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A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.[1] Crop
Crop
may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state (husked, shelled, etc.). Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. A crop is usually expanded to include macroscopic fungus (e.g. mushrooms), or alga (algaculture). Most crops are harvested as food for humans or livestock (fodder crops). Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering, e.g. ginseng). Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops. Horticulture
Horticulture
crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees). Floriculture
Floriculture
crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers. Industrial crops are produced for clothing (fiber crops), biofuel (energy crops, algae fuel), or medicine (medicinal plants). Animals and microbes (fungi, bacteria or viruses) are rarely referred to as crops. Animals raised for human or animal consumption are referred to as livestock and microbes as microbiological cultures. Microbes are not typically grown for food itself, but are rather used to alter food (e.g., producing citric acid, fermenting yogurt, soy sauce, or sauerkraut).

Contents

1 Important food crops 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

Important food crops[edit]

Crops drying in a home in Punjab, India.

The importance of a crop varies greatly by region. Globally, the following crops contribute most to human food supply (values of kcal/person/day for 2013 given in parentheses): Rice
Rice
(541 kcal), wheat (527 kcal), sugarcane and other sugar crops (200 kcal), maize (corn) (147 kcal), soybean oil (82 kcal), other vegetables (74 kcal), potatoes (64 kcal), palm oil (52 kcal), cassava (37 kcal), legume pulses (37 kcal), sunflowerseed oil (35 kcal), rape and mustard oil (34 kcal), other fruits, (31 kcal), sorghum (28 kcal), millet (27 kcal), groundnuts (25 kcal), beans (23 kcal), sweet potatoes (22 kcal), bananas (21 kcal), various nuts (16 kcal), soybeans (14 kcal), cottonseed oil (13 kcal), groundnut oil (13 kcal), yams (13 kcal).[2] Note that many of the globally apparently minor crops are regionally very important. For example in Africa, roots & tubers dominate with 421 kcal/person/day, and sorghum and millet contribute 135 kcal and 90 kcal, respectively.[2] In terms of produced weight, the following crops are the most important ones (global production in thousand metric tonnes):[3]

Crop 2000 2013

Sugarcane 1,256,380 1,877,110

Maize 592,479 1,016,740

Rice
Rice
(paddy) 599,355 745,710

Wheat 585,691 713,183

Potatoes 327,600 368,096

See also[edit]

Plants portal Biology portal Agriculture
Agriculture
portal Gardening
Gardening
portal Food
Food
portal

General topics and economics

Agriculture List of most valuable crops and livestock products Cash crop Catch crop Intercropping Multiple cropping Permanent crop Crop
Crop
yield Neglected and underutilized crop Sharecropping Staple food

Food
Food
crops

Sugarcane Maize Rice Wheat Potatoes Banana

Horticulture
Horticulture
crops

Nursery plants Fruit
Fruit
trees

Floriculture
Floriculture
crops

Bedding plants House plants

Industrial crops

Fiber crop Energy crop

Management practices

Cover crop Crop
Crop
destruction Crop
Crop
residue Crop
Crop
rotation Crop
Crop
weed Kharif crops (crops specific to South Asia) Nurse crop Rabi crops (crops specific to South Asia)

Genetic diversity

Crop
Crop
diversity Crop wild relative
Crop wild relative
(CWR) Seed bank

Origin

Neolithic founder crops

guerrilla gardening

References[edit]

^ "Definition of CROP". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved June 20, 2017.  ^ a b Food
Food
and Agriculture
Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (2017). "FAOstats Food
Food
Supply - Crops Primary Equivalent".  ^ FAO 2015. FAO Statistical Pocketbook 2015, ISBN 978-92-5-108802-9, p. 28

Further reading[edit]

Sleper, David A.; Poehlman, John M. (2006). Breeding Field Crops. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9780813824284. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 

External links[edit] Media related to Crops at Wikimedia Commons

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