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Chaoboridae
The CHAOBORIDAE, commonly known as PHANTOM MIDGES or GLASSWORMS, are a family of fairly common midges with a cosmopolitan distribution. They are closely related to the Corethrellidae and Chironomidae ; the adults are differentiated through peculiarities in wing venation. If they eat at all, the adults feed on nectar. The larvae are aquatic and unique in their feeding method: the antennae of phantom midge larvae are modified into grasping organs slightly resembling the raptorial arms of a mantis , with which they capture prey. They feed largely on small insects such as mosquito larvae and crustaceans such as Daphnia . The antennae impale or crush the prey, and then bring it to the larval mouth, or stylet. The larvae swim and sometimes form large swarms in their lacustrine habitats
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Daphnia
DAPHNIA, a genus of small planktonic crustaceans , are 0.2–5 millimetres (0.01–0.20 in) in length. Daphnia
Daphnia
are members of the order Cladocera , and are one of the several small aquatic crustaceans commonly called water fleas because their saltatory (Wiktionary) swimming style resembles the movements of fleas . Daphnia
Daphnia
live in various aquatic environments ranging from acidic swamps to freshwater lakes, ponds, streams and rivers. The two most readily available species of Daphnia
Daphnia
are D. pulex (small and most common) and D. magna (large). They are often associated with a related genus in the order Cladocera: Moina , which is in the Moinidae family instead of Daphniidae and is much smaller than D. pulex (approximately half the maximum length)
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Mantis
Acanthopidae
Acanthopidae
Amorphoscelididae Chaeteessidae Empusidae
Empusidae
Eremiaphilidae Hymenopodidae Iridopterygidae Liturgusidae Mantidae
Mantidae
Mantoididae Metallyticidae Sibyllidae Tarachodidae Thespidae Toxoderidae SYNONYMS * Manteodea Burmeister, 1829 * Mantearia * MantopteraMANTISES are an order (MANTODEA) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families. The largest family is the Mantidae
Mantidae
("mantids"). Mantises are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. They have triangular heads with bulging eyes supported on flexible necks
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Transparency And Translucency
In the field of optics , TRANSPARENCY (also called PELLUCIDITY or DIAPHANEITY) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale (one where the dimensions investigated are much, much larger than the wavelength of the photons in question), the photons can be said to follow Snell\'s Law . TRANSLUCENCY (also called TRANSLUCENCE or TRANSLUCIDITY) is a superset of transparency: it allows light to pass through, but does not necessarily (again, on the macroscopic scale) follow Snell's law; the photons can be scattered at either of the two interfaces where there is a change in index of refraction , or internally. In other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. The opposite property of translucency is opacity
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Pterygota
For alternative classifications and fossil orders, see text. The PTERYGOTA are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution). The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma (silverfishes and firebrats ), two primitively wingless insect orders. Also not included are the three orders no longer considered to be insects: Protura , Collembola
Collembola
, and Diplura
Diplura

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Endopterygota
ENDOPTERYGOTA, also known as HOLOMETABOLA, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera that go through distinctive larval , pupal , and adult stages. They undergo a radical metamorphosis , with the larval and adult stages differing considerably in their structure and behaviour. This is called holometabolism , or complete metamorphism. The Endopterygota
Endopterygota
are among the most diverse insect superorders, with about 850,000 living species divided between 11 orders , containing insects such as butterflies , flies , fleas , bees , ants , and beetles . They are distinguished from the Exopterygota (or Hemipterodea) by the way in which their wings develop. Endopterygota
Endopterygota
(meaning literally "internal winged forms") develop wings inside the body and undergo an elaborate metamorphosis involving a pupal stage
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Neoptera
NEOPTERA is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects , specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens . This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the " Palaeoptera " assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Phylogeny * 3 References * 4 External links CLASSIFICATIONThe taxon Neoptera
Neoptera
was proposed by А.М
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Cosmopolitan Distribution
In biogeography , a taxon is said to have a COSMOPOLITAN DISTRIBUTION if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats . Such a taxon is said to exhibit cosmopolitanism or cosmopolitism. The opposite extreme is endemism . CONTENTS * 1 Related terms and concepts * 2 Aspects and degrees * 3 Oceanic and terrestrial * 4 Ecological delimitation * 5 Regional and temporal variation in populations * 6 Ancient and modern * 7 See also * 8 References RELATED TERMS AND CONCEPTSThe term PANDEMISM also is in use, but not all authors are consistent in the sense in which they use the term; some speak of pandemism mainly in referring to diseases and pandemics , and some as a term intermediate between endemism and cosmopolitanism, in effect regarding pandemism as SUBCOSMOPOLITANISM. This means near cosmopolitanism, but with major gaps in the distribution , say, complete absence from Australia
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Lake
A LAKE is an area of variable size filled with water, localized in a basin , that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean , and therefore are distinct from lagoons , and are also larger and deeper than ponds , though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams , which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones , and areas with ongoing glaciation . Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age
Ice Age
. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum EUARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . The term ARTHROPODA as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Insect
See text . SYNONYMS * Ectognatha * EntomidaINSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin
Latin
insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Mycetophilidae
See text DIVERSITY ca. 150 genera The MYCETOPHILIDAE are a family of small flies , forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats . About 3000 described species are placed in 150 genera, but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher. They are generally found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi and sometimes form dense swarms. Adults of this family can usually be separated from other small flies by the strongly humped thorax , well-developed coxae , and often spinose legs, but identification within the family between genera and species generally requires close study of microscopic features such as subtle differences in wing venation and variation in chaetotaxy and genitalia . The terrestrial larvae usually feed on fungi, especially the fruiting bodies, but also spores and hyphae , but some species have been recorded on mosses and liverworts
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Sciaridae
Many others Play media A Sciaridae
Sciaridae
ovipositing into a leaf of Urtica The SCIARIDAE are a family of flies , commonly known as DARK-WINGED FUNGUS GNATS. Commonly found in moist environments, they are known to be a pest of mushroom farms and are commonly found in household plant pots. This is one of the least studied of the large Diptera families, probably due to the small size of these insects and the difficulty in specific identification. Currently, around 1700 species are described, but an estimated 20,000 species are estimated to be awaiting discovery, mainly in the tropics . More than 600 species are known from Europe
Europe

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Cecidomyiidae
CECIDOMYIIDAE (sometimes spelled CECIDOMYIDAE ) is a family of flies known as GALL MIDGES or GALL GNATS. As the name implies, the larvae of most gall midges feed within plant tissue, creating abnormal plant growths called galls . A cecidomyiid laying eggs on grass Play media Cecidomyiid in copula Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
are very fragile small insects usually only 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) in length; many are less than 1 mm (0.039 in) long. They are characterised by hairy wings, unusual in the order Diptera, and have long antennae . More than 6,000 species and 783 genera are found worldwide, but since 1,100 are from well-studied North America
North America
, this may be an underestimate
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