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Colonialism
Colonialism
Colonialism
is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health. The European colonial period was the era from the 15th century to 1914 when Spain, Portugal, Britain, Russia, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and several smaller European countries such a Belgium and Italy, established colonies outside Europe.[1] It has been estimated that by 1914, Europeans had gained control of 84% of the globe, and by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
had taken hold, they already controlled at least 35% (excluding Antarctica).[2] The system practically ended between 1945–1975 when nearly all colonies became independent
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American Colonial Architecture
American colonial architecture
American colonial architecture
includes several building design styles associated with the colonial period of the United States, including First Period
First Period
English (late-medieval), French Colonial, Spanish Colonial, Dutch Colonial, and Georgian.[1] These styles are associated with the houses, churches and government buildings of the period from about 1600 through the 19th century. Several relatively distinct regional styles of colonial architecture are recognized in the United States. Building styles in the 13 colonies were influenced by techniques and styles from England, as well as traditions brought by settlers from other parts of Europe
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Burgher People
Burgher people, also known simply as Burghers, are a small Eurasian ethnic group in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
descended from Portuguese, Dutch, British[2][3] and other European men who settled in Sri Lanka[4][5] and developed relationships with native Sri Lankan women.[6] The Portuguese and Dutch had held some of the maritime provinces of the island for centuries before the advent of the British Empire.[7][8][9] With the establishment of Ceylon
Ceylon
as a crown colony at the end of the 18th century, most of those who retained close ties with the Netherlands
Netherlands
departed
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Trading Posts
A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route. Trading posts were also places for people to meet and exchange the news of the world or simply the news from their home country (many of the world's trading posts were located in places which were popular destinations for emigration) in a time when not even newspapers existed. European colonialism
European colonialism
traces its roots to ancient Carthage
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Abolitionism
Abolitionism
Abolitionism
is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery. This term can be used formally or informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a historical movement in effort to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain, usually known as Emperor Charles V, was following the example of Louis X of France
Louis X of France
who abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
in 1315. He passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, and was not enforced. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church, taking up a plea by Lourenço da Silva de Mendouça, officially condemned the slave trade, which was affirmed vehemently by Pope Gregory XVI
Pope Gregory XVI
in 1839
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State (polity)
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.[1][2] Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, however for most of pre-history people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 5,500 years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities, invention of writing, and codification of new forms of religion. Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine right, the theory of the social contract, etc.). Today, however, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject. Some states are sovereign
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Mestizo
Mestizo
Mestizo
(/mɛˈstiːzoʊ, mɪ-/;[1] Spanish: [mesˈtiθo], American Spanish: [-ˈtiso]) is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and to a lesser extent, in the Philippines
Philippines
which originally meant a person of combined European and American Indian descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire's control of their American colonies. Nowadays though, particularly in Latin America, Mestizo
Mestizo
has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as Mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry, and with the term "Indian" being reserved exclusively for people who have maintained a separate indigenous ethnic identity, language, tribal affiliation, etc
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Southern Rhodesia
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa
Africa
from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe. Following its Unilateral Declaratio
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Anglo-Burmese People
The Anglo-Burmese, also known as the Anglo-Burmans, are a community of Eurasians of Burmese and European descent, who emerged as a distinct community through mixed relations (sometimes permanent, sometimes temporary) between the British and other European settlers and the indigenous peoples of Burma from 1826 until 1948 when Myanmar
Myanmar
gained its independence from the United Kingdom. Most who remained after 1962 adopted Burmese names, and converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
to protect their families, jobs and assets.[citation needed] Those who could not adjust to the new way of life after Independence and the coming of military rule are dispersed throughout the world, with very few accurate estimates as to how many remain behind in military-ruled Burma. The term Anglo-Burmese is also used to refer to Eurasians of European and other Burmese ethnic minority groups (e.g. Shan, Karen, Mon, Sino-Burmese) descent
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Eurasian Singaporean
Mainly English, Portuguese, Dutch, French Also: Kristang, Chinese, Malay, Tamil and other Indian languagesReligionMainly Christianity Also: Sunni Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and no religionRelated ethnic groupsBritish people, Portuguese people, Kristang people, Macanese people, Dutch peoplePart of a series onEthnicity in SingaporeArabs Armenians Chinese Chitty Eurasians Filipinos Indians Japanese Jawi Peranakan Jews Koreans Malays Nepalis Pakistanis Straits-Chinese Sri Lankansv t eEurasians in Singapore
Singapore
are individuals of mixed European and Asian descent
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Immigration
Immigration
Immigration
is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.[1][2][3] As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent
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Filipino Mestizo
In the Philippines, Filipino mestizo
Filipino mestizo
are people of mixed Filipino and any foreign ancestry.[1] (The word mestizo is of Spanish origin; it was first used in the Americas
Americas
to describe only people of mixed European and Native American ancestry.[2])Contents1 History1.1 Spanish period 1.2 Chinese immigration2 Colonial caste system 3 Modern Term and Usage 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit] Spanish period[edit] Main article: Spanish Filipino See also: Philippine Spanish The Spanish expedition in 1565, prompted a period of Spanish colonization over the Philippines
Philippines
which lasted for 333 years. The Roman Catholic Church played an important role in allowing Spanish settlements in the Philippines
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Kristang People
The Kristang (otherwise known as "Portuguese-Eurasians" or "Malacca Portuguese") are a creole ethnic group of people of mixed Portuguese and Malaccan descent based in Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore. People of this ethnicity have, besides Portuguese, a strong Dutch heritage, as well as some British, Malay, Chinese and Indian heritage due to intermarriages, which is common among the Kristang. In addition, due to the Portuguese Inquisition in the region, a lot of the Jews of Malacca
Malacca
assimilated into the Kristang community.[1] The creole group arose in Malacca
Malacca
(Malaysia) between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the city was a port and base of the Portuguese Empire. Some descendants speak a distinctive Kristang language or Malacca Portuguese, a creole based on Portuguese
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Indonesia
Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of IndonesiaRepublik Indonesia  (Indonesian) Flag National emblem Motto:  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
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Indos In Pre-colonial History
Indo people
Indo people
(short for Indo-European) are a Eurasian people of mixed Indonesian and European descent. Through the 16th and 18th century known by the name Mestiço
Mestiço
(Dutch: Mestiezen). To this day they form one of the largest Eurasian communities in the world. The early beginning of this community started with the arrival of Portuguese traders in South East Asia
South East Asia
in the 16th century. The second large wave started with the arrival of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) employees in the 17th century and throughout the 18th century
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Spiridione Roma
Spiridione Roma
Spiridione Roma
(1737–1781) was an Italian painter, best known for his work in England."The East offering its riches to Britannia"Biography[edit] He was born in Corfu; then a territory of the Republic of Venice. Little is written about his biography and training. He is best known for an allegorical ceiling piece, The East Offering its Riches to Britannia (1778), commissioned by the East India Company
East India Company
for the Revenue Committee Room in the East India House
East India House
in London. The painting now generally represents the era's panegyric to Britain's imperial and colonialist domination; it is presently held in the British Library
British Library
in London
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