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ChEBI
CHEBI may refer to: * ChEBI , Chemical Entities of Biological Interest * Chebi Khan (fl. 630-650), a claimant of the title of khan of Eastern Turkic Khaganate after the collapse of Xueyantuo * Chebi, Ethiopia , a town in Jeldu woreda, Ethiopia * Typhoon Chebi (2001) * Typhoon Chebi (2006) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CHEBI. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Chebi additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Chemical Database
A CHEMICAL DATABASE is a database specifically designed to store chemical information . This information is about chemical and crystal structures , spectra, reactions and syntheses, and thermophysical data. CONTENTS* 1 Types of chemical databases * 1.1 Chemical structures * 1.2 Literature database * 1.3 Crystallographic database * 1.4 NMR spectra database * 1.5 Reactions database * 1.6 Thermophysical database * 2 Chemical structure representation * 3 Search * 3.1 Substructure * 3.2 Conformation * 4 Descriptors * 5 Similarity * 6 Registration systems * 7 Tools * 8 See also * 9 References TYPES OF CHEMICAL DATABASESCHEMICAL STRUCTURESChemical structures are traditionally represented using lines indicating chemical bonds between atoms and drawn on paper (2D structural formulae ). While these are ideal visual representations for the chemist , they are unsuitable for computational use and especially for search and storage . Small molecules (also called ligands in drug design applications), are usually represented using lists of atoms and their connections. Large molecules such as proteins are however more compactly represented using the sequences of their amino acid building blocks. Large chemical databases for structures are expected to handle the storage and searching of information on millions of molecules taking terabytes of physical memory..
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Research Center
A RESEARCH CENTER is a facility or building dedicated to research , commonly with the focus on a specific area. There are over 14,000 research centers in the United States. Centers apply varied disciplines including basic research and applied research in addition to non traditional techniques. However, a research center should not be confused with a research institute . Additionally, today many universities are establishing research centers to conduct a specific research or education activity. Over a hundred of research centers can be established in one university. This number certainly differs from a university to a university, but most of the research centers there do bring something to the scientific table. NOTABLE RESEARCH CENTERS * Ames Research Center * Bell Labs * Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering * Marine Sciences Research Center * Palo Alto Research Center * Thomas J. Watson Research Center * Biological Research Centre * Pennington Biomedical Research Center REFERENCES * ^ Evaluating Research Centers and Institutes for Success: A Manual and Guide with Case Studies William R. Tash WT right: 15px; display: none;"> * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Research_center additional terms may apply
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European Molecular Biology Laboratory
The EUROPEAN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY (EMBL) is a molecular biology research institution supported by 22 member states, four prospect and two associate member states. EMBL was created in 1974 and is an intergovernmental organisation funded by public research money from its member states. Research at EMBL is conducted by approximately 85 independent groups covering the spectrum of molecular biology. The Laboratory operates from five sites: the main laboratory in Heidelberg , and outstations in Hinxton (the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), in England), Grenoble (France), Hamburg (Germany) and Monterotondo (near Rome). EMBL groups and laboratories perform basic research in molecular biology and molecular medicine as well as training for scientists, students and visitors. The organization aids in the development of services, new instruments and methods, and technology in its member states. Israel is the only Asian state that has full membership. CONTENTS * 1 Research at EMBL * 2 Membership * 3 Training * 4 EMBL Advanced Training Centre * 5 Science and Society * 6 History * 7 References * 8 External links RESEARCH AT EMBL EMBL main entrance Each of the different EMBL sites have a specific research field
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Laboratory
A LABORATORY (CommE /ləˈbɒrətri/ or /ləˈbɒrətəri/ , AmE /ˈlæbərətɔːri/ ; informally, LAB) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments , and measurement may be performed. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Techniques * 4 Equipment and supplies * 5 Specialized types * 6 Safety * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links OVERVIEWLaboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber , while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength . A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory , while a psychologist\'s laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists , computers (sometimes supercomputers ) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories as well to design, build, and test technological devices
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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European Bioinformatics Institute
The EUROPEAN BIOINFORMATICS INSTITUTE (EMBL-EBI) is a centre for research and services in bioinformatics , and is part of European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). CONTENTS * 1 About * 2 Funding * 3 Resources at the EMBL-EBI * 4 Other bioinformatics organisations * 5 References * 6 External links ABOUTThe roots of the EMBL-EBI lie in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library (now known as EMBL-Bank), which was established in 1980 at the EMBL laboratories in Heidelberg, Germany and was the world's first nucleotide sequence database. The original goal was to establish a central computer database of DNA sequences, to supplement sequences submitted to journals. What began as a modest task of abstracting information from literature soon became a major database activity with direct electronic submissions of data and the need for highly skilled informatics staff. The task grew in scale with the start of the genome projects , and grew in visibility as the data became relevant to research in the commercial sector. It soon became apparent that the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library needed better financial security to ensure its long-term viability and to cope with the sheer scale of the task. There was also a need for research and development to provide services, to collaborate with global partners to support the project, and to provide assistance to industry
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Web Service
A WEB SERVICE is a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each other via the World Wide Web . In a Web service, Web technology such as HTTP , originally designed for human-to-machine communication, is utilized for machine-to-machine communication, more specifically for transferring machine readable file formats such as XML and JSON . In practice, the web service typically provides an object-oriented web-based interface to a database server, utilized for example by another web server, or by a mobile application , that provides a user interface to the end user. Another common application offered to the end user may be a mashup , where a web server consumes several web services at different machines, and compiles the content into one user interface. The W3C defines a web service generally as: A web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network. — W3C, Web Services Glossary Web services may use SOAP over HTTP protocol, allowing less costly interactions over the Internet than via proprietary solutions like EDI/B2B. Besides SOAP over HTTP, web services can also be implemented on other reliable transport mechanisms like FTP
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Sparql
SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL PROTOCOL AND RDF QUERY LANGUAGE) is an RDF query language , that is, a semantic query language for databases , able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework (RDF) format. It was made a standard by the _RDF Data Access Working Group_ (DAWG) of the World Wide Web Consortium , and is recognized as one of the key technologies of the semantic web . On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation, and SPARQL 1.1 in March, 2013. SPARQL allows for a query to consist of triple patterns , conjunctions , disjunctions , and optional patterns . Implementations for multiple programming languages exist. There exist tools that allow one to connect and semi-automatically construct a SPARQL query for a SPARQL endpoint, for example ViziQuer. In addition, there exist tools that translate SPARQL queries to other query languages, for example to SQL and to XQuery . CONTENTS * 1 Advantages * 2 Query forms * 3 Example * 4 Extensions * 5 Implementations * 6 References * 7 External links ADVANTAGES SPARQL allows users to write queries against what can loosely be called "key-value" data or, more specifically, data that follows the RDF specification of the W3C
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Web Application
In computing, a WEB APPLICATION or WEB APP is a client–server software application in which the client (or user interface) runs in a web browser . Common web applications include webmail , online retail sales , online auctions , wikis , instant messaging services and many other functions. CONTENTS* 1 Definition and similar terms * 1.1 Mobile web applications * 2 History * 3 Interface * 4 Structure * 5 Business use * 6 Development * 7 Applications * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DEFINITION AND SIMILAR TERMSThe general distinction between a dynamic web page of any kind and a "web application" is unclear. Web sites most likely to be referred to as "web applications" are those which have similar functionality to a desktop software application, or to a mobile app . HTML5 introduced explicit language support for making applications that are loaded as web pages, but can store data locally and continue to function while offline. Single-page applications are more application-like because they reject the more typical web paradigm of moving between distinct pages with different URLs. Single-page frameworks like Sencha Touch and AngularJS might be used to speed development of such a web app for a mobile platform
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Ontology (information Science)
In computer science and information science , an ONTOLOGY is a formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really or fundamentally exist for a particular domain of discourse . It is thus a practical application of philosophical ontology , with a taxonomy . An ontology compartmentalizes the variables needed for some set of computations and establishes the relationships between them. The fields of artificial intelligence , the Semantic Web , systems engineering , software engineering , biomedical informatics , library science , enterprise bookmarking , and information architecture all create ontologies to limit complexity and to organize information. The ontology can then be applied to problem solving . In the domain of knowledge graph computation, the knowledge density is the average number of attributes and binary relation issued from a given entity , it is commonly measured in facts per entity
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Molecular Entity
A MOLECULAR ENTITY is "any constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom , molecule , ion , ion pair, radical , radical ion, complex , conformer , etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity". A molecular entity is any singular entity, irrespective of its nature, used to concisely express any type of chemical particle that can exemplify some process: for example, atoms, molecules, ions, etc. can all undergo a chemical reaction . Chemical species is the macroscopic equivalent of molecular entity and refers to sets or ensembles of molecular entities. Again from IUPAC: "The degree of precision necessary to describe a molecular entity depends on the context. For example 'hydrogen molecule ' is an adequate definition of a certain molecular entity for some purposes, whereas for others it is necessary to distinguish the electronic state and/or vibrational state and/or nuclear spin , etc. of the hydrogen molecule." NOTES AND REFERENCES * ^ IUPAC , _ Compendium of Chemical Terminology _, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "molecular entity". Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Molecular_entity additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Open Biomedical Ontologies
OPEN BIOMEDICAL ONTOLOGIES (abbreviated OBO; formerly Open Biological Ontologies) is an effort to create controlled vocabularies for shared use across different biological and medical domains. As of 2006, OBO forms part of the resources of the U.S. National Center for Biomedical Ontology where it will form a central element of the NCBO's BioPortal. CONTENTS * 1 OBO Foundry * 2 Related projects * 3 Semantic web * 3.1 OBO and OWL roundtrip transformations * 4 References * 5 External links OBO FOUNDRYThe OBO Ontology library forms the basis of the OBO Foundry , a collaborative experiment involving a group of ontology developers who have agreed in advance to the adoption of a growing set of principles specifying best practices in ontology development. These principles are designed to foster interoperability of ontologies within the broader OBO framework and also to ensure a gradual improvement of quality and formal rigor in ontologies. The library operates to design ways to meet the increasing needs of data and information integration in the biomedical domain. RELATED PROJECTSONTOLOGY LOOKUP SERVICE The Ontology Lookup Service is a spin-off of the PRIDE project, which required a centralized query interface for ontology and controlled vocabulary lookup. While many of the ontologies queriable by the OLS are available online, each has its own query interface and output format
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Atom
Atom, from the Greek word atomos, which means indivisible, was first conceived around 2,400 years ago by a Greek man named Democritus . An ATOM is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element . Every solid , liquid , gas , and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. Atoms are very small; typical sizes are around 100 picometers (a ten-billionth of a meter, in the short scale ). Atoms are small enough that attempting to predict their behavior using classical physics – as if they were billiard balls, for example – gives noticeably incorrect predictions due to quantum effects . Through the development of physics, atomic models have incorporated quantum principles to better explain and predict the behavior. Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and typically a similar number of neutrons . Protons and neutrons are called nucleons . More than 99.94% of an atom's mass is in the nucleus. The protons have a positive electric charge , the electrons have a negative electric charge, and the neutrons have no electric charge. If the number of protons and electrons are equal, that atom is electrically neutral. If an atom has more or fewer electrons than protons, then it has an overall negative or positive charge, respectively, and it is called an ion
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term _molecule_ is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term _molecule_ is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules. Molecules as components of matter are common in organic substances (and therefore biochemistry). They also make up most of the oceans and atmosphere. However, the majority of familiar solid substances on Earth, including most of the minerals that make up the crust , mantle , and core of the Earth , contain many chemical bonds, but are _not_ made of identifiable molecules
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Ion
An ION (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/ ) is an atom , or a molecule , in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons , giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge . An atom, or molecule, with a net positive charge is a cation . An atom, or molecule, with a net negative charge is an anion . Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds , such as salts . Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization . Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions . If they consist of two or more atoms, then they are called either molecular ions , or polyatomic ions . In the case of physical ionization of a medium, such as a gas, what are known as "ion pairs" are created by ion impact, and each pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion
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