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Chaoboridae
The Chaoboridae, commonly known as phantom midges or glassworms, are a family of fairly common midges with a cosmopolitan distribution. They are closely related to the Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
and Chironomidae; the adults are differentiated through peculiarities in wing venation. If they eat at all, the adults feed on nectar. The larvae are aquatic and unique in their feeding method: the antennae of phantom midge larvae are modified into grasping organs slightly resembling the raptorial arms of a mantis, with which they capture prey. They feed largely on small insects such as mosquito larvae and crustaceans such as Daphnia
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Lake
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.[1] Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are also larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions.[2] Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age
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Cosmopolitan Distribution
In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats. Such a taxon is said to exhibit cosmopolitanism or cosmopolitism. The opposite extreme is endemism.Contents1 Related terms and concepts 2 Aspects and degrees 3 Oceanic and terrestrial 4 Ecological delimitation 5 Regional and temporal variation in populations 6 Ancient and modern 7 See also 8 ReferencesRelated terms and concepts[edit] The term pandemism also is in use, but not all authors are consistent in the sense in which they use the term; some speak of pandemism mainly in referring to diseases and pandemics, and some as a term intermediate between endemism and cosmopolitanism, in effect regarding pandemism as subcosmopolitanism
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Neoptera
Neoptera
Neoptera
is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.Contents1 Classification 2 Phylogeny 3 References 4 External linksClassification[edit] The taxon Neoptera
Neoptera
was proposed by А.М
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Pterygota
For alternative classifications and fossil orders, see text.The Pterygota
Pterygota
are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution).[1] The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha
Archaeognatha
(jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma
Zygentoma
(silverfishes and firebrats), two primitively wingless insect orders
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Transparency And Translucency
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale (one where the dimensions investigated are much, much larger than the wavelength of the photons in question), the photons can be said to follow Snell's Law. Translucency (also called translucence or translucidity) is a superset of transparency: it allows light to pass through, but does not necessarily (again, on the macroscopic scale) follow Snell's law; the photons can be scattered at either of the two interfaces where there is a change in index of refraction, or internally. In other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. The opposite property of translucency is opacity
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Daphnia
Daphnia, a genus of small planktonic crustaceans, are 0.2–5 millimetres (0.01–0.20 in) in length. Daphnia
Daphnia
are members of the order Cladocera, and are one of the several small aquatic crustaceans commonly called water fleas because their saltatory (Wiktionary) swimming style resembles the movements of fleas. Daphnia live in various aquatic environments ranging from acidic swamps to freshwater lakes, ponds, streams and rivers. The two most readily available species of Daphnia
Daphnia
are D. pulex (small and most common) and D. magna (large). They are often associated with a related genus in the order Cladocera: Moina, which is in the Moinidae family instead of Daphniidae
Daphniidae
and is much smaller than D. pulex (approximately half the maximum length)
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Mantis
Acanthopidae Amorphoscelididae Chaeteessidae Empusidae Eremiaphilidae Hymenopodidae Iridopterygidae Liturgusidae Mantidae Mantoididae Metallyticidae Sibyllidae Tarachodidae Thespidae ToxoderidaeSynonymsManteodea Burmeister, 1829 Mantearia MantopteraMantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families. The largest family is the Mantidae
Mantidae
("mantids"). Mantises are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. They have triangular heads with bulging eyes supported on flexible necks. Their elongated bodies may or may not have wings, but all Mantodea have forelegs that are greatly enlarged and adapted for catching and gripping prey; their upright posture, while remaining stationary with forearms folded, has led to the common name praying mantis. The closest relatives of mantises are the termites and cockroaches (Blattodea), which are all within the superorder Dictyoptera
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Insect
See text.SynonymsEctognatha EntomidaInsects or Insecta (from Latin
Latin
insectum) are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As used here, the term is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Endopterygota
Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera
Neoptera
that go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. They undergo a radical metamorphosis, with the larval and adult stages differing considerably in their structure and behaviour. This is called holometabolism, or complete metamorphism. The Endopterygota
Endopterygota
are among the most diverse insect superorders, with about 850,000 living species divided between 11 orders, containing insects such as butterflies, flies, fleas, bees, ants, and beetles.[1] They are distinguished from the Exopterygota
Exopterygota
(or Hemipterodea) by the way in which their wings develop. Endopterygota
Endopterygota
(meaning literally "internal winged forms") develop wings inside the body and undergo an elaborate metamorphosis involving a pupal stage
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Keroplatidae
The Keroplatidae
Keroplatidae
are a family of small flies known as fungus gnats. About 950 species are described, but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher. They are generally forest dwellers found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi.[1] References[edit]^ Evenhuis, N. L. (2006). "Catalog of the Keroplatidae
Keroplatidae
of the World (Insecta: Diptera)" (PDF). Bishop Museum Bulletin in Entomology. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 13: 1–178
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Ditomyiidae
The Ditomyiidae
Ditomyiidae
are a small (90 species) family of flies (Diptera).They are found worldwide (except in the Afrotropical Region), most species are found in the Australasian and Neotropical realms.[1] There are only two genera in Europe Ditomyia Winnertz, 1846 and Symmerus Walker, 1848 [2][3] Ditomyia is found in Central Europe Symmerus in Northern Europe Symmerus is endemic to the Palaearctic.[4]Wing detailGenera[edit]Asioditomyia Australosymmerus Calliceratomyia Ditomyia Neocrionisca Nervijuncta Rhipidita SymmerusReferences[edit]^ Matile Family Ditomyiidae. ^ .Øivind Gammelmo & Eirik Rindal, 2006 On the family Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Sciaroidea) in Norway Norw. J. Entomol. 53, 47-49, 22 May 2006 pdf ^ Fauna Europaea ^ Munroe, D.D. 1974. The systematics, phylogeny, and zoogeography of Symmerus Walker and Australosymmerus Freeman (Diptera: Mycetophilidae: Ditomyiinae). Mem. entomol. soc.Can. 92. 1 – 183
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Psychodomorpha
The nematoceran infraorder Psychodomorpha
Psychodomorpha
(sometimes misspelled Psychomorpha - which is also the name of a genus of noctuid moths) includes two common families, Psychodidae
Psychodidae
and Scatopsidae, and other very small, rare families. In some classifications (e.g
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