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ChEBI
CHEMICAL ENTITIES OF BIOLOGICAL INTEREST, also known as CHEBI, is a database and ontology of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds, that is part of the Open Biomedical Ontologies effort. The term "molecular entity" refers to any "constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom , molecule , ion , ion pair , radical , radical ion , complex , conformer , etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity". The molecular entities in question are either products of nature or synthetic products which have potential bioactivity. Molecules directly encoded by the genome, such as nucleic acids , proteins and peptides derived from proteins by proteolytic cleavage, are not as a rule included in ChEBI
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IUPAC Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book
Book
and the Red Book
Book
, respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book
Book
, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the Gold Book
Book
, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry
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IUPAC
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International
International
Council for Science (ICSU). IUPAC is registered in Zürich
Zürich
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park , North Carolina
North Carolina
, United States
United States
. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director, currently Lynn Soby. IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
for the advancement of chemistry
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International Union Of Biochemistry And Molecular Biology
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (IUBMB) is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology . Formed in 1955 as the INTERNATIONAL UNION OF BIOCHEMISTRY, the union has presently 77 member countries (as of 2008). IUBMB organizes a triennial Congress of Biochemistry
Biochemistry
and Molecular Biology, and sponsors more frequent conferences, symposia, educational activities and lectures. It publishes standards on biochemical nomenclature, including enzyme nomenclature, in some cases jointly with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC). IUBMB has instituted the Wood Whelan Research fellowship scheme for budding researchers. It is considered as a prestigious award for doctoral students. Candidates are selected based on a competitive project proposal and reference letters
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Proteolytic
PROTEOLYSIS is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids . Uncatalysed, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is extremely slow, taking hundreds of years. Proteolysis
Proteolysis
is typically catalysed by cellular enzymes called proteases , but may also occur by intra-molecular digestion. Low pH or high temperatures can also cause proteolysis non-enzymatically. Proteolysis
Proteolysis
in organisms serves many purposes; for example, digestive enzymes break down proteins in food to provide amino acids for the organism, while proteolytic processing of a polypeptide chain after its synthesis may be necessary for the production of an active protein. It is also important in the regulation of some physiological and cellular processes, as well as preventing the accumulation of unwanted or abnormal proteins in cells. Consequently, dis-regulation of proteolysis can cause diseases and is used in some venoms to damage their prey
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Peptides
PEPTIDES (from Gr. : πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are natural biological or artificially manufactured short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide ) bonds. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amine group of another. The shortest peptides are dipeptides , consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides , tetrapeptides , etc. A POLYPEPTIDE is a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological oligomers and polymers , alongside nucleic acids , oligosaccharides and polysaccharides , etc. Peptides are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, and as an arbitrary benchmark can be understood to contain approximately 50 or fewer amino acids
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Nucleic Acids
NUCLEIC ACIDS are biopolymers , or large biomolecules , essential to all known forms of life . They are composed of monomers , which are nucleotides made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar , a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base . If the sugar is a simple ribose , the polymer is RNA
RNA
(ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose , the polymer is DNA
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. They are found in abundance in all living things, where they function to create and encode and then store information in the nucleus of every living cell of every life-form organism on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus—to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living organism
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Proteins
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication
DNA replication
, responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
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DrugBank
The DRUGBANK database is a comprehensive, freely accessible, online database containing information on drugs and drug targets. As both a bioinformatics and a cheminformatics resource, DrugBank
DrugBank
combines detailed drug (i.e. chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e. sequence, structure, and pathway) information. Because of its broad scope, comprehensive referencing and unusually detailed data descriptions, DrugBank
DrugBank
is more akin to a drug encyclopedia than a drug database. As a result, links to DrugBank are maintained for nearly all drugs listed in. DrugBank
DrugBank
is widely used by the drug industry, medicinal chemists, pharmacists , physicians , students and the general public. Its extensive drug and drug-target data has enabled the discovery and repurposing of a number of existing drugs to treat rare and newly identified illnesses
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PubChem
PUBCHEM is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine , which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface . Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP . PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. CONTENTS * 1 Databases * 2 Searching * 3 History * 4 ACS\'s concerns * 5 Database fields * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DATABASES PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases
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Compendium Of Chemical Terminology
The COMPENDIUM OF CHEMICAL TERMINOLOGY is a book published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry . Work on the first edition was initiated by Victor Gold , hence its informal name, the GOLD BOOK. The first edition was published in 1987 (ISBN 0-63201-765-1 ) and the second edition (ISBN 0-86542-684-8 ), edited by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson, was published in 1997. A slightly expanded version of the Gold Book is also freely searchable online. Translations have also been published in French, Spanish and Polish
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Wikidata
WIKIDATA is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as , and by anyone else, under a public domain licence. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase . CONTENTS * 1 Concepts * 2 Development history * 2.1 Phase 1 * 2.2 Phase 2 * 2.3 Phase 3 * 3 Reception * 4 Logo * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CONCEPTS Screenshots Three statements from Wikidata\'s item on the planet Mars. Values include links to other items and to Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Union Of Pure And Applied Chemistry
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International
International
Council for Science (ICSU). IUPAC is registered in Zürich
Zürich
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park , North Carolina
North Carolina
, United States
United States
. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director, currently Lynn Soby. IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
for the advancement of chemistry
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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