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ChemSpider
CHEMSPIDER is a database of chemicals . ChemSpider is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Database * 2 Crowdsourcing * 3 Searching * 4 Chemistry document mark-up * 5 History * 6 Services * 6.1 SyntheticPages * 6.2 Open PHACTS * 7 See also * 8 References DATABASEThe database contains information on more than 50 million molecules from over 500 data sources including: * EPA DSSTox * U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) * Human Metabolome Database * Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry * KEGG * KUMGM * LeadScope * LipidMAPS * Marinlit * MDPI * MICAD * MLSMR * MMDB * MOLI * MTDP * Nanogen * Nature Chemical Biology * NCGC * NIAID * National Institutes of Health (NIH) * NINDS Approved Drug Screening Program * NIST * NIST Chemistry WebBook * NMMLSC * NMRShiftDB * PANACHE * PCMD * PDSP * Peptides * Prous Science Drugs of the Future * QSAR * R in fact, the FAQ even states that only limited downloads are allowed: therefore the right to fork is not guaranteed and the project can't be considered free /open
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Research Center
A RESEARCH CENTER is a facility or building dedicated to research , commonly with the focus on a specific area. There are over 14,000 research centers in the United States. Centers apply varied disciplines including basic research and applied research in addition to non traditional techniques. However, a research center should not be confused with a research institute . Additionally, today many universities are establishing research centers to conduct a specific research or education activity. Over a hundred of research centers can be established in one university. This number certainly differs from a university to a university, but most of the research centers there do bring something to the scientific table. NOTABLE RESEARCH CENTERS * Ames Research Center * Bell Labs * Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering * Marine Sciences Research Center * Palo Alto Research Center * Thomas J. Watson Research Center * Biological Research Centre * Pennington Biomedical Research Center REFERENCES * ^ Evaluating Research Centers and Institutes for Success: A Manual and Guide with Case Studies William R. Tash WT right: 15px; display: none;"> * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Research_center additional terms may apply
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Raleigh, North Carolina
RALEIGH (/ˈrɑːli/ ; _RAH-lee_ ) is the capital of the state of North Carolina
North Carolina
and the seat of Wake County in the United States. Raleigh is the second largest city in the state of North Carolina behind Charlotte . Raleigh is known as the " City
City
of Oaks" for its many oak trees , which line the streets in the heart of the city. The city covers a land area of 142.8 square miles (370 km2). The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population as 451,066 as of July 1, 2015. It is one of the fastest-growing cities in the country. The city of Raleigh is named after Sir Walter Raleigh , who established the lost Roanoke Colony in present-day Dare County . Raleigh is home to North Carolina
North Carolina
State University and is part of the Research Triangle area, together with Durham (home of Duke University ) and Chapel Hill (home of the University of North Carolina
North Carolina
at Chapel Hill ). The "Triangle" nickname originated after the 1959 creation of the Research Triangle Park , located in Durham and Wake counties, among the three cities and their universities. The Research Triangle region encompasses the U.S. Census
Census
Bureau's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area (CSA), which had an estimated population of 2,037,430 in 2013
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Laboratory
A LABORATORY (CommE /ləˈbɒrətri/ or /ləˈbɒrətəri/ , AmE /ˈlæbərətɔːri/ ; informally, LAB) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments , and measurement may be performed. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Techniques * 4 Equipment and supplies * 5 Specialized types * 6 Safety * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links OVERVIEWLaboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber , while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength . A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory , while a psychologist\'s laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists , computers (sometimes supercomputers ) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories as well to design, build, and test technological devices
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Antony John Williams
ANTONY JOHN WILLIAMS is a British chemist and expert in the fields of both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and cheminformatics at the United States Environmental Protection Agency . He is the founder of the ChemSpider website that was purchased by the Royal Society of Chemistry
Chemistry
in May 2009. He is a science blogger, one of the hosts of the SciMobileApps wiki, a community-based wiki for Scientific Mobile Apps and an author. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 3 Open science advocacy * 4 Science Mobile Applications * 5 Awards and Honors * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONAntony Williams was born in St Asaph , Wales
Wales
, June 1964 to Ernest Edward Williams, owner of a building contracting firm, and Eirlys Elizabeth Williams. He has one older sister, Rae. He grew up in a small village near Caerwys
Caerwys
. Williams attended Primary School in both Holywell
Holywell
and Nannerch until 1975. From the age of eleven, he attended Alun School where he received A-levels in mathematics , geography , and chemistry
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Royal Society Of Chemistry
The ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY (RSC) is a learned society (professional association ) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences". It was formed in 1980 from the amalgamation of the Chemical Society , the Royal Institute of Chemistry , the Faraday Society , and the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new Royal Charter and the dual role of learned society and professional body. At its inception, the Society had a combined membership of 34,000 in the UK and a further 8,000 abroad. The headquarters of the Society are at Burlington House , Piccadilly , London . It also has offices in Thomas Graham House in Cambridge (named after Thomas Graham , the first president of the Chemical Society ) where _RSC Publishing_ is based. The Society has offices in the United States at the University City Science Center , Philadelphia , in both Beijing and Shanghai , China and Bangalore , India . The organisation carries out research, publishes journals , books and databases, as well as hosting conferences, seminars and workshops
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Computer Software
COMPUTER SOFTWARE, or simply SOFTWARE, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering , computer software is all information processed by computer systems , programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs , libraries and related non-executable data , such as online documentation or digital media . Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor —typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user. An instruction may also (indirectly) cause something to appear on a display of the computer system—a state change which should be visible to the user
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Software License
A SOFTWARE LICENSE is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law , with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain . A typical software license grants the licensee , typically an end-user , permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law. CONTENTS* 1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law * 1.1 Ownership vs. licensing * 2 Proprietary software licenses * 3 Free and open-source software licenses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SOFTWARE LICENSES AND COPYRIGHT LAWMost distributed software can be categorized according to its license type (see table). Two common categories for software under copyright law, and therefore with licenses which grant the licensee specific rights, are proprietary software and free and open source software (FOSS)
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Creative Commons
CREATIVE COMMONS (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright -licenses known as Creative Commons licenses free of charge to the public. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses do not replace copyright, but are based upon it. They replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner (licensor) and licensee , which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management, with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. The result is an agile, low-overhead and low-cost copyright-management regime, profiting both copyright owners and licensees. Wikipedia uses one of these licenses
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Attribution (copyright)
ATTRIBUTION in copyright law, is acknowledgement as credit to the copyright holder or author of a work. Attribution is often considered as the most basic requirements in the usage of the works of others, with a long tradition in the scientific community and academia. If attribution is required by a license , it prevents others from claiming fraudulently to own the work and allows a copyright holder to accumulate a positive reputation that partially repays their losses. In cases when copyright holder is author himself it is regarded as a sign of decency and respect to acknowledge the creator by giving him/her credit for the work. CONTENTS * 1 Copyright
Copyright
holder attribution * 2 Author attribution * 3 See also * 4 References COPYRIGHT HOLDER ATTRIBUTIONThe most fundamental form of attribution is the statement of the copyright holder's identity, often in the form Copyright
Copyright
© . The preservation of such a notice was an invariable requirement to prevent a work entering the public domain ; this changed in the United States of March 1, 1989 when the requirement of copyright registration and copyright signment was ended. Copyright
Copyright
holder attribution is in most countries in the world not required, due to Berne convention
Berne convention

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Share-alike
SHARE-ALIKE is a copyright licensing term, originally used by the Creative Commons project, to describe works or licences that require copies or adaptations of the work to be released under the same or similar licence as the original. Copyleft licences are free content or free software licences with a share-alike condition. Two currently-supported Creative Commons licences have the ShareAlike condition: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (a copyleft , free content licence) and Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (a proprietary licence). The term has also been used outside copyright law to refer to a similar plan for patent licensing . CONTENTS * 1 Copyleft * 2 Creative Commons * 3 Version history * 4 Adoption * 5 See also * 6 References COPYLEFT Main article: Copyleft COPYLEFT or libre share-alike licences are the largest subcategory of share-alike licences. They include both free content licences like Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike and free software licences like the GNU General Public License . These licences have been described pejoratively as viral licences , because the inclusion of copyleft material in a larger work typically requires the entire work to be made copyleft
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Chemical Database
A CHEMICAL DATABASE is a database specifically designed to store chemical information . This information is about chemical and crystal structures , spectra, reactions and syntheses, and thermophysical data. CONTENTS* 1 Types of chemical databases * 1.1 Chemical structures * 1.2 Literature database * 1.3 Crystallographic database * 1.4 NMR spectra database * 1.5 Reactions database * 1.6 Thermophysical database * 2 Chemical structure representation * 3 Search * 3.1 Substructure * 3.2 Conformation * 4 Descriptors * 5 Similarity * 6 Registration systems * 7 Tools * 8 See also * 9 References TYPES OF CHEMICAL DATABASESCHEMICAL STRUCTURESChemical structures are traditionally represented using lines indicating chemical bonds between atoms and drawn on paper (2D structural formulae ). While these are ideal visual representations for the chemist , they are unsuitable for computational use and especially for search and storage . Small molecules (also called ligands in drug design applications), are usually represented using lists of atoms and their connections. Large molecules such as proteins are however more compactly represented using the sequences of their amino acid building blocks. Large chemical databases for structures are expected to handle the storage and searching of information on millions of molecules taking terabytes of physical memory..
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term _molecule_ is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term _molecule_ is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules. Molecules as components of matter are common in organic substances (and therefore biochemistry). They also make up most of the oceans and atmosphere. However, the majority of familiar solid substances on Earth, including most of the minerals that make up the crust , mantle , and core of the Earth , contain many chemical bonds, but are _not_ made of identifiable molecules
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Food And Drug Administration (United States)
The FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services , one of the United States federal executive departments . The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety , tobacco products, dietary supplements , prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines , biopharmaceuticals , blood transfusions , medical devices , electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods the FDA also enforces other laws, notably Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and associated regulations, many of which are not directly related to food or drugs. These include regulating lasers, cellular phones, condoms and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction . The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs , appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate . The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services . Scott Gottlieb, M.D. is the current commissioner, taking over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in unincorporated White Oak, Maryland
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Journal Of Heterocyclic Chemistry
_JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY_ is a peer-reviewed scientific journal summarizing progress in the field of heterocycle chemistry . It is a source for the ChemSpider database. REFERENCES _ This article about a chemistry journal is a stub . You can help Wikipedia by expanding it ._ * v * t * e See tips for writing articles about academic journals . Further suggestions might be found on the article's talk page . Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Journal_of_Heterocyclic_Chemistry additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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KEGG
KEGG (KYOTO ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENES AND GENOMES) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes , biological pathways , diseases , drugs , and chemical substances . KEGG is utilized for bioinformatics research and education, including data analysis in genomics , metagenomics , metabolomics and other omics studies, modeling and simulation in systems biology , and translational research in drug development . CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 Databases * 2.1 Systems information * 2.2 Genomic information * 2.3 Chemical information * 2.4 Health information * 3 Subscription model * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links INTRODUCTIONThe KEGG database project was initiated in 1995 by Minoru Kanehisa, Professor at the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University , under the then ongoing Japanese Human Genome Program . Foreseeing the need for a computerized resource that can be used for biological interpretation of genome sequence data , he started developing the KEGG PATHWAY database. It is a collection of manually drawn KEGG pathway maps representing experimental knowledge on metabolism and various other functions of the cell and the organism . Each pathway map contains a network of molecular interactions and reactions and is designed to link genes in the genome to gene products (mostly proteins ) in the pathway
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