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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Cordate
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants. Leaves may be simple (a single leaf blade or lamina) or compound (with several leaflets ). The edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or bearing hair, bristles or spines. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leaf article. Chart illustrating leaf morphology terms CONTENTS * 1 Leaf
Leaf
structure * 2 Leaf
Leaf
and leaflet shapes * 3 Edge * 4 Leaf
Leaf
folding * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links LEAF STRUCTURE A ternate compound leaf with a petiole but no rachis (or rachillae) Leaves of most plants include a flat structure called the blade or lamina, but not all leaves are flat, some are cylindrical
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Terreneuvian
Coordinates : 47°04′34″N 55°49′52″W / 47.0762°N 55.8310°W / 47.0762; -55.8310 Delegates from the Ichnia 2012 conference inspect the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Ediacaran- Cambrian boundary at Fortune Head Ecological Reserve, Newfoundland, Canada. The boundary is defined on the appearance of the complex, vertical trace fossil Treptichnus (formerly Phycodes) pedum. The TERRENEUVIAN is the lowermost and oldest series of the Cambrian geological system . Its base is defined by the first appearance datum of the trace fossil _ Treptichnus pedum _ around 541 million years ago. Its top is defined as the first appearance of trilobites in the stratigraphic record around 521 million years ago. This series was formally ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in 2012
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Holocene
The HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος (_holos_, whole or entire) and καινός (_kainos_, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history , development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Megaannum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun . Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are generally recognized: _spring _, _summer _, _autumn _ and _winter _. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual _wet _ and _dry_ seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; _see_ below
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest period of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria
Cambria
, the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Cambrian
The CAMBRIAN Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/ ) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cambrian lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician Period 485.4 mya. Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux. The period was established (as “Cambrian series”) by Adam Sedgwick , who named it after Cambria , the Latinised form of _Cymru_, the Welsh name for Wales , where Britain's Cambrian rocks are best exposed. The Cambrian is unique in its unusually high proportion of lagerstätte sedimentary deposits, sites of exceptional preservation where "soft" parts of organisms are preserved as well as their more resistant shells
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Ordovician
The ORDOVICIAN ( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/ ) is a geologic period and system , the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era . The Ordovician
Ordovician
spans 41.2 million years from the end of the Cambrian Period 485.4 million years ago (Mya) to the start of the Silurian Period 443.8 Mya. The Ordovician, named after the Celtic tribe of the Ordovices , was defined by Charles Lapworth
Charles Lapworth
in 1879 to resolve a dispute between followers of Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison
Roderick Murchison
, who were placing the same rock beds in northern Wales into the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Silurian periods, respectively. Lapworth recognized that the fossil fauna in the disputed strata were different from those of either the Cambrian or the Silurian periods, and placed them in a period of their own
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Silurian
The SILURIAN is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at 443.8 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, 419.2 Mya. As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian is set at a major Ordovician-Silurian extinction event when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian was the diversification of jawed and bony fish. Multi-cellular life also began to appear on land in the form of small, bryophyte -like and vascular plants that grew beside lakes, streams, and coastlines, and terrestrial arthropods are also first found on land during the Silurian. However, terrestrial life would not greatly diversify and affect the landscape until the Devonian
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Devonian
The DEVONIAN is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic , spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian , 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous , 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon , England , where rocks from this period were first studied. The first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land , forming extensive forests which covered the continents . By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods also became well-established. Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to often be dubbed the "AGE OF FISH"
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Carboniferous
The CARBONIFEROUS is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name _Carboniferous_ means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words _carbō_ ("coal ") and _ferō_ ("I bear, I carry"), and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern 'system' names to be employed, and reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time. The Carboniferous is often treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the later Pennsylvanian . Terrestrial life was well established by the Carboniferous period
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Permian
The PERMIAN is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Triassic Period 252.2 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic Era; the following Triassic Period belongs to the Mesozoic Era. The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison , who named it after the city of Perm . The Permian witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals , turtles , lepidosaurs , and archosaurs . The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia , surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa . The Carboniferous rainforest collapse left behind vast regions of desert within the continental interior
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Triassic
The TRIASSIC ( /traɪˈæsɪk/ ) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian Period 252.17 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya. The Triassic is the first period of the Mesozoic Era . Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events . The Triassic began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic extinction event , which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs , called dinosaurs , first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic Period
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Jurassic
The JURASSIC ( /dʒuːˈræsɪk/ ; from Jura Mountains ) was a geologic period and system that spanned for 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic Era , also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event . Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions
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Cretaceous
The CRETACEOUS ( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/ , kri-TAY-shəs ) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya ) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era . The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous was a period with a relatively warm climate , resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas . These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles , ammonites and rudists , while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds , as well as flowering plants , appeared
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Paleogene
The PALEOGENE ( /ˈpæliːədʒiːn/ or /ˈpeɪliːədʒiːn/ ; also spelled PALAEOGENE or PALæOGENE; informally LOWER TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Neogene
Neogene
Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era of the present PhanerozoicEon. The Paleogene
Paleogene
is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from relatively small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
that ended the preceding Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period
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