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Chancellor
CHANCELLOR (Latin : cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery . The word is now used in the titles of many various officers in all kinds of settings (government, education, religion, etc.)
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Westminster System
The WESTMINSTER SYSTEM is a parliamentary system of government modelled after that which developed in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
, the seat of the British parliament . The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature . It is used, or was once used, in the national legislatures and subnational legislatures of most former British Empire colonies upon gaining responsible government , beginning with the first of the Canadian provinces in 1848 and the six Australian colonies between 1855 and 1890. However, some former colonies have since adopted either the presidential system ( Nigeria
Nigeria
for example) or a hybrid system (like South Africa
South Africa
) as their form of government
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Aut Simul Stabunt Aut Simul Cadent
The Latin brocard AUT SIMUL STABUNT AUT SIMUL CADENT (or SIMUL SIMUL for short), meaning they will either stand together, or fall together, is used in law to express those cases in which the end of a certain situation automatically brings upon the end of another one, and vice versa. The first use of this expression in the mass media, which made it known to the non-specialists, was in occasion of one of the first crises between fascist Italy and the Vatican concerning the Concordat . Pope Pius XI is believed to have pronounced the sentence to express the fact that challenging the Concordat would have swept away the whole Lateran treaty , reopening the Roman question
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Directorial System
A DIRECTORIAL REPUBLIC is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state or a head of government . This system of government is in contrast both with presidential republics and parliamentary republics . In political history, the term DIRECTORY, in French directoire, is applied to high collegial institutions of state composed of members styled director. The most important of these by far was the Directory of 1795–1799 in France
France
. The system was inspired by the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 , which prominently featured a collegial 12-member Supreme Executive Council with a primus inter pares President. Variants of this form of government, based on the French model, were also established in the European regions conquered by France
France
during the French Revolutionary Wars
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Systems Of Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature , administration , and judiciary . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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Cohabitation (government)
COHABITATION is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems , such as France
France
, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament . It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a premier (prime minister ) that will be acceptable to the majority party within parliament. Thus, cohabitation occurs because of the duality of the executive: an independently elected President and a prime minister who must be acceptable both to this president and to the legislature
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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called president . In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President
President
of the Continental Congress in the early United States
United States
, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government
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Grammatical Gender
In linguistics , GRAMMATICAL GENDER is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs. This system is used in approximately one quarter of the world's languages . In these languages, most or all nouns inherently carry one value of the grammatical category called gender; the values present in a given language (of which there are usually two or three) are called the genders of that language. According to one definition: "Genders are classes of nouns reflected in the behaviour of associated words." Common gender divisions include masculine and feminine; masculine, feminine and neuter; or animate and inanimate. In a few languages, the gender assignment of nouns is solely determined by their meaning or attributes, like biological sex, humanness, animacy
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Chancery (other)
CHANCERY may refer to: * Chancery (diplomacy) , the building that houses a diplomatic mission, such as an embassy * Chancery (medieval office) , a medieval writing office * Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood , British office that deals with administration of Orders of Chivalry * Chancery (Scotland) , legal office until 1928 *
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Basilica
The Latin
Latin
word BASILICA (derived from the Greek βασιλικὴ στοά (basilikè stoá), lit. "royal stoa ", serving as the tribunal chamber of a king) has three distinct applications in modern English. The word was originally used to describe an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. To a large extent these were the town halls of ancient Roman life. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the main forum . These buildings, an example of which is the Basilica Ulpia , were rectangular, and often had a central nave and aisles , usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at each of the two ends, adorned with a statue perhaps of the emperor, while the entrances were from the long sides
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Cabinet Collective Responsibility
CABINET COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, also known as COLLECTIVE MINISTERIAL RESPONSIBILITY, is a constitutional convention in governments using the Westminster System , that members of the cabinet must publicly support all governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them. This support includes voting for the government in the legislature. Some Communist political parties apply a similar convention of democratic centralism to their central committee . If a member of the cabinet does wish to openly object to a cabinet decision then they are obliged to resign from their position in the cabinet. Cabinet collective responsibility is related to the fact that, if a vote of no confidence is passed in parliament , the government is responsible collectively, and thus the entire government resigns
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown ) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication
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President Of The Council Of State
The official title PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE, or CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE is used to describe the head of the states of Cuba
Cuba
, and formerly communist states in the East Germany
East Germany
, Poland
Poland
, Romania
Romania
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam
Vietnam

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