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Crop
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.[1] Crop
Crop
may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state (husked, shelled, etc.). Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. A crop is usually expanded to include macroscopic fungus (e.g. mushrooms), or alga (algaculture). Most crops are harvested as food for humans or livestock (fodder crops). Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering, e.g. ginseng). Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops. Horticulture
Horticulture
crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees). Floriculture
Floriculture
crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Fruit Trees
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term 'fruit tree' is limited to those that provide fruit for human food. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere (see Fruit), but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well as some nut-bearing trees, such as walnuts. The scientific study and the cultivation of fruits is called pomology, which divides fruits into groups based on plant morphology and anatomy
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Soy Sauce
Soy sauce
Soy sauce
(also called soya sauce in British English)[1][2] is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae
Aspergillus oryzae
or Aspergillus sojae molds.[3]
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Yogurt
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (/ˈjoʊɡərt/ or /ˈjɒɡət/; from Turkish: yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.[1] The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor.[1] Cow's milk is commonly available worldwide, and, as such, is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk
Milk
from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks is also used to produce yogurt where available locally
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Fermentation In Food Processing
Fermentation
Fermentation
in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation
Fermentation
usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired. The science of fermentation is known as zymology or zymurgy. The term fermentation sometimes refers specifically to the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol, producing alcoholic drinks such as wine, beer, and cider. However, similar processes take place in the leavening of bread (CO2 produced by yeast activity), and in the preservation of sour foods with the production of lactic acid, such as in sauerkraut and yogurt. Other widely consumed fermented foods include vinegar, olives, and cheese
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Citric Acid
Citric acid
Citric acid
is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C 6H 8O 7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent.[7] A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate
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Microbiological Culture
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Microorganism
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Medicine
Medicine
Medicine
is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.[1] Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture
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Soybean Oil
Soybean
Soybean
oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max). It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils. As a drying oil, processed soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks (soy ink) and oil paints.Contents1 History 2 Production 3 Composition3.1 Health concerns 3.2 Comparison to other vegetable oils4 Applications4.1 Food 4.2 Drying oils 4.3 Fixative for insect repellents5 Trading 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Chinese records dating prior to 2000 B.C
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Fiber Crop
Fiber
Fiber
crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope. They are organized into 3 main groups—textile fibers (used in production of cloth), cordage fibers (used in production of rope), and filling fibers (used to stuff upholstery and mattresses). They are a type of natural fiber.[1] Fiber
Fiber
crops are characterized by having a large concentration of cellulose, which is what gives them their strength. The fibers may be chemically modified, like in viscose (used to make rayon and cellophane). In recent years, materials scientists have begun exploring further use of these fibers in composite materials
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Punjab, India
^† Joint Capital with Haryana. ††Common for Punjab, Haryana
Haryana
and Chandigarh.Symbols of PunjabEmblem Lion Capital of Ashoka
Lion Capital of Ashoka
with Wheat
Wheat
stem (above) and Crossed Swords (below)Language PunjabiDance Bhangra, GiddhaAnimal BlackbuckBird Baaz[3] (Accipiter gentilis) Punjab
Punjab
(/pʌnˈdʒɑːb/ ( listen)) is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab
Punjab
region, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana
Haryana
to the south and southeast, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab
Punjab
to the west
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Sauerkraut
Sauerkraut
Sauerkraut
(/ˈsaʊ.ərkraʊt/; German: [ˈzaʊɐˌkʁaʊt] ( listen)) is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.[1][2] It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.[3][4]Contents1 Overview 2 Production 3 Regional varieties 4 Health effects4.1 Benefits 4.2 Disadvantages 4.3 CRIS
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