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Chingford
CHINGFORD is a district of the London Borough of Waltham Forest in North East London
London
, situated 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Charing Cross . Historically a rural Essex
Essex
parish, it gained urban district status in 1894, and between 1938 and 1965 formed the core of the Municipal Borough of Chingford . Chingford
Chingford
is close to the Essex border of Epping Forest District . It borders Sewardstone to the north, Woodford Green and Buckhurst Hill to the east and Walthamstow to the south. To the west lie William Girling and King George V reservoirs , known together as the Chingford Reservoirs , and the River Lea . Across these, Chingford
Chingford
is linked with Ponders End through the A110 Lea Valley Road, whilst South Chingford
Chingford
is linked with Edmonton through the A406 Lea Valley Viaduct. To the north and east lies Epping Forest
Epping Forest
, the most part of which is in Essex
Essex
but is maintained by the City of London Corporation
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Chingford (UK Parliament Constituency)
CHINGFORD was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Chingford in the London Borough of Waltham Forest . It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first past the post system. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Boundaries * 3 Members of Parliament * 4 Elections * 4.1 Elections in the 1970s * 4.2 Elections in the 1980s * 4.3 Elections in the 1990s * 5 References HISTORYThe constituency existed from February 1974 until it was abolished for the 1997 general election . It was held by the Conservative Party throughout this period. Both of its former Members of Parliament are well known, being Norman Tebbit and Iain Duncan Smith . BOUNDARIES1974-1983: The London Borough of Waltham Forest wards of Chapel End, Chingford Central, Chingford North West, Chingford South, and Hale End. 1983-1997: The London Borough of Waltham Forest wards of Chapel End, Chingford Green, Endlebury, Hale End, Hatch Lane, Larkswood, and Valley. The seat was created out of the old Epping and Walthamstow East constituencies, and no part of it was ever in the post-1974 administrative county of Essex. It was replaced in 1997 by the new Chingford and Woodford Green constituency
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Greater London
LONDON, or GREATER LONDON, is a county and region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London . It is organised into 33 local government districts : the 32 London boroughs (which makes up the ceremonial county of Greater London) and the City of London (which is a separate county but still part of the region). The Greater London Authority , based in Southwark , is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963 . Administratively, Greater London was first established as a _sui generis _ council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000. The region covers 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi) and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232. The Greater London Built-up Area —used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region
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Ordnance Survey National Grid
The ORDNANCE SURVEY NATIONAL GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude
Latitude
and Longitude
Longitude
. It is often called BRITISH NATIONAL GRID (BNG). The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books or government planning documents. A number of different systems exist that can provide grid references for locations within the British Isles
British Isles
: this article describes the system created solely for Great Britain and its outlying islands (including the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
); the Irish grid reference system
Irish grid reference system
is a similar system created by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
of Ireland for the island of Ireland
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Charing Cross
CHARING CROSS (/ˌtʃærɪŋ ˈkrɒs/ ) denotes the junction of Strand , Whitehall and Cockspur Street , just south of Trafalgar Square in central London . It gives its name to several landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station , one of the main London rail terminals . Charing Cross is named after the Eleanor cross that stood on the site, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross has been occupied since 1675 by an equestrian statue of King Charles I . A loose Victorian replica of the medieval cross, the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross , was erected a short distance to the east outside the railway station. Until 1931, "Charing Cross" referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square . At least one property retains a "Charing Cross" postal address: Drummonds Bank , on the corner of Whitehall and The Mall, which is designated "49 Charing Cross" (not to be confused with Charing Cross Road ). Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has often been regarded as the notional "CENTRE OF LONDON", and is the point from which distances from London are now measured
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Boxing The Compass
The POINTS OF THE COMPASS, specifically on the compass rose , mark divisions of a compass ; such divisions may be referred to as "winds" or "directions". A compass point allows reference to a specific heading (or course or azimuth ) in a general or colloquial fashion, without having to compute or remember degrees. A compass is primarily divided into the four cardinal points —north , south , east , and west . These are often further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions—northeast (NE) between north and east, southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)—to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast (NNE) between north and northeast, are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass . At the most complete division in European tradition, are the full thirty-two points of the mariner\'s compass , which adds points such as north by east (NbE) between north and north-northeast, and northeast by north (NEbN) between north-northeast and northeast. Although the European nautical tradition retained the term "one point" to describe  1⁄32 of a circle (in such phrases as "two points to starboard"), by the middle of the eighteenth century, the 32-point system was further extended with half- and quarter-points to allow 128 directions to be differentiated
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Districts Of England
The DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND (also known as LOCAL AUTHORITY DISTRICTS or LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICTS to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government . As the structure of local government in England is not uniform, there are currently four principal types of district-level subdivision. There are a total of 326 districts made up of 36 metropolitan boroughs , 32 London boroughs , 201 non-metropolitan districts , 55 unitary authorities , as well as the City of London and the Isles of Scilly which are also districts, but do not correspond to any of these categories. Some districts are styled as boroughs , cities , or royal boroughs ; these are purely honorific titles, and do not alter the status of the district. All boroughs and cities, and a few districts, are led by a mayor who in most cases is a ceremonial figure elected by the district council , but – after local government reform – is occasionally a directly elected mayor who makes most of the policy decisions instead of the council
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London Borough Of Waltham Forest
36% White British 1.5% White Irish 0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller 14.5% Other White 1.8% White & Black Caribbean 0.9% White & Black African 1% White "> in locations scattered around the borough, proving that it was a significant area of Roman occupation. The London
London
Government Act 1963 established the borough in 1965 from the combined areas of the former Municipal Borough of Chingford
Chingford
, Municipal Borough of Leyton and Municipal Borough of Walthamstow
Walthamstow
, which all transferred to Greater London
Greater London
from the English county of Essex
Essex
. A petition opposed calling the new borough "Walthamstow", so perhaps for that reason the new borough took its name from the former Waltham Forest , an institution responsible for managing deer in an area that stretched eastwards from the River Lea
River Lea
and included large areas of agricultural land as well as the wooded areas subsequently known as Epping Forest
Epping Forest
and Hainault Forest . The southern part of Epping Forest
Epping Forest
still extends into the south of the borough, 90% of it having been preserved by Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Act of 1878
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Ceremonial Counties Of England
The CEREMONIAL COUNTIES, also referred to as the LIEUTENANCY AREAS OF ENGLAND, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed. Legally the areas in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as COUNTIES AND AREAS FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE LIEUTENANCIES IN GREAT BRITAIN, in contrast to the areas used for local government . They are also informally known as GEOGRAPHIC COUNTIES, as often representing more permanent features of English geography, and to distinguish them from counties of England which have a present-day administrative function. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Shrieval counties * 3 Definition * 3.1 Ceremonial counties since 1997 * 4 Lieutenancy areas in 1890 * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Notes * 8 External links HISTORY Ceremonial counties before the creation of Greater London in 1965 (showing counties corporate as part of the main counties.) The distinction between a county for purposes of the Lieutenancy and a county for administrative purposes is not a new one: in some cases a county corporate that was part of a county was appointed its own Lieutenant (although the Lieutenant of the containing county would often be appointed to this position as well), and the three Ridings of Yorkshire had been treated as three counties for Lieutenancy purposes since the 17th century
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Regions Of England
The REGIONS (formerly known as the GOVERNMENT OFFICE REGIONS; GORS) are the highest tier of sub-national division in England . Between 1994 and 2011, nine regions had officially devolved functions within Government. While they no longer fulfil this role, they continue to be used for statistical and some administrative purposes. They define areas (constituencies) for the purposes of elections to the European Parliament . Eurostat also uses them to demarcate first level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions ("NUTS 1 regions") within the European Union . The regions generally follow the boundaries of the former standard regions , established in the 1940s for statistical purposes. The London region (also known as Greater London ) has a directly elected Mayor and Assembly . Six regions have local authority leaders\' boards to assist with correlating the headline policies of local authorities. The remaining two regions no longer have any administrative functions, having abolished their regional local authority leaders' boards. In 1998, regional chambers were established in the eight regions outside of London, which produced strategic plans and recommendations to local authorities
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Countries Of The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries : England , Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland . Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state , Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have gained a degree of autonomy through the process of devolution . The UK Parliament and British Government deal with all _reserved matters _ for Northern Ireland and Scotland and all _non-transferred matters_ for Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly , Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales . Additionally, devolution in Northern Ireland is conditional on co-operation between the Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland (see North/South Ministerial Council ) and the British Government consults with the Government of Ireland to reach agreement on some non-devolved matters for Northern Ireland (see British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference ). England, comprising the majority of the population and area of the United Kingdom, remains fully the responsibility of the UK Parliament centralised in London . England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales are not themselves listed in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) list of countries
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language , the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations
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List Of Sovereign States
This LIST OF SOVEREIGN STATES provides an overview of sovereign states around the world , with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty . Membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states , two observer states , and 11 other states. The _sovereignty dispute_ column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, out of which there are 6 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood . For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the _criteria for inclusion _ section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have _de facto_ status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Post Town
A POST TOWN is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom , and a basic unit of the postal delivery system. Including the correct post town in the address increases the chance of a letter or parcel being delivered on time. Post towns in general originated as the location of delivery offices. Currently their main function is to distinguish between locality or street names in addresses not including a postcode. CONTENTS * 1 Organisation * 2 Usage * 2.1 Locality * 2.2 Via * 2.3 Ambiguous post town names * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ORGANISATIONThere are approximately 1,500 post towns which are organised by Royal Mail subject to its policy only to impose changes where it has a proven, economic and practical benefit to the organisation, covering its own cost. Each post town usually corresponds to one or more postal districts (the \'outward\' part of the postcode, before the space) therefore each post town can cover an area comprising many towns, urban districts and villages. Post towns rarely correspond exactly to administrative boundaries and their associated physical features. As such they often group a small minority of neighbourhoods, streets or houses together with a main settlement in a different county , area of local government or administration (including healthcare trust), constituency , European statistical region and/or traditional parish
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London Postal District
The LONDON POSTAL DISTRICT is the area in