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Compatibilistic
Compatibilism
Compatibilism
is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.[1] Compatibilists believe freedom can be present or absent in situations for reasons that have nothing to do with metaphysics.[2] They define free will as freedom to act according to one's motives without arbitrary hindrance from other individuals or institutions.[citation needed] For example, courts of law make judgments, without bringing in metaphysics, about whether an individual was acting of their own free will in specific circumstances. It is assumed in a court of law that someone could have acted otherwise than in reality
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Compatibility (other)
Compatibility may refer to:Contents1 Computing 2 Science 3 Miscellaneous 4 See alsoComputing[edit]Backward compatibility, in which newer devices can understand data generated by older devices Compatibility card, an expansion card for hardware emulation of another device Compatibility layer, components that allow for non-native support of componentsCompatibility mode, software mechanism in which a software emulates an older version of softwareComputer compatibility, of a line of machines Forward compatibility, in which older devices can understand data generated by newer devices License compatibility, of software licenses Pin-compatibility, in devices that have the same functions assigned to the same particular pins IBM PC compatible, computers that are generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and ATScience[edit]Compatibility (biological), a property which is assigned to splits of a given set of taxa Compatibility (chemical),
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Ted Honderich
Ted Honderich
Ted Honderich
(born 30 January 1933) is a Canadian-born British philosopher, Grote Professor Emeritus of the Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy of Mind
and Logic, University College London.[1] His work has been mainly about five things: consciousness and mind, including the consciousness–brain relation; right and wrong in the contemporary world particularly with democracy, terrorism and war; advocacy of the Principle of Humanity; determinism and freedom; particular problems in logical analysis and metaphysics; the supposed justification of punishment by the state; the political tradition of conservatism
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Frithjof Bergmann
Frithjof Bergmann
Frithjof Bergmann
(born 24 December 1930) is a Professor Emeritus of philosophy at the University of Michigan, where he has taught courses on existentialism and Continental philosophy.Contents1 Life and work 2 Books 3 References 4 External linksLife and work[edit] Professor Bergmann first came to the US as a student, where he has lived and worked ever since. He entered the doctoral program in philosophy at Princeton University
Princeton University
and studied under Walter Kaufmann, receiving his Ph.D. in 1959 with a dissertation entitled "Harmony and Reason: an Introduction to the Philosophy
Philosophy
of Hegel." In addition, Professor Bergmann is a Nietzsche
Nietzsche
scholar; his publications include "Nietzsche's Critique of Morality" (published in Reading Nietzsche, Oxford University Press, 1988)
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John Martin Fischer
John Martin Fischer (born December 26, 1952) is an American philosopher. He is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy
Philosophy
at the University of California, Riverside
University of California, Riverside
and a leading contributor to the philosophy of free will and moral responsibility.[1]Contents1 Education and career 2 Philosophical work 3 Books 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEducation and career[edit] Fischer received his undergraduate degree from Stanford University
Stanford University
and his Ph.D
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Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
(/ˈʃoʊpənhaʊ.ər/ SHOH-pən-how-ər; German: [ˈaɐ̯tʊɐ̯ ˈʃoːpm̩ˌhaʊ̯ɐ]; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher
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Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs. Motivation
Motivation
is also one's direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior. An individual is not motivated by another individual
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Autonomy
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy[1] is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision. Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or self-governing. Autonomy can also be defined from human resource perspective and it means a level of discretion granted to an employee in his or her work.[2] In such cases, autonomy is known to bring some sense of job satisfaction among the employees. Autonomy is a term that is also widely used and in the field of medicine
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Counterfactual Conditional
A counterfactual conditional (abbreviated CF), is a conditional containing an if-clause which is contrary to fact. The term "counterfactual conditional" was coined by Nelson Goodman
Nelson Goodman
in 1947,[1] extending Roderick Chisholm's (1946) notion of a "contrary-to-fact conditional".[2] The study of counterfactual speculation has increasingly engaged the interest of scholars in a wide range of domains such as philosophy,[3] human geography, psychology,[4] cognitive psychology,[5] history,[6] political science,[7] economics,[8] social psychology,[9] law,[10] organizational theory,[11] marketing,[12] and epidemiology.[13] In 1748, when defining causation, David Hume
David Hume
referred to a counterfactual case:"… we may define a cause to be an object, followed by another, and where all objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second
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William James
William James
William James
(January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. [3] James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labeled him the "Father of American psychology".[4][5][6] Along with Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce
and John Dewey, James is considered to be one of the major figures associated with the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology
Psychology
analysis, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century.[7] He also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism
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Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(/kænt/;[8] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.[9] Kant argues that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of human sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of humanity's concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolves around the earth
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Libertarianism (metaphysics)
Libertarianism
Libertarianism
is one of the main philosophical positions related to the problems of free will and determinism, which are part of the larger domain of metaphysics.[1] In particular, libertarianism, which is an incompatibilist position,[2][3] argues that free will is logically incompatible with a deterministic universe and that agents have free will, and that, therefore, determinism is false.[4] In the early modern period, some of the most important metaphysical libertarians were René Descartes, George Berkeley, Immanuel Kant, and Thomas Reid.[5]
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Free Will
Free will
Free will
is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.[1][2] Free will
Free will
is closely linked to the concepts of responsibility, praise, guilt, sin, and other judgements which apply only to actions that are freely chosen. It is also connected with the concepts of advice, persuasion, deliberation, and prohibition. Traditionally, only actions that are freely willed are seen as deserving credit or blame. There are numerous different concerns about threats to the possibility of free will, varying by how exactly it is conceived, which is a matter of some debate. Some conceive free will to be the capacity to make choices in which the outcome has not been determined by past events. Determinism suggests that only one course of events is possible, which is inconsistent with the existence of free will thus conceived
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Semicompatibilism
Semicompatibilism is the view that causal determinism is compatible with moral responsibility, while making no assertions about the truth of determinism or free will. The term was coined by John Martin Fischer.[1][2] Prominent semicompatibilists include Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett, and Harry Frankfurt. Criticisms of this view include the principle of alternative possibilities. See also[edit]CompatibilismReferences[edit]^ http://www.informationphilosopher.com/freedom/semicompatibilism.html ^ http://philpapers.org/browse/semi-compatibilismThis philosophy-related article is a stub
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John Locke
John Locke
John Locke
FRS (/lɒk/; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".[1][2][3] Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire
Voltaire
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries
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The Second Treatise Of Civil Government
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.[1] In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny). While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.[2] Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny
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