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Château
A château (plural châteaux; French pronunciation: ​[ʃɑto] in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.[1]Contents1 Definition 2 Concept 3 French châteaux3.1 Loire Valley 3.2 Vaux-le-Vicomte 3.3 Château
Château
de Chenonceau 3.4 Dampierre-en-Yvelines 3.5 Versailles 3.6 Bordeaux4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDefinition[edit] The word "chateau" is a French word that has entered the English language, where its meaning is more specific than it is in French. The French word "chateau" denotes buildings as diverse as a medieval fortress, a Renaissance palace and a 19th-century country house. Care should therefore be taken when translating the French word château into English, noting the nature of the building in question
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Ennobled
Nobility
Nobility
is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Manorialism
Manorialism
Manorialism
was an essential element of feudal society.[1] It was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the Roman villa system of the Late Roman Empire,[2] and was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe
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Tax Farming (France)
Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered. It is most commonly used in the field of public finance, where the state wishes to gain some certainty about its future taxation revenue for the purposes of medium-term budgetting of expenditure. The tax collection process requires considerable expenditure on administration and the yield is uncertain both as to amount and timing, as taxpayers delay or default on their assessed obligations, often the result of unforeseen external forces such as bad weather affecting harvests
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Chalet
A chalet (pronounced /ˈʃæleɪ/ in British English; in American English usually /ʃæˈleɪ/), also called Swiss chalet, is a type of building or house, typical of the Alpine region in Europe. It is made of wood, with a heavy, gently sloping roof and wide, well-supported eaves set at right angles to the front of the house.[1]Contents1 Definition and origin 2 Modern international usage 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyDefinition and origin[edit] The term chalet stems from Arpitan speaking part of Switzerland
Switzerland
and French Savoy
Savoy
and originally referred to the hut of a herder.[2]A 'chalet' in the hills to the east of Orosí, Costa RicaMany chalets in the European Alps
Alps
were originally used as seasonal farms for dairy cattle which would be brought up from the lowland pastures during the summer months
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Bourgeois
The bourgeoisie (/ˌbʊərʒwɑːˈziː/; French: [buʁʒwazi]) is a polysemous French term that can mean:originally and generally, "those who live in the borough", that is to say, the people of the city (including merchants and craftsmen), as opposed to those of rural areas; in this sense, the bourgeoisie began to grow in Europe from the 11th century and particularly during the Renaissance of the 12th century, with the first developments of rural exodus and urbanization. a legally defined class of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the end of the Ancien Régime (Old Regime) in France, that of inhabitants having the rights of citizenship and political rights in a city (comparable to the German term Bürgertum and Bürger; see also "Burgher"). This bourgeoisie destroyed aristocratic privilege and established civic equality after the French monarchy collapsed
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Maecenas
Gaius Cilnius Maecenas (/maɪˈsiːnəs/; 15 April 68 BC – 8 BC) was an ally, friend and political advisor to Octavian (who was to become the first Emperor of Rome as Caesar Augustus) as well as an important patron for the new generation of Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. During the reign of Augustus, Maecenas served as a quasi-culture minister to the Emperor but in spite of his wealth and power he chose not to enter the Senate, remaining of equestrian rank. His name has become a byword for a wealthy, generous and enlightened patron of the arts.Contents1 Biography 2 Reputation 3 Maecenate (patronage) 4 Works 5 Gardens of Maecenas 6 Legacy 7 Film and television portrayals 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References10.1 Primary sources 10.2 Secondary sourcesBiography[edit] Expressions in Propertius[1] seem to imply that Maecenas had taken some part in the campaigns of Mutina, Philippi and Perugia
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John Summerson
Sir John Newenham Summerson CH CBE (25 November 1904 – 10 November 1992) was one of the leading British architectural historians of the 20th century. He was born at Barnstead, Coniscliffe Road, Darlington.[1] His grandfather worked for the Darlington
Darlington
and Stockton Railway and founded the family foundry of Thomas Summerson and Sons in Darlington
Darlington
in 1869. John Summerson
John Summerson
was educated at Harrow and University College London, where he gained a bachelor's degree in 1928. He wrote mainly about British architecture, especially that of the Georgian era. His Architecture in Britain: 1530–1830 (1st edition 1953; many subsequent editions) remained a standard work on the subject for students and general readers after his death
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Urban Area
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment
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Tiberius
Tiberius
Tiberius
(/taɪˈbɪəriəs/; Latin: Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus;[1][2] 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus. Born to Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
and Livia
Livia
Drusilla in a Claudian family, he was given the personal name Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero. His mother divorced Nero
Nero
and married Octavian–later to ascend the Empire as Augustus–who officially became his stepfather. Tiberius
Tiberius
would later marry Augustus' daughter (from his marriage to Scribonia), Julia the Elder, and even later be adopted by Augustus. Through the adoption, he officially became a Julian, assuming the name Tiberius Julius Caesar
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Outwork
An outwork is a minor fortification built or established outside the principal fortification limits, detached or semidetached. Outworks such as ravelins, lunettes (demilunes), flèches and caponiers to shield bastions and fortification curtains from direct battery were developed in the 16th century. Later, the increasing scale of warfare and the greater resources available to the besieger accelerated this development, and systems of outworks grew increasingly elaborate and sprawling as a means of slowing the attacker's progress and making it more costly
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred
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Hacienda
An hacienda (UK: /ˌhæsiˈɛndə/ or US: /ˌhɑːsiˈɛndə/; Spanish: [aˈθjenda] or [aˈsjenda]), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa. Some haciendas were plantations, mines or factories. Many haciendas combined these productive activities. The term hacienda is imprecise, but usually refers to landed estates of significant size. Smaller holdings were termed estancias or ranchos that were owned almost exclusively by Spaniards and criollos and in rare cases by mixed-race individuals.[1] In Argentina, the term estancia is used for large estates that in Mexico
Mexico
would be termed haciendas. In recent decades, the term has been used in the United States to refer to an architectural style associated with the earlier estate manor houses. The hacienda system of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico, New Granada and Peru
Peru
was a system of large land holdings
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Wilmington, Delaware
Wilmington (Lenape: Paxahakink, Pakehakink[6]) is the most populous city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Delaware. The city was built on the site of Fort Christina, the first Swedish settlement in North America. It is at the confluence of the Christina River
Christina River
and Brandywine River, near where the Christina flows into the Delaware
Delaware
River. It is the county seat of New Castle County and one of the major cities in the Delaware Valley metropolitan area. Wilmington was named by Proprietor Thomas Penn after his friend Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, who was prime minister in the reign of George II of Great Britain. As of the 2017 United States Census
United States Census
estimate, the city's population is 72,846.[7] It is the fifth least populous city in the U.S. to be the most populous in its state
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