.9430952°N 101.699373°E
/ 2.9430952; 101.699373
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683
Malay (Latin) alphabet
ETHNIC GROUPS ( )
* 50.1% Malay
* 22.6% Chinese
* 11.8% Indigenous
* 6.7% Indian
* 8.8% other
* 61.3% Islam (Sunni )
* Other religions:
* 19.8% Buddhist
* 9.2% Christian
* 6.2% Hindu
* 3.4% other
Federal parliamentary elective constitutional monarchy
• YANG DI-PERTUAN AGONG
• PRIME MINISTER
• CHIEF JUSTICE
Md Raus Sharif
• PRESIDENT OF THE DEWAN NEGARA
• SPEAKER OF THE DEWAN RAKYAT
Pandikar Amin Mulia
Pandikar Amin Mulia
• UPPER HOUSE
Dewan Negara _
• LOWER HOUSE
Dewan Rakyat _
INDEPENDENCE FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
• INDEPENDENCE OF THE FEDERATION OF MALAYA
31 August 1957
Malaya, North Borneo,
Singapore 16 September 1963
• EXPULSION OF SINGAPORE
9 August 1965
• ASEAN DECLARATION
8 August 1967
330,803 km2 (127,724 sq mi) (66th )
• WATER (%)
• 2017 ESTIMATE
31,588,000 (44th )
• 2010 CENSUS
92/km2 (238.3/sq mi) (116th )
GDP (PPP )
$913.593 billion (27th )
• PER CAPITA
$28,490 (50th )
$344.848 billion (35th )
• PER CAPITA
$10,756 (65th )
high · 36th
high · 59th
Ringgit (RM) (MYR )
MST (UTC +8)
• SUMMER (DST )
not observed (UTC +8)
DRIVES ON THE
ISO 3166 CODE
MALAYSIA (/məˈleɪʒə/ (_ listen ) mə-LAY-zhə_ or
/məˈleɪsiə/ (_ listen ) mə-LAY-see-ə_ ; Malaysian
pronunciation: ) is a federal constitutional monarchy located in
Southeast Asia . It consists of thirteen states and three federal
territories and has a total landmass of 330,803 square kilometres
(127,720 sq mi) separated by the
South China Sea
South China Sea into two similarly
Peninsular Malaysia and
East Malaysia (Malaysian
Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with
Thailand and maritime borders with
Vietnam , and Indonesia
East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with
Indonesia and a maritime border with the
Philippines and Vietnam. The
capital city is
Kuala Lumpur , while
Putrajaya is the seat of the
federal government. With a population of over 30 million,
the 44th most populous country . The southernmost point of continental
Tanjung Piai , is in Malaysia. Located in the tropics ,
Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large
numbers of endemic species .
Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area
which, from the 18th century, became subject to the
British Empire .
The first British territories were known as the
Straits Settlements ,
whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming
British protectorates. The territories on
Peninsular Malaysia were
first unified as the
Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31
August 1957. Malaya united with North
Sarawak , and Singapore
on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. Less than two years later in
Singapore was expelled from the federation.
The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural , which plays a large
role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay , with
large minorities of
Malaysian Chinese , Malaysian Indians , and
indigenous peoples . The constitution grants freedom of religion and
Malaysia an officially secular state, while establishing Islam
as the "religion of the Federation". The government system is closely
modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system
is based on common law . The head of state is the king, known as the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong _. He is an elected monarch chosen from the
hereditary rulers of the nine
Malay states every five years. The head
of government is the prime minister .
Since its independence,
Malaysia has had one of the best economic
records in Asia, with its GDP growing at an average of 6.5% per annum
for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its
natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science,
tourism, commerce and medical tourism . Today,
Malaysia has a newly
industrialised market economy , ranked third largest in Southeast Asia
and 29th largest in the world . It is a founding member of the
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations , the
East Asia Summit
East Asia Summit and the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation , and a member of Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation , the
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations , and the
Non-Aligned Movement .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Government and politics
* 3.1 Political divisions
* 3.1.1 States
* 3.1.2 Federal Territories
* 4 Foreign relations and military
* 5 Geography
* 6 Biodiversity
* 6.1 Conservation issues
* 7 Economy
* 7.1 Infrastructure
* 7.1.1 Energy
* 7.1.2 Transportation
* 8 Demographics
* 8.1 Religion
* 8.2 Language
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Fine arts
* 9.2 Cuisine
* 9.3 Media
* 9.4 Holidays and festivals
* 9.5 Sports
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 External links
Malay people "Malaysia" used as a label for the
Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a
United States atlas
The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the
Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία. The word "_melayu_" in Malay may
derive from the Tamil words "_malai_" and "_ur_" meaning "mountain"
and "city, land", respectively. "_Malayadvipa_" was the word used
by ancient Indian traders when referring to the
Malay Peninsula .
Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "_melayu_" or
"_mlayu_" may have been used in early Malay /Javanese to mean to
steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the
strong current of the river Melayu in
Sumatra . The name was later
adopted by the
Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on
Before the onset of European colonisation, the
Malay Peninsula was
known natively as "_
Tanah Melayu _" ("Malay Land"). Under a racial
classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
, the natives of maritime
Southeast Asia were grouped into a single
Malay race . Following the expedition of French
navigator Jules Dumont d\'Urville to
Oceania in 1826, he later
proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "
Micronesia " and "
Melanesia " to
Société de Géographie _ in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific
cultures and island groups from the existing term "
Polynesia ". Dumont
Malaysia as "an area commonly known as the East
Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl
, writing in the _Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia_,
proposed naming the islands of
Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or
"Indunesia", favouring the former. In modern terminology, "Malay"
remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people
predominantly inhabiting the
Malay Peninsula and portions of the
adjacent islands of
Southeast Asia , including the east coast of
Sumatra , the coast of
Borneo , and smaller islands that lie between
The state that gained independence from the
United Kingdom in 1957
took the name the "
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya ", chosen in preference to
other potential names such as "
Langkasuka ", after the historic
kingdom located at the upper section of the
Malay Peninsula in the
first millennium CE. The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when
the existing states of the
Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North
Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the
name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore,
North Borneo, and
Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the
Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the
modern country took the name.
History of Malaysia
History of Malaysia Fort
A Famosa in
by the Portuguese in the 16th century. In the 15th century the
Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout
the Malay Archipelago.
Evidence of modern human habitation in
Malaysia dates back 40,000
years. In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to
Negritos . Traders and settlers from
China arrived as
early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal
towns in the second and third centuries. Their presence resulted in
strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, and the
people of the
Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of
Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fourth or
fifth century. The Kingdom of
Langkasuka arose around the second
century in the northern area of the Malay Peninsula, lasting until
about the 15th century. Between the 7th and 13th centuries, much of
Malay Peninsula was part of the maritime Srivijayan
empire. By the 13th and the 14th century, the
Majapahit empire had
successfully wrested control over most of the peninsula and the Malay
Archipelago from Srivijaya. Islam began to spread among Malays in the
14th century. In the early 15th century, Parameswara , a runaway king
of the former
Kingdom of Singapura
Kingdom of Singapura linked to the old Srivijayan court,
Malacca Sultanate .
Melaka was an important commercial
centre during this time, attracting trade from around the region.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the
Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of
Melaka was conquered by Portugal , after which it was taken
by the Dutch in 1641. In 1786, the
British Empire established a
presence in Malaya, when the Sultan of
Penang Island to
East India Company
East India Company . The British obtained the town of
Singapore in 1819, and in 1824 took control of
Melaka following the
Anglo-Dutch Treaty . By 1826, the British directly controlled Penang,
Melaka, Singapore, and the island of
Labuan , which they established
as the crown colony of the
Straits Settlements . By the 20th century,
the states of
Perak , and
Negeri Sembilan , known
together as the
Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States , had British residents
appointed to advise the Malay rulers, to whom the rulers were bound to
defer to by treaty. The remaining five states in the peninsula, known
Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States , while not directly under British
rule, also accepted British advisers around the turn of the 20th
century. Development on the peninsula and
Borneo were generally
separate until the 19th century. Under British rule the immigration of
Chinese and Indians to serve as labourers was encouraged. The area
that is now
Sabah came under British control as North
Borneo when both
the Sultan of
Brunei and the Sultan of Sulu transferred their
respective territorial rights of ownership, between 1877 and 1878. In
Sarawak was ceded by the Sultan of
James Brooke ,
whose successors ruled as the
White Rajahs over an independent kingdom
until 1946, when it became a crown colony . Statue of Francis
Light in the
Fort Cornwallis of
Penang , the first British colony in
what was to become Malaysia.
In the Second World War, the Japanese Army invaded and occupied
Malaya , North Borneo,
Sarawak , and
Singapore for over three years.
During this time, ethnic tensions were raised and nationalism grew.
Popular support for independence increased after Malaya was
reconquered by Allied forces. Post-war British plans to unite the
administration of Malaya under a single crown colony called the
Malayan Union " met with strong opposition from the Malays , who
opposed the weakening of the Malay rulers and the granting of
citizenship to the ethnic Chinese . The Malayan Union, established in
1946, and consisting of all the British possessions in the Malay
Peninsula with the exception of
Singapore , was quickly dissolved and
replaced on 1 February 1948 by the
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya , which
restored the autonomy of the rulers of the
Malay states under British
protection. During this time, mostly Chinese rebels under the
leadership of the
Malayan Communist Party
Malayan Communist Party launched guerrilla
operations designed to force the British out of Malaya. The Malayan
Emergency lasted from 1948 to 1960, and involved a long
anti-insurgency campaign by Commonwealth troops in Malaya. On 31
August 1957, Malaya became an independent member of the Commonwealth
of Nations. After this a plan was put in place to federate Malaya
with the crown colonies of North
Borneo (which joined as Sabah),
Sarawak, and Singapore. The date of federation was planned to be 31
August 1963 so as to coincide with the anniversary of Malayan
independence; however, federation was delayed until 16 September 1963
in order for a
United Nations survey of support for federation in
Sabah and Sarawak, called for by parties opposed to federation
Sukarno and the
Sarawak United Peoples\' Party
, to be completed.
Federation brought heightened tensions including a conflict with
Indonesia as well continuous conflicts against the Communists in
Borneo and the Malayan Peninsula which escalates to the Sarawak
Communist Insurgency and Second
Malayan Emergency together with
several other issues such as the cross border attacks into North
Borneo by Moro pirates from the southern islands of the Philippines,
Singapore being expelled from the
Federation in 1965, and racial
strife. This strife culminated in the 13 May race riots in 1969.
After the riots, the controversial New Economic Policy was launched by
Tun Abdul Razak
Tun Abdul Razak , trying to increase the share of the
economy held by the _bumiputera _. Under Prime Minister Mahathir
Mohamad there was a period of rapid economic growth and urbanisation
beginning in the 1980s. The economy shifted from being agriculturally
based to one based on manufacturing and industry. Numerous
mega-projects were completed, such as the
Petronas Towers , the
North–South Expressway , the Multimedia Super Corridor , and the new
federal administrative capital of
Putrajaya . However, in the late
1990s the Asian financial crisis almost caused the collapse of the
currency and the stock and property markets. Dataran Merdeka
in front of the Sultan Abdul Samad building became the site of
Malaysia Day on 16 September every year.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Politics of Malaysia
Politics of Malaysia and
Government of Malaysia
Government of Malaysia See
Censorship in Malaysia and
Human rights in Malaysia
Human rights in Malaysia The
Parliament of Malaysia
Parliament of Malaysia , the building that houses the members of the
Perdana Putra houses the office complex of the
Prime Minister of Malaysia
Prime Minister of Malaysia .
Malaysia is a federal constitutional elective monarchy , and the only
Southeast Asia . The system of government is closely
modelled on that of the Westminster parliamentary system, a legacy of
British colonial rule . The head of state is the Yang di-Pertuan
Agong , commonly referred to as the King. The King is elected to a
five-year term by and from among the nine hereditary rulers of the
Malay states ; the other four states, which have titular Governors ,
do not participate in the selection. By informal agreement the
position is systematically rotated among the nine, and has been held
Muhammad V of Kelantan
Muhammad V of Kelantan since December 2016. The King's role has
been largely ceremonial since changes to the constitution in 1994,
picking ministers and members of the upper house.
Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures.
The bicameral federal parliament consists of the lower house , the
House of Representatives and the upper house , the Senate . The
222-member House of Representatives is elected for a maximum term of
five years from single-member constituencies. All 70 senators sit for
three-year terms; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, and the
remaining 44 are appointed by the King upon the Prime Minister's
recommendation. The parliament follows a multi-party system and the
government is elected through a first-past-the-post system. Since
Malaysia has been governed by a 13-party coalition known
Barisan Nasional .
Each state has a unicameral
State Legislative Assembly whose members
are elected from single-member constituencies. State governments are
led by Chief Ministers , who are state assembly members from the
majority party in the assembly. In each of the states with a
hereditary ruler, the Chief Minister is normally required to be a
Malay , appointed by the ruler upon the recommendation of the Prime
Minister. Parliamentary elections are held at least once every five
years, the most recent of which took place in May 2013. Registered
voters of age 21 and above may vote for the members of the House of
Representatives and, in most of the states, for the state legislative
chamber. Voting is not mandatory. Except for state elections in
Sarawak, by convention state elections are held concurrently with the
Najib Razak , Prime Minister since 2009.
Executive power is vested in the Cabinet , led by the Prime Minister
. The prime minister must be a member of the house of representatives,
who in the opinion of the King, commands a majority in parliament. The
cabinet is chosen from members of both houses of Parliament. The
Prime Minister is both the head of cabinet and the head of government.
Najib Razak , appointed in 2009, is the sixth prime
Malaysia\'s legal system is based on English Common Law . Although
the judiciary is theoretically independent, its independence has been
called into question and the appointment of judges lacks
accountability and transparency. The highest court in the judicial
system is the Federal Court , followed by the Court of Appeal and two
high courts , one for
Peninsular Malaysia and one for East Malaysia.
Malaysia also has a special court to hear cases brought by or against
royalty. The death penalty is in use for serious crimes such as
murder , terrorism , drug trafficking , and kidnapping . Separate
from and running parallel to the civil courts are the Syariah Courts
, which apply
Shariah law to
Muslims in the areas of family law and
religious observances. Homosexuality is illegal in Malaysia.
Race is a significant force in politics, and many political parties
are ethnically based. Affirmative actions such as the New Economic
Policy and the
National Development Policy which superseded it, were
implemented to advance the standing of the _bumiputera_, consisting of
Malays and the indigenous tribes who are considered the original
inhabitants of Malaysia, over non-_bumiputera_ such as Malaysian
Chinese and Malaysian Indians. These policies provide preferential
treatment to _bumiputera_ in employment, education, scholarships,
business, and access to cheaper housing and assisted savings. However,
it has generated greater interethnic resentment. There is ongoing
debate over whether the laws and society of
Malaysia should reflect
secular or Islamic principles. Islamic criminal laws passed by the
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party with the support of UMNO state assemblymen
in the state legislative assembly of
Kelantan have been blocked by the
federal government on the basis that criminal laws are the
responsibility of the federal government.
States and federal territories of Malaysia
States and federal territories of Malaysia , Divisions
Malaysia , and
Districts of Malaysia
Districts of Malaysia _
Putrajaya West Malaysia
East Malaysia (Blue) States (Red) Federal Territories South China
Malacca _Gulf of Thailand_ _Sulu Sea_ _Celebes Sea_ _Brunei_
_Indonesia_ _Indonesia_ _Indonesia_ _Singapore_ _Thailand_
Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
These are divided between two regions, with 11 states and two federal
Peninsular Malaysia and the other two states and one
federal territory in
East Malaysia . Each state is divided into
districts , which are then divided into mukim . In
Sabah and Sarawak
districts are grouped into divisions.
Governance of the states is divided between the federal and the state
governments, with different powers reserved for each, and the Federal
government has direct administration of the federal territories.
Lower-level administration is carried out by local authorities, which
include city councils, district councils, and municipal councils,
although autonomous statutory bodies can be created by the federal and
state governments to deal with certain tasks. The federal
constitution puts local authorities outside of the federal territories
under the exclusive jurisdictions of the state government, although
in practice the federal government has intervened in the affairs of
state local governments. There are 144 local authorities, consisting
of 11 city councils, 33 municipal councils, and 97 district councils.
The 13 states are based on historical Malay kingdoms, and 9 of the 11
Peninsular states, known as the
Malay states , retain their royal
families. The King is elected by and from the nine rulers to serve a
five-year term. This King appoints governors serving a four-year term
for the states without monarchies, after consultations with the chief
minister of that state. Each state has a unicameral legislature known
State Legislative Assembly , and its own written constitution.
Sarawak have considerably more autonomy than the other
states, most notably having separate immigration policies and
controls, and a unique residency status. Federal intervention in
state affairs, lack of development, and disputes over oil royalties
have occasionally led to statements about secession from leaders in
several states such as
Sabah and Sarawak, although
these have not been followed up and no serious independence movements
Here are thirteen states and each state capital (in brackets):
Johor Darul Takzim (
Johor Bahru )
Kedah Darul Aman (
Alor Setar )
Kelantan Darul Naim (
Kota Bharu )
Melaka Bandaraya Bersejarah (
Melaka City )
Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus (
Pahang Darul Makmur (
Perak Darul Ridzuan (
Perlis Indera Kayangan (
Pulau Pinang Pulau Mutiara (George Town )
Sabah Di Bawah Bayu (
Kota Kinabalu )
Sarawak Bumi Kenyalang (
Selangor Darul Ehsan (
Shah Alam )
Terengganu Darul Iman (Kuala
* Federal Territory of
* Federal Territory of
* Federal Territory of
FOREIGN RELATIONS AND MILITARY
Foreign relations of Malaysia
Foreign relations of Malaysia and Malaysian Armed
Najib Razak with
Vladimir Putin .
A founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) and the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the
country participates in many international organisations such as the
United Nations , the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , the
Developing 8 Countries , and the
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). It has
chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. A former British
colony, it is also a member of the
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations . Kuala
Lumpur was the site of the first
East Asia Summit
East Asia Summit in 2005.
Malaysia's foreign policy is officially based on the principle of
neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries,
regardless of their political system. The government attaches a high
priority to the security and stability of
Southeast Asia , and seeks
to further develop relations with other countries in the region.
Historically the government has tried to portray
Malaysia as a
progressive Islamic nation while strengthening relations with other
Islamic states. A strong tenet of Malaysia's policy is national
sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic
Spratly Islands are disputed by many states in the area, and a
large portion of the
South China Sea
South China Sea is claimed by
China . Unlike its
Vietnam and the
avoided conflicts with China. However, after the enroachment of
Chinese ships in Malaysian territorial waters,
Malaysia has become
active in condemning China.
Malaysia in 2009 announced an
end to claims of each other's land, and committed to resolve issues
related to their maritime borders. The
Philippines has a dormant
claim to the eastern part of Sabah. Singapore's land reclamation has
caused tensions, and minor maritime and land border disputes exist
with Indonesia. Examples of the
Malaysian Armed Forces
Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry
assets. Clockwise from top right: Scorpène class submarine , PT-91M
MBT tank ,
Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4 , and Su-30MKM fighter
Malaysia has never recognised
Israel and has no diplomatic ties with
it, and has called for the
International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court to take
Israel over their
Gaza flotilla raid
Gaza flotilla raid .
stated it will only establish an official relations with
Israel once a
peace agreement with the
State of Palestine
State of Palestine been reached and called
for both parties to find a quick resolution. Malaysian peacekeeping
forces have contributed to many UN peacekeeping missions, such as in
Congo , Iran–
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina ,
East Timor and
Malaysian Armed Forces
Malaysian Armed Forces have three branches, the Royal Malaysian
Navy , the
Malaysian Army , and the
Royal Malaysian Air Force
Royal Malaysian Air Force . There
is no conscription, and the required age for voluntary military
service is 18. The military uses 1.5% of the country's GDP, and
employs 1.23% of Malaysia's manpower.
Five Power Defence Arrangements
Five Power Defence Arrangements is a regional security initiative
which has been in place for almost 40 years. It involves joint
military exercises held among Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New
Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Joint exercises and war games also
been held with Brunei, China,
Indonesia and the United States.
Vietnam have agreed to host joint
security force exercises to secure their maritime border and tackle
issues such as illegal immigration, piracy and smuggling .
Previously there are fears that extremist militants activities in the
Muslim areas of the southern
Philippines and southern
would spill over into Malaysia. Due to this,
Malaysia began to
increase its border security.
Geography of Malaysia
Geography of Malaysia
Malaysia is within the
equatorial region , where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent
all year round.
Malaysia is the 66th largest country by total land area , with a land
area of 329,613 km2 (127,264 sq mi). It has land borders with Thailand
in West Malaysia, and
Brunei in East Malaysia. It is
Singapore by a narrow causeway and a bridge. The country
also has maritime boundaries with
Vietnam and the Philippines. The
land borders are defined in large part by geological features such as
Perlis River , the
Golok River and the Pagalayan Canal, whilst
some of the maritime boundaries are the subject of ongoing contention.
Brunei forms what is almost an enclave in Malaysia, with the state
Sarawak dividing it into two parts.
Malaysia is the only country
with territory on both the Asian mainland and the Malay archipelago.
Tanjung Piai , located in the southern state of
Johor , is the
southernmost tip of continental Asia. The
Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca , lying
Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the most important
thoroughfares in global commerce, carrying 40 per cent of the world's
The two parts of Malaysia, separated from each other by the South
China Sea , share a largely similar landscape in that both Peninsular
East Malaysia feature coastal plains rising to hills and
mountains. Peninsular Malaysia, containing 40 per cent of Malaysia's
land area, extends 740 km (460 mi) from north to south, and its
maximum width is 322 km (200 mi). It is divided between its east and
west coasts by the
Titiwangsa Mountains , rising to a peak elevation
of 2,183 metres (7,162 ft) at
Mount Korbu , part of a series of
mountain ranges running down the centre of the peninsula. These
mountains are heavily forested, and mainly composed of granite and
other igneous rocks. Much of it has been eroded, creating a karst
landscape. The range is the origin of some of Peninsular Malaysia's
river systems. The coastal plains surrounding the peninsula reach a
maximum width of 50 kilometres (31 mi), and the peninsula's coastline
is nearly 1,931 km (1,200 mi) long, although harbours are only
available on the western side.
Mount Kinabalu , the highest
summit in the country.
East Malaysia, on the island of
Borneo , has a coastline of 2,607 km
(1,620 mi). It is divided between coastal regions, hills and valleys,
and a mountainous interior. The
Crocker Range extends northwards from
Sarawak, dividing the state of Sabah. It is the location of the 4,095
m (13,435 ft) high
Mount Kinabalu , the tallest mountain in
Mount Kinabalu is located in the
Kinabalu National Park ,
which is protected as one of the four UNESCO World Heritage Sites in
Malaysia . The highest mountain ranges form the border between
Malaysia and Indonesia.
Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves, the largest
cave system in the world, in the
Gunung Mulu National Park which is
also a World Heritage Site.
Around these two halves of
Malaysia are numerous islands , the
largest of which is Banggi . The local climate is equatorial and
characterised by the annual southwest (April to October) and northeast
(October to February) monsoons . The temperature is moderated by the
presence of the surrounding oceans. Humidity is usually high, and the
average annual rainfall is 250 cm (98 in). The climates of the
Peninsula and the East differ, as the climate on the peninsula is
directly affected by wind from the mainland, as opposed to the more
maritime weather of the East. Local climates can be divided into three
regions, highland, lowland, and coastal.
Climate change is likely to
affect sea levels and rainfall, increasing flood risks and leading to
Wildlife of Malaysia Native species in Malaysia,
clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills , hawksbill sea
turtle , proboscis monkey ,
Malayan tiger .
Malaysia signed the Rio
Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June
1993, and became a party to the convention on 24 June 1994. It has
subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
, which was received by the convention on 16 April 1998. The country
is megadiverse with a high number of species and high levels of
endemism . It is estimated to contain 20 per cent of the world's
animal species. High levels of endemism are found on the diverse
forests of Borneo's mountains, as species are isolated from each other
by lowland forest. There are about 210 mammal species in the country.
Over 620 species of birds have been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia,
with many endemic to the mountains there. A high number of endemic
bird species are also found in Malaysian Borneo. 250 reptile species
have been recorded in the country, with about 150 species of snakes
and 80 species of lizards. There are about 150 species of frogs, and
thousands of insect species. Malaysia's exclusive economic zone is
1.5 times larger than its land area, and some of its waters are in
Coral Triangle , a biodiversity hotspot. The waters around
Sipadan island are the most biodiverse in the world. Bordering East
Sulu Sea is a biodiversity hotspot, with around 600
coral species and 1200 fish species. The unique biodiversity of
Malaysian Caves always attracts lovers of ecotourism from all over the
Nearly 4,000 species of fungi, including lichen-forming species have
been recorded from Malaysia. Of the two fungal groups with the largest
number of species in Malaysia, the
Ascomycota and their asexual states
have been surveyed in some habitats (decaying wood, marine and
freshwater ecosystems, as parasites of some plants, and as agents of
biodegradation), but have not been or have been only poorly surveyed
in other habitats (as endobionts, in soils, on dung, as human and
animal pathogens); the
Basidiomycota are only partly surveyed: bracket
fungi , and mushrooms and toadstools have been studied, but Malaysian
rust and smut fungi remain very poorly known. Without doubt, many more
fungal species in
Malaysia have not yet been recorded, and it is
likely that many of those, when found, will be new to science. _
Some species of
Rafflesia _ can grow up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in
diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
About two thirds of
Malaysia was covered in forest as of 2007, with
some forests believed to be 130 million years old. The forests are
dominated by dipterocarps . Lowland forest covers areas below 760 m
(2,490 ft), and formerly
East Malaysia was covered in such rainforest
, which is supported by its hot wet climate. There are around 14,500
species of flowering plants and trees. Besides rainforests, there are
over 1,425 km2 (550 sq mi) of mangroves in Malaysia, and a large
amount of peat forest. At higher altitudes, oaks, chestnuts, and
rhododendrons replace dipterocarps. There are an estimated 8,500
species of vascular plants in Peninsular Malaysia, with another 15,000
in the East. The forests of
East Malaysia are estimated to be the
habitat of around 2,000 tree species, and are one of the most
biodiverse areas in the world, with 240 different species of trees
every hectare. These forests host many members of the Rafflesia
genus, the largest flowers in the world, with a maximum diameter of 1
m (3 ft 3 in).
Environmental issues in Malaysia
Logging , along with cultivation practices has devastated tree cover,
causing severe environmental degradation in the country. Over 80 per
cent of Sarawak's rainforest has been cleared. Floods in East
Malaysia have been worsened by the loss of trees, and over 60 per cent
of the Peninsular's forest have been cleared. With current rates of
deforestation, the forests are predicted to be extinct by 2020.
Deforestation is a major problem for animals, fungi and plants, as the
forest is cut to make room for plantations. Most remaining forest is
found inside national parks. Habitat destruction has proved a threat
for marine life. Illegal fishing is another major threat, with
fishing methods such as dynamite fishing and poisoning depleting
Leatherback turtle numbers have dropped 98 per
cent since the 1950s. Hunting has also been an issue for some
animals, with overconsumption and the use of animal parts for profit
endangering many animals, from marine life to tigers. Marine life is
also detrimentally affected by uncontrolled tourism.
The Malaysian government aims to balance economic growth with
environmental protection, but has been accused of favouring big
business over the environment. Some state governments are now trying
to counter the environmental impact and pollution created by
deforestation; and the federal government is trying to cut logging by
10 per cent each year. 28 national parks have been established; 23 in
East Malaysia and five in the Peninsular. Tourism has been limited in
biodiverse areas such as Sipadan island. Animal trafficking is a
large issue, and the Malaysian government is holding talks with the
Indonesia to standardise anti-trafficking
Economy of Malaysia
Economy of Malaysia The Proton company is a
Malaysian car manufacturer.
Malaysia is a relatively open state-oriented and newly industrialised
market economy . The state plays a significant but declining role in
guiding economic activity through macroeconomic plans.
had one of the best economic records in Asia, with GDP growing an
average 6.5 per cent annually from 1957 to 2005. Malaysia's economy
in 2014–2015 was one of the most competitive in Asia, ranking 6th in
Asia and 20th in the world, higher than countries like
South Korea . In 2014, Malaysia's economy grew 6%, the
second highest growth in ASEAN behind the Philippines' growth of 6.1%.
The economy of
Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) at
purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2014 was $746.821 billion, the third
largest in ASEAN behind more populous
Thailand and the
28th largest in the world .
In 1991, former Prime Minister of Malaysia,
Mahathir Mohamad outlined
his ideal in Vision 2020 , in which
Malaysia would become a
self-sufficient industrialised nation by 2020. It will need to
develop an endogeous capacity in innovation , however, to reach its
goal of becoming a high-income country by 2020.
Najib Razak has said
Malaysia could attain developed country status much earlier from the
actual target in 2020, adding the country has two program concept such
as Government Transformation Programme and the Economic Transformation
Programme . According to a
Malaysia will become the
world's 21st largest economy by 2050, with a GDP of $1.2 trillion
(Year 2000 dollars) and a GDP per capita of $29,247 (Year 2000
dollars). The report also says "The electronic equipment, petroleum,
and liquefied natural gas producer will see a substantial increase in
income per capita. Malaysian life expectancy, relatively high level of
schooling, and above average fertility rate will help in its rapid
expansion". Viktor Shvets, the managing director of
Credit Suisse ,
has said "
Malaysia has all the right ingredients to become a developed
Port Klang in Selangor, the biggest and busiest port in
In the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural-based economy
began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the
1980s, the industrial sector, with a high level of investment, has led
the country's growth. The economy recovered from the 1997 Asian
Financial Crisis earlier than neighbouring countries did, and has
since recovered to the levels of the pre-crisis era with a GDP per
capita of $14,800. Economic inequalities exist between different
ethnic groups. The Chinese make up about one-quarter of the
population, but accounts for 70 per cent of the country's market
capitalisation. Chinese businesses in
Malaysia are part of the larger
bamboo network , a network of overseas Chinese businesses in the
Southeast Asian market sharing common family and cultural ties.
International trade, facilitated by the shipping route in adjacent
Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca , and manufacturing are the key sectors. Malaysia
is an exporter of natural and agricultural resources, and petroleum is
a major export.
Malaysia has once been the largest producer of tin ,
rubber and palm oil in the world. Manufacturing has a large influence
in the country's economy, although Malaysia's economic structure has
been moving away from it.
Malaysia remains one of the world's largest
producers of palm oil. The
Petronas Towers house the
headquarters of the national oil company
Petronas and are the tallest
twin-towers in the world.
In an effort to diversify the economy and make it less dependent on
export goods, the government has pushed to increase tourism to
Malaysia . As a result, tourism has become Malaysia's third largest
source of foreign exchange, although it is threatened by the negative
effects of the growing industrial economy, with large amounts of air
and water pollution along with deforestation affecting tourism. The
tourism sector came under some pressure in 2014 when the national
Malaysia Airlines had one of its planes disappear in March,
while another was brought down by a missile over Ukraine in July,
resulting in the loss of a total 537 passengers and crew. The state of
the airline, which had been unprofitable for 3 years, prompted the
government in August 2014 to nationalise the airline by buying up the
30 per cent it did not already own. Between 2013 and 2014, Malaysia
has been listed as one of the best places to retire to in the world,
with the country in third position on the Global Retirement Index.
This in part was the result of the
Malaysia My Second Home programme
to allow foreigners to live in the country on a long-stay visa for up
to 10 years. In 2015,
Malaysia ranked in fourth position on The
World's Best Retirement Havens while getting in the first place as the
best place in
Asia to retire. Warm climate with British colonial
background made foreigners easy to interact with the locals.
The country has developed into a centre of
Islamic banking , and is
the country with the highest numbers of female workers in that
industry. Knowledge-based services are also expanding. To create a
self-reliant defensive ability and support national development,
Malaysia privatised some of its military facilities in the 1970s. The
privatisation has created defence industry, which in 1999 was brought
Malaysia Defence Industry Council . The government continues
to promote this sector and its competitiveness, actively marketing the
defence industry. Science policies in
Malaysia are regulated by the
Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation. The country is one of
the world's largest exporters of semiconductor devices, electrical
devices, and IT and communication products.
Malaysia began developing
its own space programme in 2002, and in 2006,
Russia agreed to
transport one Malaysian to the
International Space Station
International Space Station as part of
a multibillion-dollar purchase of 18 Russian
Sukhoi Su-30MKM fighter
jets by the
Royal Malaysian Air Force
Royal Malaysian Air Force . The government has invested
in building satellites in through the
The overall infrastructure of
Malaysia is one of the most developed
Asia and ranked 8th in
Asia and 25th in the world.
ranked 19th in the world for its quality roads, quality of port
infrastructure and quality of air transport infrastructure but ranked
39th in quality of electricity supply. Its telecommunications network
is second only to Singapore's in Southeast Asia, with 4.7 million
fixed-line subscribers and more than 30 million cellular subscribers.
The country has seven international ports, the major one being the
Port Klang . There are 200 industrial parks along with specialised
parks such as
Technology Park Malaysia and Kulim Hi-Tech Park . Fresh
water is available to over 95 per cent of the population. During the
colonial period, development was mainly concentrated in economically
powerful cities and in areas forming security concerns. Although rural
areas have been the focus of great development, they still lag behind
areas such as the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The
telecommunication network, although strong in urban areas, is less
available to the rural population.
Energy policy of Malaysia
Energy policy of Malaysia and List of power stations
Malaysia's energy infrastructure sector is largely dominated by
Tenaga Nasional , the largest electric utility company in Southeast
Asia , with over RM99.03 billion of assets. Customers are connected to
electricity through the National Grid , with more than 420
transmission substations in the Peninsular linked together by
approximately 11,000 km of transmission lines operating at 132, 275
and 500 kilovolts . In 2013, Malaysia's total power generation
capacity was over 29,728 megawatts . Total electricity generation was
GWh and total electricity consumption was 116,087.51
Energy production in
Malaysia is largely based on oil and natural gas,
owing to Malaysia's oil reserves and natural gas reserves, which is
the fourth largest in
Transport in Malaysia
Transport in Malaysia ,
Rail transport in Malaysia ,
List of airports in Malaysia Transportation in
Malaysia. Clockwise from top: North–South Expressway , KTM ETS Class
91 (left) and KTM Komuter Class 92 (right) and the Kuala Lumpur
International Airport .
Malaysia's road network is one of the most comprehensive in
covers a total of 144,403 kilometres (89,728 mi). The main national
road network is the
Malaysian Federal Roads System
Malaysian Federal Roads System , which span over
49,935 km (31,028 mi). Most of the federal roads in
2-lane roads. In town areas, federal roads may become 4-lane roads to
increase traffic capacity. Nearly all federal roads are paved with
tarmac except parts of the
Skudai–Pontian Highway which is paved
with concrete , while parts of the Federal Highway linking Klang to
Kuala Lumpur, is paved with asphalt .
Malaysia has over 1,798
kilometres (1,117 mi) of highways and the longest highway, the
North–South Expressway , extends over 800 kilometres (497 mi) on the
West Coast of
Peninsular Malaysia , connecting major urban centres
Kuala Lumpur ,
Johor Bahru . In 2015, the government
announced a RM27 billion (US$8.23 billion) Pan-
Borneo Highway project
to upgrade all trunk roads to dual carriage expressways , bringing the
standard of East Malaysian highways to the same level of quality of
There is currently 1,833 kilometres (1,139 mi) of railways in
Malaysia, 767 km (477 mi) are double tracked and electrified . Rail
Malaysia comprises heavy rail (KTM ), light rapid transit
and monorail (
Rapid Rail ), and a funicular railway line (
Heavy rail is mostly used for intercity passenger and
freight transport as well as some urban public transport, while LRTs
are used for intra-city urban public transport. There two commuter
rail services linking
Kuala Lumpur with the
Kuala Lumpur International
Airport . The sole monorail line in the country is also used for
public transport in
Kuala Lumpur , while the only funicular railway
line is in
Penang . A rapid transit project, the
KVMRT , is currently
under construction to improve
Kuala Lumpur 's public transport system.
The railway network covers most of the 11 states in Peninsular
Malaysia . In East Malaysia, only the state of
Sabah has railways. The
network is also connected to the Thai railway 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8
in) network in the north. If the
Burma Railway is rebuilt, services to
Myanmar, India, and
China could be initiated.
Malaysia has 118 airports, of which 38 are paved. The national
Malaysia Airlines , providing international and domestic
air services. Major international routes and domestic routes crossing
West Malaysia and
East Malaysia are served by Malaysia
Malindo Air while smaller domestic routes are
supplemented by smaller airlines like
MASwings , Firefly and Berjaya
Air . Major cargo airlines include
MASkargo and Transmile Air Services
Kuala Lumpur International Airport is the main and busiest airport
of Malaysia. In 2014, it was the world's 13th busiest airport by
international passenger traffic , recording over 25.4 million
international passenger traffic. It was also the world's 20th busiest
airport by passenger traffic , recording over 48.9 million passengers.
Other major airports include
Kota Kinabalu International Airport ,
which is also Malaysia's second busiest airport and busiest airport in
East Malaysia with over 6.9 million passengers in 2013, and Penang
International Airport , which serves Malaysia's second largest urban
area, with over 5.4 million passengers in 2013.
Malaysia is strategically located on the
Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca , one of
the most important shipping lanes in the world.
Malaysia has two ports
that are listed in the top 20 busiest ports in the world, Port Klang
Port of Tanjung Pelepas , which are respectively the 2nd and 3rd
busiest ports in
Southeast Asia after the Port of
Singapore . Port
Klang is Malaysia's busiest port, and the 13th busiest port in the
world in 2013, handling over 10.3 million TEUs . Port of Tanjung
Pelepas is Malaysia's second busiest port, and the 19th busiest port
in the world in 2013, handling over 7.6 million TEUs.
Demographics of Malaysia
Demographics of Malaysia The percentage
distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010
According to the Malaysian _Department of Statistics_, the country's
population was 28,334,135 in 2010, making it the 42nd most populated
country . According to a 2012 estimate, the population is increasing
by 1.54 percent per year.
Malaysia has an average population density
of 96 people per km², ranking it 116th in the world for population
density. People within the 15–64 age group constitute 69.5 percent
of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 24.5
percent; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 6.0
percent. In 1960, when the first official census was recorded in
Malaysia, the population was 8.11 million. 91.8 per cent of the
population are Malaysian citizens. Malaysian citizens are divided
along ethnic lines, with 67.4 per cent considered _bumiputera _ The
largest group of _bumiputera_ are Malays , who are defined in the
Muslims who practice Malay customs and culture. They
play a dominant role politically. _Bumiputera_ status is also
accorded to certain non-Malay indigenous peoples , including ethnic
Thais , Khmers , Chams and the natives of
Sabah and Sarawak. Non-Malay
_bumiputera_ make up more than half of Sarawak's population and over
two thirds of Sabah's population. There also exist aboriginal groups
in much smaller numbers on the peninsula, where they are collectively
known as the
Orang Asli . Laws over who gets _bumiputera_ status vary
Other minorities lack _bumiputera_ status. 24.6 per cent of the
population are of Chinese descent , while those of Indian descent
comprise 7.3 per cent of the population. The Chinese have
historically been dominant in the business and commerce community, and
form a plurality of the population of
Penang . Immigrants from India,
the majority of them Tamils , began arriving in
Malaysia early in the
Malaysian citizenship is not automatically granted to
those born in Malaysia, but is granted to a child born of two
Malaysian parents outside Malaysia. Dual citizenship is not permitted.
Citizenship in the states of
Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo
are distinct from citizenship in
Peninsular Malaysia for immigration
purposes. Every citizen is issued a biometric smart chip identity card
known as _
MyKad _ at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all
times. Population density (person per km2) in 2010.
The education system features a non-compulsory kindergarten education
followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years
of optional secondary education. Schools in the primary education
system are divided into two categories: national primary schools,
which teach in Malay, and vernacular schools, which teach in Chinese
or Tamil. Secondary education is conducted for five years. In the
final year of secondary education, students sit for the Malaysian
Certificate of Education examination . Since the introduction of the
matriculation programme in 1999, students who completed the 12-month
programme in matriculation colleges can enroll in local universities.
However, in the matriculation system, only 10 per cent of places are
open to non-_bumiputera_ students.
Putra Mosque in
The infant mortality rate in 2009 was 6 deaths per 1000 births, and
life expectancy at birth in 2009 was 75 years. With the aim of
Malaysia into a medical tourism destination, 5 per cent of
the government social sector development budget is spent on health
care . The population in concentrated on
Peninsular Malaysia where
20 million of approximately 28 million
Malaysians live. 70 per cent
of the population is urban.
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the
largest city in Malaysia, as well as its main commercial and
Putrajaya , a purpose-built city constructed from
1999, is the seat of government, as many executive and judicial
branches of the federal government were moved there to ease growing
congestion within Kuala Lumpur. Due to the rise in labour-intensive
industries, the country is estimated to have over 3 million migrant
workers; about 10 per cent of the population. Sabah-based NGOs
estimate that out of the 3 million that make up the population of
Sabah, 2 million are illegal immigrants.
Malaysia hosts a population
of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 171,500. Of
this population, approximately 79,000 are from Burma, 72,400 from the
Philippines, and 17,700 from Indonesia. Malaysian officials are
reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in
Malaysia employs RELA , a volunteer militia with a history
of controversies, to enforce its immigration law.
LARGEST CITIES OF MALAYSIA (2010)
Religion in Malaysia
Religion in Malaysia The percentage distribution
of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census.
The constitution grants freedom of religion and makes
officially secular state, while establishing Islam as the "religion of
the Federation". According to the Population and Housing Census 2010
figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly.
Approximately 61.3% of the population practice Islam , 19.8% practice
Buddhism , 9.2% Christianity , 6.3%
Hinduism and 1.3% practice
Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions . 0.7%
declared no religion and the remaining 1.4% practised other religions
or did not provide any information.
Sunni Islam of Shafi\'i school of
jurisprudence is the dominant branch of
Islam in Malaysia
Islam in Malaysia , while
18% are nondenominational
The Malaysian constitution strictly defines what makes a "Malay",
considering Malays those who are Muslim, speak Malay regularly,
practise Malay customs, and lived in or have ancestors from
Singapore . Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate
that 83.6% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhist, with
significant numbers of adherents following
Taoism (3.4%) and
Christianity (11.1%), along with small Hui-
Muslim populations in areas
like Penang. The majority of the Indian population follow Hinduism
(86.2%), with a significant minority identifying as Christians (6.0%)
Muslims (4.1%). Christianity is the predominant religion of the
non-Malay _bumiputera_ community (46.5%) with an additional 40.4%
identifying as Muslims.
Muslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Syariah courts in
matters concerning their religion. The Islamic judges are expected to
Shafi'i legal school of Islam, which is the main _madh\'hab
_ of Malaysia. The jurisdiction of Syariah courts is limited to
Muslims in matters such as marriage , inheritance , divorce , apostasy
, religious conversion , and custody among others. No other criminal
or civil offences are under the jurisdiction of the Shariah courts,
which have a similar hierarchy to the Civil Courts . Despite being the
supreme courts of the land, the Civil Courts do not hear matters
related to Islamic practices.
Languages of Malaysia
Languages of Malaysia The distribution of
language families of
Malaysia shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge) Malayic Bornean Aslian Land Dayak
Sama–Bajaw Philippine Creole Areas with multiple
The official and national language of
Malaysia is Malaysian , a
standardised form of the
Malay language . The terminology as per
government policy is _Bahasa Malaysia_ (literally "Malaysian
language") but legislation continues to refer to the official
language as _Bahasa Melayu_ (literally "Malay language"). The
National Language Act 1967 specifies the Latin (Rumi) script as the
official script of the national language, but does not prohibit the
use of the traditional Jawi script .
English remains an active second language , with its use allowed for
some official purposes under the National Language Act of 1967. In
Sarawak , English is an official state language alongside Malaysian.
Historically, English was the de facto administrative language, with
Malay becoming predominant after the 1969 race riots. Malaysian
English , also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of
English derived from
British English .
Malaysian English is widely
used in business, along with
Manglish , which is a colloquial form of
English with heavy Malay , Chinese, and Tamil influences. The
government discourages the use of non-standard Malay but has no power
to issue compounds or fines to those who use improper Malay on their
Many other languages are used in Malaysia, which contains speakers of
137 living languages.
Peninsular Malaysia contains speakers of 41 of
these languages. The native tribes of
East Malaysia have their own
languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from,
Malay. Iban is the main tribal language in
Sarawak while Dusunic and
Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. Chinese
Malaysians predominantly speak Chinese dialects from the southern
provinces of China. The more common Chinese varieties in the country
Cantonese , Mandarin ,
Hokkien , Hakka ,
Hainanese , and Fuzhou .
Tamil is used predominantly by Tamils, who form a majority of
Malaysian Indians. Other South Asian languages are also widely spoken
in Malaysia, as well as Thai . A small number of
Caucasian ancestry and speak creole languages , such as the
Portuguese-based Malaccan Creoles , and the Spanish-based Chavacano
Culture of Malaysia
Culture of Malaysia _ A cook making murtabak _, a
type of pancake mixed with eggs, small pieces of meat and onions, in
Malaysia has a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society.
The original culture of the area stemmed from indigenous tribes that
inhabited it, along with the Malays who later moved there. Substantial
influence exists from Chinese and Indian culture, dating back to when
foreign trade began. Other cultural influences include the Persian ,
Arabic , and British cultures. Due to the structure of the government,
coupled with the social contract theory, there has been minimal
cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities.
In 1971, the government created a "National Cultural Policy",
defining Malaysian culture. It stated that Malaysian culture must be
based on the culture of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia, that it
may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that Islam
must play a part in it. It also promoted the
Malay language above
others. This government intervention into culture has caused
resentment among non-Malays who feel their cultural freedom was
lessened. Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted
memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an
undemocratic culture policy.
Some cultural disputes exist between
Malaysia and neighbouring
countries, notably Indonesia. The two countries have a similar
cultural heritage, sharing many traditions and items. However,
disputes have arisen over things ranging from culinary dishes to
Malaysia's national anthem. Strong feelings exist in
protecting their national heritage. The Malaysian government and the
Indonesian government have met to defuse some of the tensions
resulting from the overlaps in culture. Feelings are not as strong in
Malaysia, where most recognise that many cultural values are shared.
Music of Malaysia
Music of Malaysia and
Malaysian literature _ A
craftsman making batik _. Malaysian _batik_ is usually patterned with
floral motifs with light colouring.
Traditional Malaysian art was mainly centred on the areas of carving,
weaving, and silversmithing. Traditional art ranges from handwoven
baskets from rural areas to the silverwork of the Malay courts. Common
artworks included ornamental kris , beetle nut sets, and woven batik
and songket fabrics. Indigenous East
Malaysians are known for their
wooden masks. Each ethnic group have distinct performing arts, with
little overlap between them. However, Malay art does show some North
Indian influence due to the historical influence of India.
Traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated
Pattani region with influences from
India , China,
Thailand and Indonesia. The music is based around percussion
instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There
are at least 14 types of traditional drums. Drums and other
traditional percussion instruments and are often made from natural
materials. Music is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating
life-cycle events, and occasions such as a harvest. It was once used
as a form of long-distance communication. In East Malaysia, gong
-based musical ensembles such as agung and kulintang are commonly used
in ceremonies such as funerals and weddings. These ensembles are also
common in neighbouring regions such as in
Mindanao in the Philippines,
Kalimantan in Indonesia, and Brunei. _
Wau bulan _, originated
Kelantan , is one of Malaysia's fine arts.
Malaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before
the arrival of writing, and continues today. Each of the Malay
Sultanates created their own literary tradition, influenced by
pre-existing oral stories and by the stories that came with Islam.
The first Malay literature was in the Arabic script. The earliest
known Malay writing is on the
Terengganu stone , made in 1303.
Chinese and Indian literature became common as the numbers of speakers
increased in Malaysia, and locally produced works based in languages
from those areas began to be produced in the 19th century. English
has also become a common literary language. In 1971, the government
took the step of defining the literature of different languages.
Literature written in Malay was called "the national literature of
Malaysia", literature in other _bumiputera_ languages was called
"regional literature", while literature in other languages was called
"sectional literature". Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses
many forms. The _Hikayat_ form is popular, and the _pantun_ has spread
from Malay to other languages.
Malaysian cuisine _
Teh tarik _. _ Nasi
lemak _. The national drink and national dish of the country.
Malaysia's cuisine reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its
population. Many cultures from within the country and from
surrounding regions have greatly influenced the cuisine. Much of the
influence comes from the Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and
Sumatran cultures, largely due to the country being part of the
ancient spice route . The cuisine is very similar to that of
Singapore and Brunei, and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine.
The different states have varied dishes, and often the food in
Malaysia is different from the original dishes.
Sometimes food not found in its original culture is assimilated into
another; for example, Chinese restaurants in
Malaysia often serve
Malay dishes. Food from one culture is sometimes also cooked using
styles taken from another culture, For example, _sambal belacan_
(shrimp paste ) are commonly used as ingredients by Chinese
restaurants to create the stir fried water spinach (_kangkung
belacan_). This means that although much of Malaysian food can be
traced back to a certain culture, they have their own identity. Rice
is popular in many dishes. Chili is commonly found in local cuisine,
although this does not necessarily make them spicy.
Media of Malaysia
Malaysia's main newspapers are owned by the government and political
parties in the ruling coalition, although some major opposition
parties also have their own, which are openly sold alongside regular
newspapers. A divide exists between the media in the two halves of the
country. Peninsular-based media gives low priority to news from the
East, and often treats the eastern states as colonies of the
Peninsula. The media have been blamed for increasing tension between
Indonesia and Malaysia, and giving
Malaysians a bad image of
Indonesians. The country has Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press is limited, with numerous restrictions on
publishing rights and information dissemination. The government has
previously tried to crack down on opposition papers before elections.
In 2007, a government agency issued a directive to all private
television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches
made by opposition leaders, a move condemned by politicians from the
Democratic Action Party
Democratic Action Party . Sabah, where all tabloids but
one are independent of government control, has the freest press in
Malaysia. Laws such as the
Printing Presses and Publications Act have
also been cited as curtailing freedom of expression.
HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS
Public holidays in Malaysia
Public holidays in Malaysia Southeast Asia's
Buddhist temple —
Kek Lok Si
Kek Lok Si in
Penang —illuminated in
preparation for the Lunar New Year .
Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout
the year. Some are federally gazetted public holidays and some are
observed by individual states. Other festivals are observed by
particular ethnic or religion groups, and the main holiday of each
major group has been declared a public holiday. The most observed
national holiday is _
Hari Merdeka _ (
Independence Day) on 31 August,
commemorating the independence of the
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya in 1957.
Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963. Other
notable national holidays are
Labour Day (1 May) and the King's
birthday (first week of June).
Muslim holidays are prominent as Islam is the state religion; _Hari
Raya Puasa_ (also called _Hari Raya Aidilfitri_, Malay for Eid al-Fitr
), _Hari Raya Haji_ (also called _Hari Raya Aidiladha_, Malay for Eid
ul-Adha ), _Maulidur Rasul _ (birthday of the Prophet), and others
Malaysian Chinese celebrate festivals such as Chinese
New Year and others relating to traditional Chinese beliefs. Hindus in
Malaysia celebrate _
Deepavali _, the festival of lights, while
Thaipusam _ is a religious rite which sees pilgrims from all over the
country converge at the
Batu Caves . Malaysia's Christian community
celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most
notably Christmas and Easter. East
Malaysians also celebrate a harvest
festival known as _Gawai _, and another one known as _
Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or
religious group, celebrations are universal. In a custom known as
Malaysians participate in the celebrations of others,
often visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival.
Sport in Malaysia
Sport in Malaysia Logo of the XVI Commonwealth
Games held in
Kuala Lumpur in 1998 Traditional sports such as
the martial art style
Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Popular sports in
Malaysia include association football , badminton ,
field hockey , bowls , tennis , squash , martial arts , horse riding ,
sailing , and skate boarding . Football is the most popular sport in
Malaysia and the country is currently studying the possibility of
bidding as a joint host for 2034
FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup .
attract thousands of spectators, and since 1948
Malaysia has been one
of four countries to hold the
Thomas Cup , the world team championship
trophy of men's badminton. The Malaysian Lawn
registered in 1997. Squash was brought to the country by members of
the British army, with the first competition being held in 1939. The
Squash Racquets Association Of Malaysia was created on 25 June 1972.
Malaysia has proposed a Southeast Asian football league. The men's
national field hockey team ranked 13th in the world as of December
2015. The 3rd
Hockey World Cup
Hockey World Cup was hosted at
Merdeka Stadium in Kuala
Lumpur, as well as the 10th cup. The country also has its own Formula
Sepang International Circuit
Sepang International Circuit . It runs for 310.408
kilometres (192.88 mi), and held its first Grand Prix in 1999.
Traditional sports include
Silat Melayu , the most common style of
martial arts practised by ethnic Malays in Malaysia, Brunei, and
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya Olympic Council was formed in 1953, and
received recognition by the IOC in 1954. It first participated in the
1956 Melbourne Olympic Games . The council was renamed the Olympic
Malaysia in 1964, and has participated in all but one
Olympic games since its inception. The largest number of athletes ever
sent to the Olympics was 57 to the
1972 Munich Olympic Games .
Malaysian athletes have won a total of six Olympic medals, five in
Badminton, one in Platform diving. The country has competed at the
Commonwealth Games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia, and the
games were hosted in
Kuala Lumpur in 1998. The most common martial
arts are _
Silat Melayu _ and kickboxing or _tomoi _.
Environment of Malaysia
Index of Malaysia-related articles
International rankings of Malaysia
Malay units of measurement
Outline of Malaysia
* ^ "Malaysian Flag and Coat of Arms". Malaysian Government.
Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 9 September
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ "Malaysia". CIA.
Retrieved 27 March 2014.
* ^ Mackay, Derek (2005). _Eastern Customs: The Customs Service in
British Malaya and the Opium Trade_. The Radcliffe Press. pp. 240–.
ISBN 978-1-85043-844-1 .
* ^ "
Malaysia Population Clock". Department of Statistics,
Malaysia. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 16
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Population Distribution and Basic
Demographic Characteristics" (PDF). Department of Statistics,
Malaysia. p. 82. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2014.
Retrieved 4 October 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Malaysia". International Monetary Fund.
Retrieved 16 October 2014.
* ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
* ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
* ^ Baten, Jörg (2016). _A History of the Global Economy. From
1500 to the Present_. Cambridge University Press. p. 290. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_
* ^ Room, Adrian (2004). _Placenames of the World: Origins and
Meanings of the Names for Over 5000 Natural Features, Countries,
Capitals, Territories, Cities and Historic Sites_. McFarland &
Company. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-7864-1814-5 .
* ^ Weightman, Barbara A. (2011). _Dragons and Tigers: A Geography
of South, East, and Southeast Asia_. John Wiley and Sons. p. 449. ISBN
* ^ Tiwary, Shanker Shiv (2009). _Encyclopaedia Of Southeast Asia
And Its Tribes (Set Of 3 Vols.)_. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 37.
ISBN 978-81-261-3837-1 .
* ^ Singh, Kumar Suresh (2003). _People of India_. 26.
Anthropological Survey of India. p. 981. ISBN 978-81-85938-98-1 .
* ^ Pande, Govind Chandra (2005). _India's Interaction with
Southeast Asia: History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian
Civilization, Vol. 1, Part 3_. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 266. ISBN
* ^ Gopal, Lallanji (2000). _The economic life of northern India:
c. A.D. 700–1200_. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 139. ISBN
* ^ Ahir, D. C. (1995). _A Panorama of Indian Buddhism: Selections
from the Maha Bodhi journal, 1892–1992_. Sri Satguru Publications.
p. 612. ISBN 81-7030-462-8 .
* ^ Mukerjee, Radhakamal (1984). _The culture and art of India_.
Coronet Books Inc. p. 212. ISBN 978-81-215-0114-9 .
* ^ Sarkar, Himansu Bhusan (1970). _Some contributions of
the ancient civilisation of
Indonesia and Malaysia_. Punthi Pustak. p.
* ^ Abdul Rashid, Melebek; Amat Juhari, Moain (2006), _Sejarah
Bahasa Melayu ("History of the Malay Language")_, Utusan Publications
& Distributors, pp. 9–10, ISBN 967-61-1809-5
* ^ Milner, Anthony (2010), _The Malays (The Peoples of South-East
Asia and the Pacific)_, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 18–19, ISBN
* ^ Eliot, Joshua; Bickersteth, Jane (2000). _
Footprint Handbooks. p. 262. ISBN 1-900949-59-8 .
* ^ Mohamed Anwar Omar Din (2012). "Legitimacy of the Malays as the
Sons of the Soil". Canadian Center of Science and Education. pp.
80–81. ISSN 1911-2025 .
* ^ Reid, Anthony (2010). _Imperial alchemy : nationalism and
political identity in Southeast Asia_. Cambridge University Press. p.
95. ISBN 978-0-521-87237-9 .
* ^ Bernasconi, Robert; Lott, Tommy Lee (2000). _The Idea of Race_.
Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-87220-458-8 .
* ^ Painter, Nell Irvin (7–8 November 2003). "Collective
Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race" (PDF). _Proceedings
of the Fifth Annual Gilder Lehrman Center International Conference at
Yale University_. New Haven, Connecticut:
Yale University . p. 18.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 13 May
* ^ d'Urville, J. S. B. C. S. D.; Ollivier, I.; De Biran, A.;
Clark, G. (2003). "On the Islands of the Great Ocean". _The Journal of
Pacific History_. 38 (2): 163. doi :10.1080/0022334032000120512 .
* ^ Earl, George S. W. (1850). "On The Leading Characteristics of
the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations". _Journal of the
Indian Archipelago and Eastern
Asia (JIAEA)_. IV: 119.
* ^ "Malay".
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Suarez, Thomas (1999). _Early Mapping of Southeast
Asia_. Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. pp. 46–47. ISBN 962-593-470-7 .
* ^ "
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence Act 1957 (c. 60)e". The UK
Statute Law Database. 31 July 1957. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Spaeth, Anthony (9 December 1996). "Bound for
Glory". _Time_. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved
20 August 2011.
* ^ Sakai, Minako (2009). "Reviving Malay Connections in Southeast
Asia". In Cao, Elizabeth; Morrell. _Regional Minorities and
Development in Asia_ (PDF). Routledge. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-415-55130-4
. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2014.
* ^ Holme, Stephanie (13 February 2012). "Getaway to romance in
Malaysia". stuff.co.nz . Retrieved 6 January 2014.
* ^ Fix, Alan G. (June 1995). "Malayan Paleosociology: Implications
for Patterns of Genetic Variation among the Orang Asli". _American
Anthropologist, New Series_. 97 (2): 313–323.
JSTOR 681964 . doi
* ^ Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tryon, Darrell T; Wurm, Stephen A (1996).
_Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific,
Asia and the Americas_. Walter de Gruyer & Co. p. 695. ISBN
* ^ Suporno, S. (1979). "The Image of
Majapahit in late Javanese
and Indonesian Writing". In A. Reid; D. Marr. _Perceptions of the
Southeast Asia publications. 4. Singapore: Heinemann Books for
the Asian Studies Association of Australia. p. 180.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_
United States State Department. 14 July 2010.
Retrieved 14 September 2010.
* ^ Luscombe, Stephen. "The Map Room: South East Asia: Malaya".
Retrieved 18 September 2010.
* ^ "The
Encyclopædia Britannica : a dictionary of arts, sciences,
literature and general information". _Encyclopædia Britannica_.
Retrieved 17 October 2010.
* ^ Kuar, Amarjit. "International Migration and Governance in
Malaysia: Policy and Performance" (PDF). University of New England.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2010. Retrieved 20 December
* ^ Gullick, J. M. (1967). _
Malaysia and Its Neighbours, The World
studies series_. Taylor & Francis. pp. 148–149. ISBN
* ^ Luscombe, Stephen. "The Map Room: South East Asia: North
Borneo". Retrieved 1 July 2011.
* ^ Hock, David Koh Wee (2007). _Legacies of World War II in South
and East Asia_. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. p.
48. ISBN 978-981-230-457-5 .
* ^ Mohamad, Mahathir (31 May 1999). "Our Region, Ourselves".
_Time_. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
* ^ "MALAYA: Token Citizenship". _Time_. 19 May 1952. Retrieved 26
* ^ "The Malayan Emergency: 1948–1960". Australian Government
Department of Veteran Affairs. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
* ^ "1957: Malaya celebrates independence". BBC News. Retrieved 9
* ^ "Malaysia: Tunku Yes,
Sukarno No". _Time_. 6 September 1963.
Retrieved 17 October 2010.
* ^ Boon Kheng Cheah (2002). _Malaysia: The Making of a Nation_.
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 93–. ISBN
* ^ "Proclamation on Singapore".
Retrieved 27 October 2010.
* ^ "Malaysia: The Art of Dispelling Anxiety". _Time_. 27 August
1965. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
* ^ "Race War in Malaysia". _Time_. 23 May 1969. Retrieved 26
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sundaram, Jomo Kwame (1 September 2004). "The New
Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia". UNRISD.
Retrieved 27 October 2010.
* ^ Ping, Lee Poh; Yean, Tham Siew. "
Malaysia Ten Years After The
Asian Financial Crisis" (PDF). Thammasat University. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Federation of International
Trade Associations. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
* ^ "Senarai Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong". Laman Web
Rasmi. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "
Malaysia country brief". Australian Government
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. February 2014. Retrieved 22
* ^ "Background". Parlimen Malaysia. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 25 July
* ^ John W. Langford; K. Lorne Brownsey (1988). _The Changing Shape
of Government in the
Asia-Pacific Region_. IRPP. pp. 101–. ISBN
* ^ _The management of secondary cities in southeast Asia_. United
Nations Centre for Human Settlements. 1996. p. 120. ISBN 92-1-131313-9
* ^ "
Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat)". Inter-Parliamentary Union. 29
* ^ "About Najib Razak". 1Malaysia. Archived from the original on
18 July 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
* ^ "Attacks on Justice – Malaysia" (PDF). International
Commission of Jurists. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December
2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
* ^ "Malaysian criminal court system". Association of Commonwealth
Criminal Lawyers. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved
15 December 2010.
* ^ "Laws of
Malaysia " (PDF). Attorney General's Chamber. 1
January 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
* ^ "The Death Penalty in Malaysia" (PDF). Government of the United
Kingdom . Retrieved 15 October 2013.
* ^ England, Vaudine (9 July 2010). "Malaysian groups welcome first
Islamic women judges". BBC News. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
* ^ "
Malaysia rejects Christian appeal". BBC News. 30 May 2007.
Retrieved 27 September 2010.
* ^ "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished
by death". _The Washington Post_. June 16, 2016.
* ^ "Dasar Ekonomi Baru". Pusat Maklumat Rakyat. 14 November 2008.
Retrieved 21 November 2010.
* ^ Sundaram, Jomo Kwame (1 September 2004). "The New Economic
Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia".
United Nations Research
Institute for Social Development. ISSN 1020-8194 . Retrieved 22 August
* ^ Perlez, Jane (24 August 2006). "Once Muslim, Now Christian and
Caught in the Courts". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
* ^ "Malaysian state passes Islamic law". BBC News. 8 July 2002.
Retrieved 27 November 2011.
* ^ "\'Kelantan\'s passing of hudud amendments void\'". The Star.
23 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
* ^ "BN won\'t declare hudud support, but individual members can,
chief whip says". The Malay Mail. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April
* ^ "Understanding the
Federation of Malaysia". The Star. 2
November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
* ^ "
Malaysia Districts". Statoids. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
* ^ "Federal Territories and State Governments". Malaysian
government. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved
15 October 2013.
* ^ "Malaysia\'s government procurement regime" (PDF). Ministry of
Finance Malaysia. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
* ^ "Introduction to local government in Malaysia" (PDF).
Universiti Teknologi Mara. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
* ^ Nooi, Phang Siew (May 2008). "Decentralisation or
recentralisation? Trends in local government in Malaysia".
Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
* ^ "Country profile:Malaysia" (PDF). Commonwealth Local Government
Forum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2014. Retrieved
19 February 2014.
* ^ Hai, Lim Hong. "Electoral Politics in Malaysia: \'Managing\'
Elections in a Plural Society" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2014.
* ^ Hannum, Hurst (1993). _Basic Documents on Autonomy and Minority
Rights_. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 342–. ISBN 0-7923-1977-X .
* ^ Lockard, Craig A. (March 2000). "
Sabah and Sarawak: The
Politics of Development and Federalism. Kajian Malaysia, Special
Issue. Edited by Francis Loh Kok Wah. Penang: Universiti Sains
Malaysia, 1997. Pp. 236.". _
Journal of Southeast Asian Studies _.
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press . 31 (1): 210–213. doi
* ^ Bong, Karen & Pilo, Wilfred (16 September 2011). "An agreement
forged and forgotten". _The
Borneo Post_. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
* ^ James Chin (1997). "Politics of Federal Intervention in
Malaysia, with reference to Kelantan,
Sarawak and Sabah". _Journal of
Commonwealth and Comparative Politics_.
Academia.edu . pp. 96–120.
Retrieved 3 November 2015.
* ^ Mohd Hazmi Mohd Rusli (18 October 2015). "Could the Federation
Malaysia really come apart?".
Astro Awani . Retrieved 3 November
* ^ "Will things fall apart in the Malaysian federation?". Today
Online. 3 November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
* ^ "Overview". Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Archived
from the original on 9 January 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
* ^ "Islamic Affairs (OIC) and D8 Division". Malaysian Ministry of
Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
* ^ "List of Member States". United Nations. Archived from the
original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
* ^ "Member Economies".
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Archived
from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
* ^ "Malaysia". Developing 8 Countries. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
* ^ "The Non-Aligned Movement: Member States". Non-Aligned
Movement. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
* ^ "Member States". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 26 October
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "
Malaysia Foreign Relations".
New Zealand Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 4 December 2008. Archived from the
original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Malaysia\'s Foreign Policy". _Ministry of Foreign
Affairs _. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
* ^ Diola, Camille (25 June 2014). "Why Malaysia, unlike
Philippines, keeps quiet on sea row". _
The Philippine Star
The Philippine Star _.
Retrieved 25 June 2014.
* ^ "Presence of
China Coast Guard ship at Luconia Shoals spooks
local fishermen". The
Borneo Post. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 28
* ^ "
Malaysia lodges diplomatic protest against intrusion at Beting
Patinggi Ali". _Bernama_. The Rakyat Post. 15 August 2015. Retrieved
16 August 2015.
* ^ Ben Blanchard; Richard Pullin (18 October 2015). "Malaysia
slams China\'s \'provocation\' in South
China Sea". _Reuters_. Channel
News Asia. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 20
* ^ Masli, Ubaidillah (17 March 2009). "
Brunei drops all claims to
Brunei Times _. Archived from the original on 12 July
2014. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Mohamad, Kadir (2009). "Malaysia\'s territorial
disputes – two cases at the ICJ : Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South
Ledge (Malaysia/Singapore), Ligitan and Sipadan
(Malaysia/Indonesia/Philippines)" (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and
Foreign Relations (IDFR) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia: 46.
Retrieved 16 May 2014. Map of British North Borneo, highlighting in
yellow colour the area covered by the Philippine claim, presented to
the Court by the
Philippines during the Oral Hearings at the ICJ on 25
* ^ "Disputed – International". CIA. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
* ^ "Border disputes differ for Indonesia, M\'sia". Daily Express .
16 October 2015. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015.
Retrieved 19 October 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Malaysia: Anti-Semitism without Jews". Jerusalem
Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
* ^ Peng, Lee Yuk (7 June 2010). "
Israel referred to
International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court (Updated)". _The Star_. Archived from the
original on 8 June 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
* ^ "
Malaysia can be
Muslim \'thought leader\' – Clinton". _New
Straits Times_. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved
15 November 2010.
* ^ "
Malaysia calls on Palestine and
Israel to demonstrate
restraint". _Bernama_. The Star. 19 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October
* ^ "
Malaysia – Permanent Missions to the United Nations" (PDF).
United Nations. 12 February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on
18 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
* ^ "Malaysian Military statistics". NationMaster. Retrieved 1
* ^ "
Australia says major military exercise underway in Malaysia".
_My Sinchew_. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
* ^ Wood, Daniel (20 April 2014). "Brunei, M\'sia train in 11th
military exercise". _The
Brunei Times_. Archived from the original on
8 December 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
* ^ "Joint table top exercise between armies of China, Malaysia
kicks off in Malaysia". _
Global Times _.
Xinhua News Agency
Xinhua News Agency . 22
December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
* ^ "Indonesia-
Malaysia military exercises must continue –
defence minister". _ANTARA News_. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 1
* ^ "Malaysia, US armed forces in joint exercise". _The Star_. 25
August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
* ^ "Malaysia,
Philippines committed to enhancing border security".
_My Sinchew_. 9 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
* ^ "
Piracy in Southeast Asia: Organised Criminal Syndicates or
Small Scale Opportunists?" (PDF). _Gray Page_. April 2013. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
* ^ Carvalho, Martin (15 May 2012). "Malaysia,
exercise to include other agencies, Asean members". _The Star_.
Retrieved 5 November 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Pike, John. "
Malaysia Intensifies Border Security
Following US Warnings". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 18 September
* ^ Kent, Jonathan (28 April 2004). "
Malaysia ups Thai border
security". BBC News. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
* ^ "To Reduce Conflicts,
Malaysia Should Meet
Intensively". Universitas Gadjah Mada. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
* ^ Prescott, John Robert Victor; Schofield, Clive H (2001).
_Undelimited maritime boundaries of the Asian Rim in the Pacific
Ocean_. International Boundaries Research Unit. p. 53. ISBN
* ^ "Brunei". CIA. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_
_Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ _Y_ _World and Its Peoples: Malaysia,
Philippines, Singapore, and Brunei_. Marshall Cavendish Corporation.
2008. pp. 1160, 1166–1192, 1218–1222. ISBN 978-0-7614-7642-9 .
* ^ Wei, Leow Cheah (3 July 2007). "Asia\'s southernmost tip".
_Travel Times_. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved
26 October 2010.
* ^ Schuman, Michael (22 April 2009). "Waterway To the World –
Summer Journey". _Time_. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Saw, Swee-Hock (2007). _The
population of Peninsular Malaysia_. Institute of Southeast Asian
Studies. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-981-230-730-9 .
* ^ Stevens, Alan M. (2004). _Kamus Lengkap
Ohio University Press. p. 89. ISBN 979-433-387-5 .
* ^ Ooi Keat Gin, Gin (2010). _The A to Z of Malaysia_. Rowman &
Littlefield. p. lxxxii. ISBN 9780810876415 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Main Range (mountains, Malaysia)". _Encyclopædia
Britannica_. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Richmond, Simon (2010). _Malaysia,
Singapore & Brunei_. Lonely Planet. pp. 74–75. ISBN
* ^ Thiessen, Tamara (2012). _Borneo:
Sarawak_. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 192. ISBN 9781841623900 . Retrieved
23 April 2014.
* ^ "
Mount Kinabalu – revered abode of the dead". Ecology Asia.
Retrieved 17 September 2010.
* ^ Daw, T. (April 2004). "Reef Fish Aggregations in Sabah, East
Malaysia" (PDF). Western Pacific Fisher Survey series. 5. Society for
the Conservation of Reef Fish Aggregations: 17.
* ^ "List of Parties". Retrieved 9 December 2012.
* ^ "Malaysia\'s National Policy on Biological Diversity" (PDF).
Retrieved 15 October 2013.
* ^ "Biodiversity Theme Report". Australian Government Department
of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 2001. Archived from
the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Alexander, James (2006). _
Singapore_. New Holland Publishers. pp. 46–50. ISBN 1-86011-309-5 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Richmond, Simon (2007). _Malaysia,
Brunei_. Lonely Planet. pp. 63–64. ISBN 1-74059-708-7 .
* ^ De Young, Cassandra (2006). _Review of the state of world
marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean_. Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 143. ISBN
* ^ "Coral Triangle". WWF. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Saving the gardeners of the ocean". _Inquirer
Global Nation_. 12 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10
December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
* ^ "Species diversity and food-web complexity in the caves of
Malaysia". Ambient Science, 2014 Vol 1(2).
* ^ Lee, S.S.; Alias, S.A.; Jones, E.B.G.; Zainuddin, N. and Chan,
H.T. (2012) _Checklist of Fungi of Malaysia_ Research Pamphlet No.
132, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "The Malaysian Rainforest". WWF Malaysia.
Retrieved 1 October 2010.
* ^ Oon, Helen (2008). _Globetrotter Wildlife Guide Malaysia_. New
Holland Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 1-84537-971-3 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Richmond, Simon (2010).
Singapore & Brunei_. Lonely Planet. pp. 78–82 and 366.
ISBN 978-1-74104-887-2 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ McQuillan, Rebecca (22 November 2010). "Can global
summit save the tiger". _The Herald_. Glasgow. Archived from the
original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
* ^ "Artificial reefs to prevent illegal fishing". _The Borneo
Post_. 4 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Go: A diver\'s paradise". _New Straits Times_.
Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 20 December
* ^ "Standardize illegal animal trafficking law – Ellron". _The
Borneo Post_. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
* ^ Boulton, WilliaM; Pecht, Michael; Tucker, William; Wennberg,
Sam (May 1997). "Electronics Manufacturing in the Pacific Rim, World
Technology Evaluation Center, Chapter 4: Malaysia". The World
Technology Evaluation Center, Inc. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
* ^ "Malaysia, A Statist Economy". Infernalramblings. Retrieved 1
* ^ "WEF". Retrieved 13 February 2015.
* ^ "Malaysia\'s GDP grows 6 percent in 2014". Retrieved 12
* ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (Malaysia)".
International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
* ^ Mohamad, Mahathir (17 November 2008). "The Way Forward". Prime
* ^ "M\'sia On Track To Become High-income Nation Earlier Than
Projected, Says Najib". Bernama. 12 May 2014. Archived from the
original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
* ^ Platt, Eric (13 January 2012). "These Economies Will Dominate
The World In 2050".
Business Insider . Retrieved 19 October 2014.
* ^ Wong, Wei-Shen (7 May 2012). "
Malaysia got what it takes to be
developed nation". _The Star_. Archived from the original on 8 May
2012. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
* ^ Osman-Rani, H.; Toh, Kin Woon & Ali, Anuwar (1986). _Effective
mechanisms for the enhancement of technology and skills in Malaysia_.
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 1. ISBN 978-9971-988-34-0 .
* ^ Bożyk, Paweł (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries".
_Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy_.
Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 164. ISBN 0-7546-4638-6 .
* ^ Mankiw, N. Gregory (2007). _Principles of Economics_ (4 ed.).
ISBN 0-324-22472-9 .
* ^ Chau, Amy. "Minority rule, majority hate". _
Retrieved 15 November 2010.
* ^ Weidenbaum, Murray L (1996). _The Bamboo Network: How
Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic
Superpower in Asia_. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 4–8. ISBN
* ^ "The Security of The Straits of
Malacca and Its Implications to
The South East
Asia Regional Security". Office of The Prime Minister
of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 21
* ^ "BNM National Summary Data Page". Bank Negara Malaysia. 30
September 2003. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
* ^ Schuman, Michael (22 April 2009). "How to Defeat Pirates:
Success in the Strait". _Time_.
* ^ "TED Case Studies:
Tin Mining In
Malaysia – Present And
Future". American University. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
* ^ "BNM National Summary Data Page". Bank Negara Malaysia.
Retrieved 27 October 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "WHO Western Pacific Region – 2006 –
Political and socioeconomic situation". WHO. Archived from the
original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
* ^ Clover, Charles (10 June 2007). "
Malaysia defends palm oil
production". _The Telegraph_. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
* ^ Heidi, Munan; Yee, Foo Yuk (2001). _Malaysia_. Benchmark Books.
pp. 28, 36–37. ISBN 0-7614-1351-0 .
* ^ "State investment firm keen to acquire
Malaysia Sun. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
* ^ Avineshwaran, T. (8 January 2014). "M\'sia listed as 3rd best
place to retire". _Jakarta Post_. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
* ^ "The World\'s Best Retirement Havens In 2015". _The Huffington
Post _. 2 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
* ^ Gooch, Liz (September 2010). "A Path to Financial Equality in
Malaysia". _International Herald Tribune_. Retrieved 27 September
* ^ Pike, John. "
Malaysia Defence Industry". Globalsecurity.org.
Retrieved 24 September 2010.
* ^ National Space Agency. "About Us – Our Organisation".
Government of Malaysia
Government of Malaysia (ANGKASA). Retrieved 6 October 2014.
* ^ Kent, Jonathan (28 August 2005). "
Malaysia has high hoped for
moon". BBC News. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
* ^ "Malaysian astronaut to fly to ISS in 2007". RIA Novosti. 19
May 2006. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 18
* ^ "RM200mil for RazakSAT-2 satellite programme". 9 September
2011. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 7 August
* ^ "Why Malaysia".
Malaysia Industrial Development Authority.
Retrieved 20 August 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Global Competitiveness Index" (PDF). World Economic
Forum. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Malaysian Telecommunications Overview". American
University. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
* ^ "Telephones – mobile celluar". _The World Factbook_.
Retrieved 25 May 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Guidebook on Expatriate Living in Malaysia_ (PDF).
Malaysia Industrial Development Authority. May 2009. pp. 8–9, 69.
* ^ "Infrastructure and Rural Development in Malaysia" (PDF).
Centre on Integrated Rural Development for
Asia and the Pacific.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 25 May
* ^ "
Tenaga Nasional Berhad 500kV Transmission System, Phase 1".
Ranhill Berhad. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009.
Retrieved 23 May 2009.
* ^ "Energy Commission". Retrieved 11 April 2015.
* ^ Selamat, Salsuwanda & Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner. "Renewable
Energy and Kyoto Protocol: Adoption in Malaysia". Universiti Malaysia
Perlis. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 15
* ^ Mody, Ashoka (1997). _Infrastructure strategies in East Asia:
the untold story_. The World Bank. p. 35. ISBN 0-8213-4027-1 .
* ^ Pim, Lim How (17 October 2014). "Fadillah says Pan Borneo
Highway to be built under Ukas initiative". _The
Retrieved 19 October 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Population Distribution and Basic Demographic
Characteristic Report 2010 (Ethnic composition)". Department of
Statistics, Malaysia. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 October
2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
* ^ Brant, Robin (4 March 2008). "Malaysia\'s lingering ethnic
divide". BBC News. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
* ^ Gomes, Alberto G. (2007). _Modernity and Malaysia: settling the
Menraq forest nomads_. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 10. ISBN
* ^ "PM asked to clarify mixed-race bumiputra status". _The Star_.
4 November 2009. Archived from the original on 7 November 2009.
Retrieved 26 October 2010.
* ^ Kuppusamy, Baradan (24 March 2006). "Racism alive and well in
Asia Times_. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ West, Barbara A. (2009). _Encyclopedia of the Peoples
Asia and Oceania, Volume 1_. Facts on
File inc. p. 486. ISBN
* ^ "Malaysia: Citizenship laws, including methods by which a
person may obtain citizenship; whether dual citizenship is recognized
and if so, how it is acquired; process for renouncing citizenship and
related documentation; grounds for revoking citizenship". Immigration
and Refugee Board of Canada. 16 November 2007. Archived from the
original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
* ^ May, Leow Yong (30 August 2007). "More than just a card". _The
Star_. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 27
* ^ Nozawa, M.; Wing, C.; Chaiyasook, S. (2011). _Secondary
Education Regional Information Base: Country Profile – Malaysia_
(PDF). Bangkok: UNESCO. p. 4 (12). ISBN 978-92-9223-374-7 .
* ^ Mustafa, Shazwan (22 August 2010). "Malay groups want
vernacular schools abolished". _The Malaysian Insider_. Archived from
the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
* ^ "Secondary School Education". Malaysian Government. Archived
from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
* ^ Saw, Swee-Hock; Kesavapany, K. (2006). _Malaysia: recent trends
and challenges_. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 259. ISBN
* ^ "
Malaysia – Statistics". UNICEF. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
* ^ "Mission, Vision & Background". Ministry of Health Malaysia. 3
July 2009. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved 17
* ^ Hassan, Asan Ali Golam (2004). _Growth, structural change, and
regional inequality in Malaysia_. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 12. ISBN
* ^ "Tourism
Malaysia Corporate Website". Tourism Malaysia.
Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October
* ^ "Vision & Goals of Kuala Lumpur".
Portal Rasmi Dewan Bandaraya
Kuala Lumpur. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 18
* ^ "
Putrajaya – Federal Administrative Capital". Malaysian
Government. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved
15 October 2013.
* ^ Ho, Chin Siong (2006). "
Putrajaya – Administrative Centre of
Malaysia – Planning Concept and Implementation". Retrieved 18
* ^ Permatasari, Soraya (13 July 2009). "As
illegal workers, employers run short". _The New York Times_. Retrieved
26 October 2010.
* ^ Kent, Jonathan (29 October 2004). "Illegal workers leave
Malaysia". BBC News. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
* ^ Quek, Kim. "Demographic implosion in Sabah? Really?".
_Malaysiakini_. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
* ^ "World Refugee Survey 2009".
United States Committee for
Refugees and Immigrants. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
* ^ "List of cities,
Malaysia (2010)" (PDF). Department of
Statistics, Malaysia. p. 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6
October 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Peletz, Michael G. (2002). _Islamic Modern: Religious
Courts and Cultural Politics in Malaysia_. Princeton University Press.
ISBN 0-691-09508-6 .
* ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation".
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center . 9
August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
* ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". 9 August 2012. Retrieved 5
* ^ Mahathir, Marina (17 August 2010). "
Malaysia moving forward in
matters of Islam and women by Marina Mahathir". Common Ground News
Service. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
* ^ "Malay, Standard". Ethnologue. 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
* ^ "Mahathir regrets govt focussing too much on Bahasa". _Daily
Express_. 2 October 2013. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014.
Retrieved 16 October 2013.
* ^ "Federal Constitution" (PDF). Judicial Appointments Commission.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 29
* ^ _A_ _B_ "National Language Act 1967" (PDF). Malaysian Attorney
General Chambers. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August
2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
* ^ Sulok Tawie (18 November 2015). "
Sarawak makes English official
language along with BM".
The Malay Mail
The Malay Mail . Retrieved 18 November 2015.
* ^ "
Sarawak to recognise English as official language besides
Bahasa Malaysia". The
Borneo Post . 18 November 2015. Retrieved 18
* ^ "
Sarawak adopts English as official language". The Sun . 19
November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
* ^ Andaya, Barbara Watson; Andaya, Leonard Y. (1982). _A History
of Malaysia_. MacMillan Press Ltd. pp. 26–28, 61, 151–152,
242–243, 254–256, 274, 278. ISBN 0-333-27672-8 .
* ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (5 October 2006). "Language Log: Malaysia
cracks down on "salad language"". University of Pennsylvania.
Retrieved 14 September 2010.
* ^ "Dewan Bahasa champions use of BM in ads". _New Straits Times_.
14 October 2013. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013.
Retrieved 16 October 2013.
* ^ "Ethnologue report for Malaysia". Ethnologue. Retrieved 18
* ^ "Ethnologue report for
Malaysia (Peninsular)". Ethnologue.
Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
* ^ Adelaar, Alexander; Himmelmann, Nikolaus P. (2005). _The
Austronesian languages of
Asia and Madagascar_. Taylor and Francis
Group. pp. 56, 397. ISBN 0-7007-1286-0 .
* ^ Hancock, I. F. (1975). "Malaysian Creole Portuguese: Asian,
African or European?". _Anthropological Linguistics_. University of
Texas. 17 (5): 211–236.
JSTOR 30027570 .
* ^ Michaelis, Susanne (2008). _Roots of Creole structures_. John
Benjamins Publishing Co. p. 279. ISBN 978-90-272-5255-5 .
* ^ Raghavan, R. (1977). "Ethno-racial marginality in West
Malaysia: The case of the Peranakan Hindu
Melaka or Malaccan Chitty
community". _Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde_. Royal
Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. 133
(4): 438–458. doi :10.1163/22134379-90002605 . Retrieved 7 October
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Cultural Tourism Promotion and policy in Malaysia".
School of Housing, Building and Planning. 22 October 1992. Archived
from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Van der Heide, William (2002). _Malaysian cinema, Asian
film: border crossings and national cultures_. Amsterdam University
Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 90-5356-580-9 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Schonhardt, Sara (3 October 2009). "
Indonesia cut from
a different cloth". _
Asia Times_. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
* ^ "Indonesia,
Malaysia agree to cool tension on cultural heritage
dispute". _People Daily_. 17 September 2009. Retrieved 6 November
* ^ Dunford, George (2006). _
Southeast Asia on a Shoestring_.
Lonely Planet. pp. 419–. ISBN 978-1-74104-444-7 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Miller, Terry E.; Williams, Sean (2008). _The
Garland handbook of Southeast Asian music_. Taylor and Francis Group.
pp. 223–224. ISBN 0-203-93144-0 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Gateway to Malay culture_. Asiapac Books Ptd Ltd.
2003. p. 110. ISBN 981-229-326-4 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Matusky, Patricia Ann; Tan, Sooi Beng (2004). _The
Music of Malaysia: The Classical, Folk, and Syncretic Traditions_.
Ashgate Publishing Ltd. pp. 177–187. ISBN 978-0-7546-0831-8 .
* ^ Fadul, Jose A. (2009). _Kites in History, in Teaching and in
Therapy_. Lulu.com. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-557-08589-7 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Osman, Mohd Taib. "Languages and Literature". The
Encyclopedia of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 6 January
2011. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
* ^ "Lipton urges
Malaysians to take pride in teh tarik, our
national beverage". _New
Sabah Times _. 7 September 2012. Archived
from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
* ^ Rules, Dwayne A. (7 April 2011). "Nasi lemak, our \'national
dish\'". _The Star_. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Eckhardt, Robyn (1 June 2008). _
Penang_. Lonely Planet. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-74104-485-0 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Jarvis, Alice-Azania (13 October 2010). "Far Eastern
cuisine: Fancy a Malaysian? – Features, Food & Drink". _The
Independent_. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
* ^ Wu, David Y. H.; Tan, Chee Beng (2001). _Changing Chinese
foodways in Asia_. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. p. 128. ISBN
* ^ Yulia Sapthiani (30 January 2011). "Menikmati Kuliner
Peranakan" (in Indonesian).
Kompas . Archived from the original on 24
June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
* ^ Ahmad, Razak (5 February 2010). "Malaysian media shapes
battleground in Anwar trial". Reuters. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Malaysian opposition media banned". BBC News. 23 March
2009. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The East-West divide of Malaysian media".
_Malaysian Mirror_. 9 September 2010. Archived from the original on 22
July 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
* ^ "Comment: Anwar blames Malaysian media". _The Jakarta Post_. 28
September 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
* ^ "Malaysia". _Freedom House_. 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
* ^ "Opposition muzzled – here\'s black and white proof".
_Malaysiakini_. 29 June 2007.
* ^ Vikneswary, G (28 June 2007). "TV station denies censoring
opposition news". _Malaysiakini_.
* ^ McAdams, Mindy. "How Press Censorship Works". Mindy McAdams.
Retrieved 25 May 2011.
* ^ Chun, Yeng Ai (19 October 2009). "
Malaysia Day now a public
holiday, says PM". Archived from the original on 20 October 2009.
Retrieved 7 May 2011.
* ^ "
Malaysia – Religion". Asian Studies Center – Michigan
State University. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
* ^ "Batu Caves, Selangor". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 15 October
* ^ Hutton, Wendy (1997). _
East Malaysia and Brunei_. Periplus
Editions (HK) Ltd. p. 169. ISBN 962-593-180-5 .
* ^ "PM: Kaamatan, Gawai celebrations, time for people to feel
thankful for achievements". _Bernama_. The
Borneo Post. 28 May 2016.
Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
* ^ Assunta, Mary (2006). "BAT flouts tobacco-free World Cup
University of Sydney
University of Sydney ,
New South Wales
New South Wales , Australia_. Tobacco
Control. doi :10.1136/tc.11.3.277 . Retrieved 3 October 2014.
* ^ "Asean to bid for 2034 FIFA World Cup". _The
Brunei Times_. 16
May 2013. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 15
* ^ "History of Badminton". SportsKnowHow.com. Retrieved 11 June
* ^ "
Bowls Federation". 88DB.com. Archived from the
original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
* ^ Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles (2012). _Sports Around the
World: History, Culture, and Practice_. ABC-CLIO. pp. 250–. ISBN
* ^ "History of SRAM". Squash Racquets Association of Malaysia.
Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October
* ^ "Malaysia,
Southeast Asia football league".
_The Malaysian Insider_. 31 July 2010. Archived from the original on 3
August 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
* ^ "FIH Men\'s World Rankings – 7 December 2015" (PDF).
International Hockey Federation. 7 December 2015. Retrieved 20 January
* ^ "History of Hockey World Cup". _The Times of India_. 27
February 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
* ^ Novikov, Andrew. "
Formula One Grand Prix Circuits". All Formula
One Info. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
* ^ Minahan, James B. (30 August 2012). _Ethnic Groups of South
Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. pp.
76–. ISBN 978-1-59884-660-7 .
* ^ "Olympic Games – History". The Olympic Council of Malaysia.
Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 27 September
* ^ "Previous Olympic Games Medal Tally". Olympic Council of
Malaysia. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 17
* ^ Dudley, Rueben (13 September 2010). "Doing
_The Sun_. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
* ^ "
Commonwealth Games Federation, History and Tradition of
Commonwealth Games, Edinburgh, Bendigo, Pune". Commonwealth Youth
Games 2008. 14 August 2000. Archived from the original on 8 October
2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
Find more aboutMALAYSIAat's sister projects
* _Definitions from Wiktionary
* Media from Commons
* News from Wikinews
* Quotations from Wikiquote
* Texts from Wikisource
* Textbooks from Wikibooks
* Travel guide from Wikivoyage
* Learning resources