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Connectedness
In mathematics, connectedness is used to refer to various properties meaning, in some sense, "all one piece". When a mathematical object has such a property, we say it is connected; otherwise it is disconnected [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Torus
In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in threedimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle. If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a torus of revolution. Realworld examples of toroidal objects include inner tubes. A torus should not be confused with a solid torus, which is formed by rotating a disc, rather than a circle, around an axis. A solid torus is a torus plus the volume inside the torus. Realworld approximations include doughnuts, many lifebuoys, and Orings. In topology, a ring torus is homeomorphic to the Cartesian product of two circles: S1> × S1>, and the latter is taken to be the definition in that context. It is a compact 2manifold of genus 1 [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Tile
A tile is a manufactured piece of hardwearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials such as perlite, wood, and mineral wool, typically used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tilebased game). The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay. Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex or mosaics [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), structure (algebra), space (geometry), and change (mathematical analysis). It has no generally accepted definition. Mathematicians seek and use patterns to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, mathematical reasoning can be used to provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Directed Graph In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a directed graph (or digraph) is a graph that is a set of vertices connected by edges, where the edges have a direction associated with them. 

Strongly Connected Component
In the mathematical theory of directed graphs, a graph is said to be strongly connected or diconnected if every vertex is reachable from every other vertex. The strongly connected components or diconnected components of an arbitrary directed graph form a partition into subgraphs that are themselves strongly connected [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Ordered Pair
In mathematics, an ordered pair (a, b) is a pair of objects. The order in which the objects appear in the pair is significant: the ordered pair (a, b) is different from the ordered pair (b, a) unless a = b. (In contrast, the unordered pair {a, b} equals the unordered pair {b, a}.) Ordered pairs are also called 2tuples, or sequences (sometimes, lists in a computer science context) of length 2; ordered pairs of scalars are also called 2dimensional vectors. The entries of an ordered pair can be other ordered pairs, enabling the recursive definition of ordered ntuples (ordered lists of n objects). For example, the ordered triple (a,b,c) can be defined as (a, (b,c)), i.e., as one pair nested in another. In the ordered pair (a, b), the object a is called the first entry, and the object b the second entry of the pair [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Directed Path
In graph theory, a path in a graph is a finite or infinite sequence of edges which connect a sequence of vertices which, by most definitions, are all distinct from one another. In a directed graph, a directed path (sometimes called dipath) is again a sequence of edges (or arcs) which connect a sequence of vertices, but with the added restriction that the edges all be directed in the same direction. Paths are fundamental concepts of graph theory, described in the introductory sections of most graph theory texts. See e.g. Bondy and Murty (1976), Gibbons (1985), or Diestel (2005). Korte et al [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Totally Disconnected
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a totally disconnected space is a topological space that is maximally disconnected, in the sense that it has no nontrivial connected subsets. In every topological space the empty set and the onepoint sets are connected; in a totally disconnected space these are the only connected subsets. An important example of a totally disconnected space is the Cantor set [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Noun
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas. Linguistically, a noun is a member of a large, open part of speech whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition. Lexical categories (parts of speech) are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine with other kinds of expressions. The syntactic rules for nouns differ from language to language [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Triangular Tiling
In geometry, the triangular tiling or triangular tessellation is one of the three regular tilings of the Euclidean plane. Because the internal angle of the equilateral triangle is 60 degrees, six triangles at a point occupy a full 360 degrees. The triangular tiling has Schläfli symbol of {3,6}. Conway calls it a deltille, named from the triangular shape of the Greek letter delta (Δ). The triangular tiling can also be called a kishextille by a kis operation that adds a center point and triangles to replace the faces of a hextille. It is one of three regular tilings of the plane [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Smallworld Network
A smallworld network is a type of mathematical graph in which most nodes are not neighbors of one another, but the neighbors of any given node are likely to be neighbors of each other and most nodes can be reached from every other node by a small number of hops or steps. Specifically, a smallworld network is defined to be a network where the typical distance L between two randomly chosen nodes (the number of steps required) grows proportionally to the logarithm of the number of nodes N in the network, that is: [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Square Tiling
In geometry, the square tiling, square tessellation or square grid is a regular tiling of the Euclidean plane. It has Schläfli symbol of {4,4}, meaning it has 4 squares around every vertex. Conway calls it a quadrille. The internal angle of the square is 90 degrees so four squares at a point make a full 360 degrees. It is one of three regular tilings of the plane [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

Hexagonal Tiling
In geometry, the hexagonal tiling or hexagonal tessellation is a regular tiling of the Euclidean plane, in which three hexagons meet at each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of {6,3} or t{3,6} (as a truncated triangular tiling). English mathematician John Conway calls it a hextille. The internal angle of the hexagon is 120 degrees so three hexagons at a point make a full 360 degrees. It is one of three regular tilings of the plane [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 

8connectivity In image processing and image recognition, pixel connectivity is the way in which pixels in 2dimensional (or voxels in 3dimensional) images relate to their neighbors. 

Connected Component (graph Theory)
In graph theory, a connected component (or just component) of an undirected graph is a subgraph in which any two vertices are connected to each other by paths, and which is connected to no additional vertices in the supergraph. For example, the graph shown in the illustration has three connected components. A vertex with no incident edges is itself a connected component [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] 