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Corporation
A CORPORATION is a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person ) and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an ad hoc act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration . Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they make profit or not. Where local law distinguishes corporations by ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, and owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders"
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Holding Company
A HOLDING COMPANY is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock . The term usually refers to a company that does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group . Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies. In the United States
United States
, 80% of stock, in voting and value, must be owned before tax consolidation benefits such as tax-free dividends can be claimed. That is, if Company A owns 80% or more of the stock of Company B, Company A will not pay taxes on dividends paid by Company B to its stockholders, as the payment of dividends from B to A is essentially Company A transferring cash from one company to the other. Any other shareholders of Company B will pay the usual taxes on dividends, as they are legitimate and ordinary dividends to these shareholders
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Cayman Islands Company Law
CAYMAN ISLANDS COMPANY LAW is primarily codified in the Companies Law (2013 Revision), and to a lesser extent in the Securities and Investment Business Law (2015 Revision). The Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
is a leading Offshore Financial Centre , and financial services forms a significant part of the economy of the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
. Accordingly company law forms a much more prominent part of the law of the Cayman Islands than might otherwise be expected. CONTENTS * 1 Types of company * 2 Registering a company * 3 Corporate personality * 4 Corporate constitution * 5 Corporate governance * 6 Shares and shareholders * 7 Debt finance * 8 Reorganisation and restructuring * 9 Insolvency
Insolvency
* 10 Financial services regulation * 11 See also * 12 External links * 13 Footnotes TYPES OF COMPANYThere are broadly two types of company in the Cayman Islands
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Corporate (2017 Film)
CORPORATE is a 2017 French movie written and directed by Nicolas Silhol. · CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Details * 3 Cast * 4 Production * 5 Release * 6 Reception * 7 References PLOTÉmilie Tesson-Hansen is an ambitious HR manager working in a big company. One of her team member commits suicide. An investigation about that event is in progress and she is suspected of workplace bullying
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Corporate (2006 Film)
CORPORATE is an Indian Hindi business drama film released in July 2006. The film directed by Madhur Bhandarkar stars Bipasha Basu
Bipasha Basu
, Kay Kay Menon , Payal Rohatgi , Minissha Lamba and Raj Babbar . The movie revolves around the power game between two powerful industrialists. And based on the Pesticides issue in India on 2003 when Delhi non-profit Centre for Science and Environment published a disputed report finding pesticide levels in Coke and Pepsi soft drinks sold in India at levels 30 times that considered safe by the European Economic Commission. The movie got acclaimed from critics. It grossed 163.8 million at box office, well above its 40 million budget
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Anguillan Company Law
ANGUILLAN COMPANY LAW is primarily codified in three principal statutes : * the International Business Companies Act (Cap I.20); * the Companies Act (Cap C.65); and * the Limited Liability Companies Act (Cap L.65).The Companies Act is generally reserved for companies which engaged in business physically in Anguilla
Anguilla
, and companies formed under it are generally referred to as either "CACs" (an acronym for Companies Act Companies) or "ABCs" (an acronym for Anguillan Business Company). The other two statutes relate to the incorporation of non-resident companies as part of the Territory's financial services industry . Companies incorporated under International Business Companies Act are called International Business Companies (or, more usually, "IBCs"). IBCs represent the largest number of companies in Anguilla
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British Virgin Islands Company Law
BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS COMPANY LAW is primarily codified in the BVI Business Companies Act, 2004 , and to a lesser extent by the Insolvency
Insolvency
Act, 2003 and the Securities and Investment Business Act, 2010. The British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
has approximately 30 registered companies per head of population, which is probably the highest ratio of any country in the world. Annual company registration fees provide a significant part of Government revenue in the British Virgin Islands, which accounts for the comparative lack of other taxation . Accordingly, company law forms a much more prominent part of the law of the British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
than might otherwise be expected
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Public Limited Company
A PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY (legally abbreviated to PLC) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law , some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
. It is a limited liability company whose shares may be freely sold and traded to the public (although a plc may also be privately held, often by another plc), with a minimum share capital of £50,000 and usually with the letters PLC after its name. Similar companies in the United States are called publicly traded companies. Public limited companies will also have a separate legal identity. A PLC can be either an unlisted or listed company on the stock exchanges . In the United Kingdom, a public limited company usually must include the words "public limited company" or the abbreviation "PLC" or "plc" at the end and as part of the legal company name
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Industrial And Provident Society
An INDUSTRIAL AND PROVIDENT SOCIETY (IPS) was a legal entity for a trading business or voluntary organisation in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
, and New Zealand
New Zealand
. The name is still used in New Zealand, the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
and within the UK in Northern Ireland. Recent legal developments in Great Britain
Great Britain
include the Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act 2014 , which has renamed these societies as co-operative or community benefit societies. From 1 August 2014 a new society has had to register as either a co-operative or a community benefit society rather than, as was the case previously, a society that meets either requirement
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Charitable Incorporated Organisation
A CHARITABLE INCORPORATED ORGANISATION (CIO) is a new form of legal entity designed for non-profit organisations in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The main intended benefits of the new entity are that it has legal personality , the ability to conduct business in its own name, and limited liability so that its members and trustees will not have to contribute in the event of financial loss. These are already available to limited companies ; charities can be formed as companies, but then they must be registered with both Companies House and the Charity Commission . In contrast, the CIO only needs to register with the Charity Commission. This is expected to reduce bureaucracy for the charity. The CIO status became available to charities in England and Wales on 4 March 2013. In Scotland, the Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator began registering SCOTTISH CHARITABLE INCORPORATED ORGANISATIONS (SCIOs) in April 2011
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Sole Proprietorship
A SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP, also known as the SOLE TRADER or simply a PROPRIETORSHIP, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one natural person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity . The owner is in direct control of all elements and is legally accountable for the finances of such business and this may include debts, loans, loss, etc. The sole trader receives all profits (subject to taxation specific to the business) and has unlimited responsibility for all losses and debts. Every asset of the business is owned by the proprietor and all debts of the business are the proprietor's. It is a "sole" proprietorship in contrast with partnerships (which have at least two owners). A sole proprietor may use a trade name or business name other than his, her, or its legal name. They may have to legally trademark their business name if it differs from their own legal name, the process varying depending upon country of residence
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Societas Unius Personae
A SOCIETAS UNIUS PERSONAE (SUP; single-person company) is a legal form for a single-member private limited liability company proposed by the European Commission
European Commission

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Societas Privata Europaea
A EUROPEAN PRIVATE COMPANY (Latin : SOCIETAS PRIVATA EUROPAEA, SPE) is a legal form for a limited liability company that is being proposed by the European Commission
European Commission
to be introduced across the European Union . It forms a company of limited liability , similar to the English limited company , the Austrian or the German GmbH
GmbH
, the Dutch BV , the Belgian BVBA or the French SARL . The aim of the proposal is to remove the current need for limited companies to reincorporate themselves in the corresponding legal form in all the EU member countries in which they want to trade, which represents a substantial administrative burden for small and medium enterprises . It was proposed that the SPE company form be introduced across the EU and EEA area from July 2010
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Private Limited Company
A PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY is a hybrid type of business entity used in many jurisdictions, with some differences from country to country. Examples include LLC in the US , private company limited by shares in the UK , GmbH in Germany
Germany
or společnost s ručením omezeným in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
. COUNTRY BUSINESS FORM ABBREVIATION(S) United States
United States
limited liability company LLC privately held company United Kingdom
United Kingdom
private company limited by shares Pvt
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Societas Cooperativa Europaea
The EUROPEAN COOPERATIVE SOCIETY (SCE, for Latin
Latin
societas cooperativa Europaea) is, in company law , a European co-operative type of company , established in 2006 and related to the European Company
Company
. European Cooperative Societies may be established, and may operate, throughout the European Economic Area (including the European Community
European Community
). The legal form was created to remove the need for co-operatives to establish a subsidiary in each Member State in which they operate, and to allow them to move their registered office and head office freely from one Member State to another, keeping their legal identity and without having to register or wind up any legal persons . No matter where they are established, SCEs are governed by a single EEA -wide set of rules and principles which are supplemented by the laws on co-operatives in each Member State, and other areas of law
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French Company Law
FRENCH COMPANY LAW is the law governing corporations incorporated in France
France
or under French corporate law. HISTORYIn the wake of the French Revolution
French Revolution
in 1791, the right to free registration for all private companies was proclaimed. There was a boom in registrations, but this was followed by a bust in 1793. The law was reversed until 1796 when the principle of free incorporation was established again. The law was consolidated in Napoleon's Code de commerce of 1807 using a concession system. While previously public companies with special privileges were created by a special act of the state, the Code allowed the companies to be formed according to general company law rules. Specific state permission was still required. Article 33 recognised limited liability for members
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