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A PALACE is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary , such as a bishop or archbishop .

The word is derived from the Latin
Latin
name Palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome
Rome
which housed the Imperial residences. In many parts of Europe , the term is also applied to ambitious private mansions of the aristocracy . Many historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments , museums , hotels , or office buildings . The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Palaces

* 2.1 Americas

* 2.1.1 Brazil
Brazil
* 2.1.2 Canada
Canada
* 2.1.3 Mexico
Mexico
* 2.1.4 United States
United States
* 2.1.5 Uruguay

* 2.2 Asia
Asia

* 2.2.1 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* 2.2.2 Brunei * 2.2.3 China
China
* 2.2.4 India
India
* 2.2.5 Indonesia
Indonesia
* 2.2.6 Iran * 2.2.7 Israel/Palestine * 2.2.8 Lebanon
Lebanon
* 2.2.9 Malaysia
Malaysia
* 2.2.10 Nepal
Nepal
* 2.2.11 Philippines
Philippines

* 2.3 Europe
Europe

* 2.3.1 France
France
* 2.3.2 Germany
Germany
* 2.3.3 Greece * 2.3.4 Hungary
Hungary
* 2.3.5 Italy * 2.3.6 Malta
Malta
* 2.3.7 Poland
Poland
* 2.3.8 Portugal
Portugal
* 2.3.9 Romania
Romania
* 2.3.10 Russia * 2.3.11 Scandinavia * 2.3.12 Serbia * 2.3.13 Spain * 2.3.14 United Kingdom * 2.3.15 Turkey

* 2.4 Other

* 3 See also * 4 References

ETYMOLOGY

The word palace comes from Old French palais (imperial residence), from Latin
Latin
Palātium , the name of one of the seven hills of Rome
Rome
. The original "palaces" on the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
were the seat of the imperial power while the "capitol" on the Capitoline Hill was the religious nucleus of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a desirable residential area . Emperor Caesar Augustus
Augustus
lived there in a purposely modest house only set apart from his neighbours by the two laurel trees planted to flank the front door as a sign of triumph granted by the Senate
Senate
. His descendants, especially Nero
Nero
, with his "Golden House ", enlarged the house and grounds over and over until it took up the hill top. The word Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill.

Palace
Palace
meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon , writing c. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus" ( Historia Langobardorum , V.xvii). At the same time, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace " at Aachen
Aachen
, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the "palace" indicated the housing of the government too, and the constantly travelling Charlemagne
Charlemagne
built fourteen. In the early Middle Ages, the palas was usually that part of an imperial palace (or Kaiserpfalz ), that housed the Great Hall
Great Hall
, where affairs of state were conducted; it continued to be used as the seat of government in some German cities. In the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
the powerful independent Electors came to be housed in palaces (Paläste). This has been used as evidence that power was widely distributed in the Empire; as in more centralized monarchies , only the monarch's residence would be a palace.

In modern times, the term has been applied by archaeologists and historians to large structures that housed combined ruler, court and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind.

PALACES

Main article: List of palaces

The earliest known palaces were the royal residences of the Egyptian Pharaohs at Thebes , featuring an outer wall enclosing labyrinthine buildings and courtyards. Other ancient palaces include the Assyrian palaces at Nimrud
Nimrud
and Nineveh , the Minoan palace at Knossos
Knossos
, and the Persian palaces at Persepolis
Persepolis
and Susa
Susa
. Palaces in East Asia
East Asia
, such as the imperial palaces of Korea
Korea
, Thailand
Thailand
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Japan
Japan
, large stone and wooden structures in the Philippines
Philippines
and China
China
's Forbidden City , consist of many low pavilions surrounded by vast, walled gardens, in contrast to the single building palaces of Medieval Western Europe
Europe
.

AMERICAS

Brazil

The Planalto Palace
Palace
, in Brasília , Brazil
Brazil

The Brazilian new capital, Brasília , hosts modern palaces, most designed by the city's architect Oscar Niemeyer . The Alvorada Palace is the official residence of the Brazil\'s president . The Planalto Palace
Palace
is the official workplace. The Jaburu Palace
Palace
is the official residence of Brazil\'s vice-president .

Canada

Rideau Hall is one of the official residences for the Canadian monarchy . Main article: Government Houses in Canada

In Canada
Canada
, Government House
Government House
is a title given to the official residences of the Canadian monarchy and various viceroys (the governor generals and the lieutenant governors ). Though not universal, in most cases the title is also the building's sole name; for example, the sovereign's and governor general's principal residence in Ottawa
Ottawa
is known as Government House
Government House
only in formal contexts, being more generally referred to as Rideau Hall . The use of the term Government House is an inherited custom from the British Empire, where there were and are many government houses.

Rideau Hall is, since 1867, the official residence in Ottawa
Ottawa
of both the Canadian monarch and his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada, and has been described as "Canada's house". It stands in Canada's capital on a 0.36 km2 (88 acre) estate at 1 Sussex Drive , with the main building consisting of approximately 175 rooms across 9,500 m2 (102,000 sq ft), and 27 outbuildings around the grounds. While the equivalent building in many countries has a prominent, central place in the national capital, Rideau Hall's site is relatively unobtrusive within Ottawa, giving it more the character of a private home.

Along with Rideau Hall, the Citadelle of Quebec , also known as La Citadelle, is an active military installation and official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General. It is located atop Cap Diamant , adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City
Quebec City
, Quebec
Quebec
. The citadel is the oldest military building in Canada, and forms part of the fortifications of Quebec
Quebec
City, which is one of only two cities in North America
North America
still surrounded by fortifications. The fortress is located within the historic district of Old Québec , which was designated a World Heritage Site in 1985.

In addition to the federal residences, most provinces maintain a residences for the Canadian monarch, as well as their provincial viceroys lieutenant-governors. There is no government house for the Lieutenant Governors of Ontario (repurposed in 1937 and demolished in 1961 ), Quebec
Quebec
(destroyed by fire in 1966 ), or Alberta (closed in 1938 and repurchased and repurposed in 1964 ).

Mexico

The Palacio Nacional , or National Palace
Palace
in Mexico City
Mexico City

The capital of Mexico
Mexico
, Mexico City
Mexico City
, is traditionally nicknamed the "City of Palaces"; it was dubbed so by Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
, after he visited it in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

In Central Mexico, the Aztec
Aztec
emperors built many palaces in the capital of their empire, Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
(modern day Mexico
Mexico
City), some of which may still be seen. On observing the great city Hernán Cortés wrote, "There are, in all districts of this great city, many temples or palaces,... They are all very beautiful buildings. Amongst these temples there is one, the principal one, whose great size and magnificence no human tongue could describe,... All round inside this wall there are very elegant quarters with very large rooms and corridors. There are as many as forty towers, all of which are so high that in the case of the largest there are fifty steps leading up to the main part of it and the most important of these towers is higher than that of the cathedral of Seville..."

The National Palace
Palace
, or Palacio Nacional, located in Mexico
Mexico
City's main square, the Plaza de la Constitución (El Zócalo), first built in 1563, is in the heart of the Mexican capital. In 1821, the palace was given its current name and the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government were housed in the palace; the latter two branches would eventually reside elsewhere. During the Second Mexican Empire
Empire
, its name was changed, for a time, to the Imperial Palace. The National Palace
Palace
continues to be the official seat of the executive authority, though it is no longer the official residence of the President.

Also in Mexico City
Mexico City
is the Castillo de Chapultepec, or Chapultepec Castle
Castle
, located in the middle of Chapultepec Park which currently houses the Mexican National Museum
Museum
of History . It is the only castle, or palace, in North America
North America
that was occupied by sovereigns - Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico
Mexico
, a member of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
and his consort, Empress Carlota of Mexico
Mexico
, daughter of Leopold I of Belgium . The palace features many objets d'art ranging from gifts of Napoleon III to paintings by Franz Xaver Winterhalter and Mexican painter Santiago Rebull.

United States

See also: List of Palaces and List of largest houses in the United States

Palaces in the United States
United States
include the White House
White House
, the official residence of the President , and the official residences of many governors and Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
bishops . Some palaces of former heads of state, such English and Spanish Royal Governors and the Hawaiian Royal Family still exist.

Examples include: ʻIolani Palace and Hānaiakamalama , the former homes of the Hawaiian monarchs in Honolulu
Honolulu
; Hulihee Palace in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii ; The Governor\'s Palace
Palace
in Williamsburg , a modern reconstruction of the official residence of the Royal governors of the Colony of Virginia ; Tryon Palace
Tryon Palace
in New Bern , a modern reconstruction of the historical colonial governors' palace of the Province of North Carolina ; and the Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Mexico
as well as the Spanish Governor\'s Palace
Palace
in San Antonio , Texas, which were residences of both Spanish and Mexican governors.

There are many private buildings or mansions in the United States
United States
, which, though not called "palaces", have the grandeur typical of a palace, and which have been used as residences. Hearst Castle and the Biltmore Estate are examples.

Uruguay

The Palacio Legislativo (Legislative Palace) is the house of the Uruguayan Parliament
Parliament
.

ASIA

Azerbaijan

The Government House
Government House
in Baku
Baku
Palace of Happiness
Palace of Happiness

In Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
are very palaces and they belong to every different ages, you can find palaces of BC or AD ages, or 10th century. For example, "Goyalp" Palace
Palace
of Eldiguzids
Eldiguzids
Empire
Empire
Atabeg — located in Nakhchivan city and was built in 1130s.

Baku
Baku
Khans\' Palace
Palace
is a complex of several houses belonged to members of ruling family of Baku
Baku
Khanate in 17th century. Palace complex is in ruins and used as warehouse by workers. Official Administration of State Historical-Architectural Reserve "Icheri Sheher " informed media that they have no whatsoever intentions to repair the palace

The Palace of Happiness
Palace of Happiness
(Azerbaijani: Səadət Sarayı), currently also called Palace
Palace
of Marriage Registrations and previously called Mukhtarov Palace, is a historic building in the center of Baku, Azerbaijan, built in Neo-Gothic style in the early 19th century.

Shahbulag Castle Palace
Palace
(Azerbaijani: Şahbulaq qalası "Spring of the Shah"), is an 18th-century fortress in near Aghdam . After the death of Turkic ruler Nadir Shah
Nadir Shah
, the territory that is nowadays Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
split into several Caucasian khanates one of which was the Karabakh Khanate
Karabakh Khanate
founded by Panah Ali Khan . The first capital of the khanate was the Bayat Castle built in 1748

Haji Gayib’s Palace
Palace
– is an ancient fortress construction near a coastal side of Icheri Sheher . It is located in Baku
Baku
quarter of Icheri Sheher , opposite the Maiden Tower . History of the palace is dated back to the 15th century. Intake portal of the bathhouse is rectangular shaped

The Palace of Shaki Khans (Azerbaijani: Şəki xanlarının sarayı) in Shaki, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
was a summer residence of Shaki Khans. It was built in 1797 by Muhammed Hasan Khan. Along with its pool and plane trees, the summer residence is the only remaining structure from the larger palatial complex inside the Sheki Khans' Fortress, which once included a winter palace, residences for the Khan's family and servants' quarters. It features decorative tiles, fountains and several stained-glass windows. The exterior was decorated with dark blue, turquoise and ochre tiles in geometric patterns and the murals were coloured with tempera and were inspired by the works of Nizami Ganjavi . The Presidential Palace
Palace
Gulustan Palace , Baku
Baku
The palaces where the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
president reside.

These are located in various regions and capital of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
- the palace of government:

* Residence of Zagulba ( 510s ) is the world's oldest presidential house and full-time residence of the President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in Baku
Baku
. * Bika Khanum Saray ( 1390 - 1394
1394
) Full-time residence of the President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in Baku
Baku
. * Bullur Palace
Palace
( 1740
1740
) residence of the President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and Chairmen of the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in Sharur District . * Asena Palace
Palace
( 1804
1804
) Full-time residence of the President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in Baku
Baku
. * Göy Saray (Blue) ( 1810s ) Rest residence of the President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in Baku
Baku
* Palace
Palace
of White Horse ( 1933
1933
) was the old rest palace for members of Political Bureau in Shamkir * Government House
Government House
( 1936
1936
) is a government building palace various state ministries of Azerbaijan * Administrational Palace
Palace
( 1970s
1970s
) * Gulustan Palace ( 1973
1973
) Full-time and feast residence of the President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in Baku
Baku
. * Ghazan Khan Palace
Palace
( 2006
2006
) Residence of the President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in Baku
Baku
. * Vahdat Presidential Summer Palace ( 2007
2007
) in Shamakhi
Shamakhi
* Presidential Mountain Palace
Palace
( 2013
2013
) Rest residence of the President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in Gabala

Brunei

Istana Nurul Iman is the world\'s largest palace and is the official residence of the Sultan of Brunei , Hassanal Bolkiah , and the seat of the Brunei government. The palace is located on a leafy sprawl of hills on the banks of the Brunei River , a few kilometres south of Bandar Seri Begawan , Brunei's capital.

China

The Forbidden City
Forbidden City
took form as a grand complex of pavilions enclosed within square walls.

A famed example of Chinese palaces is the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
: the imperial palace of the Chinese empire from the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
to the end of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
. It is the largest palace complex in the world and is located in the middle of Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
. The palace complex exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture . Another example is the Summer Palace located in the northern suburb of Beijing and Mukden Palace
Mukden Palace
in Shenyang. The Presidential Palace
Palace
in Nanjing displays European architectural influences.

Chinese palaces are designed in regular square grids and arranged in a formal layout consisting of main buildings and a number of pavilions enclosed within walls. Unlike massive single-structured European palaces or castles, Chinese palaces are a multitude of complexes containing several larger and smaller structures with parks and courtyards.

India

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The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Jodhpur
Jodhpur
, India
India
The Hazarduari Palace
Hazarduari Palace
in Murshidabad
Murshidabad
, India
India

India
India
is home to many palaces and vast empires. Its history is full of numerous dynasties that have ruled over various parts of the country. While most monuments of the ancient period have been destroyed or lie in ruins, some medieval buildings have been maintained or restored to good condition. Several medieval forts and palaces still stand all over India. These are examples of the achievements of the architects and engineers of that age. The palaces of India
India
offer an insight into the life of the royalty of the country. While some royal palaces have been maintained as museums or hotels over the last decades, some are still homes for the members of the erstwhile royal families. These forts and palaces are the largest illustrations and legacy of the princely states of India. They feature floats of flowers in grand fountains, shimmering blue water of magnificent baths and private pools, doric pillars, ornamental brackets, decorative staircases, and light streaming in through large windows. India
India
possesses some of the most fascinating forts and palaces, a true royal retreat. It is not just a romantic longing for a royal experience, but also the search for the truly authentic Indian experience that brings thousands of heritage lovers to India's palaces.

Rajasthan
Rajasthan
has many forts and palaces that are major tourist destinations in North India. (See List of palaces in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
.) The Rajputs (collective term for the rulers of the region) were known as brave soldiers who preferred to die than be taken prisoners. They were also great connoisseurs of art and brilliant builders. The most famous forts and palaces in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
are located in Chittor, Jodhpur, Jaipur, Udaipur, Saphieree, Amber and Nahargarh. Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces manages some of the most iconic palaces of the region, Lake Palace
Lake Palace
, Udaipur; Umaid Bhawan Palace , Jodhpur; Fort Madhogarh , Jaipur and Rambagh Palace , Jaipur; and offer authentic royal retreats to the guests in all its grandeur, splendour and magnificence.

Kolkata
Kolkata
is known as the City of Palaces within the Indian context, referring to the numerous grand residential buildings that dotted the city from the end of the 18th century onwards, as it grew to become one of the largest cities of the British Raj .

Karnataka
Karnataka
is famous for the Amba Vilas Palace (commonly known as Mysore Palace
Mysore Palace
) in Mysuru / Mysore
Mysore
, which was the palace of the Wodeyar kings. It was said to have been built of wood until it had to be rebuilt after a fire that burned down the entire palace complex.

Indonesia

Pagaruyung Palace

In Indonesia
Indonesia
, palaces are known as istana (Malay and Indonesian ), or kraton (Javanese and Sundanese ). In Bali
Bali
the royal palace compound is called puri. The palaces reflect the long history and diverse culture of the Indonesian archipelago.

Although Indonesia
Indonesia
is now a republic, some of its parts and provinces still retain and preserve their traditional royal heritage, for example the Sultanate of Yogyakarta , Surakarta , Mangkunegaran princedom, Kasepuhan palace in Cirebon , and Kutai
Kutai
in East Kalimantan . Remnants of palaces and royal houses still can be found in Banten
Banten
, Medan , Ternate
Ternate
, Bali
Bali
and Bima .

The layout of traditional Balinese and Javanese kratons is similar to the Chinese concept of walled compounds of royal pavilions, squares and gardens. Most of these kratons took the form of wooden pavilions called pendopo , while the istana of Sumatra
Sumatra
usually consist of a single large structure. Typical Minangkabau vernacular architecture can be found in Pagaruyung Palace , West Sumatra
Sumatra
. An example of Malay palace is Istana
Istana
Maimun in Medan .

During VOC and the colonial era of the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
, the colonial government built several European stately palaces as the residence of the Governor General. Most of these European palaces have now become the state palace of the Republic of Indonesia. Indonesian state palaces are the neoclassic Merdeka Palace and Bogor Palace .

Iran

Main article: List of castles in Iran

Niavarān Palace Complex is a historical complex situated in the northern part of Tehran, Iran. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqraniyeh Palace, from the time of Naser al-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty, is also inside this complex. The main Niavaran Palace, completed in 1968, was the primary residence of the last shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
and the Imperial family until the Iranian Revolution. The main palace was designed by the Iranian architect Mohsen Foroughi.

Israel/Palestine

The pre-Israelite Canaanite site of Tel Kabri , destroyed ca 1600 BCE, was built around a palace core. Though palace culture of ancient Israel and Judea can be inferred through the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, no palace of Solomon or David has been securely identified. In Israel there are many ancient palaces like the Masada
Masada
. In Roman Judaea palaces of the Herodian line of client-kings have been identified at several sites, including the main palace at Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and a winter palace at Herodium , in the Judean desert. Herod's palace at Caesarea Maritima preserved its palatial function as the official residence of the Roman procurators and governors of Judaea. There are other palaces in the Old City of Jerusalem, such as the Lady Tonsok Palace
Palace
.

In Israel there are a number of magnificent buildings that are not considered "palaces", but they have the grandeur of a typical palace, and serve as residences, such as the House of Yehudayoff Hefetz , and the Sergei courtyard in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
.

Lebanon

Beiteddine Palace
Beiteddine Palace
built in the 15th century in Lebanon
Lebanon

Palaces have existed in Lebanon
Lebanon
since the time of the Phoenicians . Almost all of the palaces of Ancient Phoenicia have been destroyed.

During the Renaissance palaces were built in Lebanon, especially in the Chouf
Chouf
region of Mount Lebanon. Lebanese palaces are very diverse architecturally, being influenced by Arabs, Italians, French, Persians, Turkish and East Asians. This is seen in the Beiteddine Palace
Palace
, which is a mixture of traditional Lebanese, Italian, Arabic and Persian architecture.

Today in Lebanon
Lebanon
there are at least ten buildings that can be classified as palaces, including the Beiteddine Palace
Beiteddine Palace
, Grand Serail (one of the biggest in the world), Baabda Palace , Sursock Museum
Museum
, and Fakhreddine Palace .

Malaysia

The monumental gate of Istana
Istana
Negara Jalan Duta , Malaysia
Malaysia

Malaysia
Malaysia
is a constituent of nine states ruled by hereditary sultans which one of them is elected every five years to the post of Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Supreme King) as the head of state of Malaysia. In Malaysia, the palace is called istana . The other nine sultans have their own istana in their state and throughout the country they are sometimes called Istana
Istana
Hinggap. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong's official residence are the Istana
Istana
Negara, Jalan Duta and Istana
Istana
Melawati in Putrajaya , the latter as the second palace and retreat while the Istana
Istana
Negara, Jalan Istana
Istana
is converted as a Royal Museum. Some of the other sultan's official palaces are the Istana
Istana
Besar , Istana
Istana
Anak Bukit , Istana
Istana
Pekan, Istana
Istana
Maziah , Istana
Istana
Alam Shah , Istana
Istana
Besar Seri Menanti , Istana
Istana
Iskandariah and Istana
Istana
Arau. Several appointed non-royal heads of state (governor), Yang di- Pertua Negeri are also assigned to have their official seat and residence such as The Astana , Istana
Istana
Negeri Sabah and Seri Mutiara .

Nepal

Singha Durbar (literally, Lion Palace) in Kathmandu
Kathmandu
is the official seat of government of Nepal
Nepal
and the largest Palace
Palace
in Asia
Asia
. Narayanhiti Palace

Narayanhiti Palace Museum
Museum
was a residence and principal workplace of the reigning Monarch of the Kingdom of Nepal. It was built by king Mahendra in 1961 under the design of Californian architect Benjamin Polk. After the 2006
2006
revolution, this royal palace is turned into a public museum.

Older palaces include the Durbar Squares, which are enlisted as UNESCO World Heritage Sites
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
. They are located in Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Valley in districts of Kathmandu
Kathmandu
, Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
and Lalitpur . In Kathmandu
Kathmandu
is Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Durbar Square, Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
Durbar Square in Bhaktapur, Patan Durbar Square in Lalitpur. Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Durbar Square

Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Durbar Square (Basantapur Darbar Kshetra) in front of the old royal palace of the former Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kingdom is one of three Durbar (royal palace) Squares in the Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Valley in Nepal, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Several buildings in the Square collapsed due to a major earthquake on 25 April 2015. Durbar Square was surrounded with spectacular architecture and vividly showcases the skills of the Newar artists and craftsmen over several centuries. The Royal Palace
Palace
was originally at Dattaraya square and was later moved to Durbar square.

The Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Durbar Square held the palaces of the Malla and Shah kings who ruled over the city. Along with these palaces, the square surrounds quadrangles, revealing courtyards and temples. It is known as Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Square, a name derived from a statue of Hanuman, the monkey devotee of Lord Ram, at the entrance of the palace. Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
Durbar Square

Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
Durbar Square is the plaza in front of the royal palace of the old Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
Kingdom. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
Durbar Square is located in the current town of Bhaktapur, also known as Bhadgaon, which lies 13 km east of Kathmandu. While the complex consists of at least four distinct squares (Durbar Square, Taumadhi Square, Dattatreya Square and Pottery Square), the whole area is informally known as the Bhakapur Durbar Square and is a highly visited site in the Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Valley. This palace consists of 55 windows so it is also known as '55 Windowed Palace'.

Patan Durbar Square is situated at the centre of the city of Lalitpur in Nepal. It is also one of the three Durbar Squares in the Kathmandu Valley, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. One of its attraction is the ancient royal palace where the Malla Kings of Lalitpur resided.

The Durbar Square is a marvel of Newa architecture . The Square floor is tiled with red bricks. There are many temples and idols in the area. The main temples are aligned opposite of the western face of the palace. The entrance of the temples faces east, towards the palace. There is also a bell situated in the alignment beside the main temples. The Square also holds old Newari residential houses. There are various other temples and structures in and around Patan Durbar Square built by the Newa People.

Philippines

the Torogan
Torogan
. Malacañang Palace along the Pasig River

In pre-Hispanic Philippines
Philippines
, Filipinos built large wooden residences for the ancient nobility (such as Lakans , Wangs, rajahs and datus ) called Torogan
Torogan
or Bahay Lakan
Lakan
("king's house").The windows of torogan are slits and richly framed in wood panels with okir designs located in front of the house. The communal kitchen is half a meter lower than the main house is both used for cooking and eating. The distinct high gable roof of the torogan, thin at the apex and gracefully flaring out to the eaves, sits on a huge structures enclosed by slabs of timber and lifted more than two meters above the ground by a huge trunk of a tree that was set on a rock. The end floor beams lengthen as panolongs the seemed to lift up the whole house. The torogan is suffused with decorations. There were diongal at the apex of the roof, also an intricately carved tinai a walai, okir designs in the floor, on windows and on panolongs.

The people in the Southern part of Philippines, built the same wooden palaces such as langgal of Tausug . In the Sultanate of Sulu , a palace was built for the Sultans which have a name Astana Darul Jambangan (White adobe) which have been destroyed by a typhoon in 1912. a replica of the royal palace was rebuild as an attraction in Mt. Bayug Eco-Cultural Park in the town of Talipao, Sulu .

and the Yakan or ranggar in Maranao , specially when Islam
Islam
was established in Sulu (14th century) and in Mindanao (15th century).

During the Spanish Era , the government of the Spanish East Indies built a succession of palaces in and around Manila
Manila
for high colonial officials and religious authorities. The most famous of these is the 18th-century Malacañang Palace , which originally housed Spanish and American Governors-General and, since the Commonwealth , the President of the Philippines
Philippines
.

Former president and strongman Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
had Coconut
Coconut
Palace constructed in 1978 to showcase the country's varied uses for the coconut . It serves as the home and office of the vice-president . In 2004, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo converted the former Aduana (customs house) in Cebu City
Cebu City
into a small palace, called Malacañang sa Sugbo .

EUROPE

France

Palais de Justice of Paris
Paris
, France
France

In France
France
there has been a clear distinction between a château and a palais. The palace has always been urban, like the Palais de la Cité in Paris
Paris
, which was the royal palace of France
France
and is now the supreme court of justice of France, or the palace of the Popes at Avignon
Avignon
.

The château, by contrast, has always been in rural settings, supported by its demesne , even when it was no longer actually fortified. Speakers of English think of the " Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
" because it was the residence of the king of France, and the king was the source of power, though the building has always remained the Château
Château
de Versailles for the French, and the seat of government under the Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
remained the PALAIS du Louvre
Louvre
. The Louvre had begun as a fortified Château
Château
du Louvre
Louvre
on the edge of Paris, but as the seat of government and shorn of its fortified architecture and then completely surrounded by the city, it developed into the Palais du Louvre.

The hôtel particulier remains the term for an urban residence sited entre cour et jardin, behind a forecourt and opening onto a garden; when fronting directly on streets, they are maisons, "houses". Bishops always had a palais in the town of their diocese, an hôtel in other towns, though they might possess chateaux.

The usage is essentially the same in Italy, Spain and Portugal, as well as the former Austrian Empire
Empire
. In Vienna
Vienna
, Austria
Austria
, all large mansions belonging to aristocratic or very wealthy families were traditionally called palais, but this never applied to imperial palaces themselves which were called Burg within the city and Schloss when outside it. In Germany, the wider term was a relatively recent importation, and was used rather more restrictively.

Germany

The Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin
Berlin
, Germany
Germany
Main articles: List of castles in Germany
Germany
and Schloss
Schloss

The German term for "palace" is Palast, which is used especially for large palatial complexes and gardens. More commonly, palaces are called Schloss
Schloss
(chateaux or stately home in English usage).

Germany
Germany
offers a variety of more than 25,000 castles and palaces and thousands of manor houses . The country is known for its fairy tale -like scenery palatial buildings, such as Sanssouci
Sanssouci
, Linderhof Palace , Herrenchiemsee
Herrenchiemsee
, Schwetzingen , Nordkirchen and Schwerin Palace . Many of these buildings have a history of over 1000 years, ranging from fortifications to royal residences. Many German castles after the middle ages were mainly built as royal or ducal palaces rather than as a fortified building.

Greece

Map of Tiryns
Tiryns
palace

The best examples of the Bronze Age Greece palace are seen in the excavations at Mycenae
Mycenae
, Tiryns
Tiryns
and Pylos . That these were administrative centers is shown by the records found there. From an architectural point of view, they were the heirs of the Minoan palaces and also of other palaces built earlier on the Greek mainland. They were ranged around a group of courtyards each opening upon several rooms of different dimensions, such as storerooms and workshops, as well as reception halls and living quarters. The heart of the palace was the megaron . This was the throne room, laid out around a circular hearth surrounded by four columns, the throne generally being found on the right-hand side upon entering the room. The staircases found in the palace of Pylos indicate palaces had two stories. Located on the top floor were probably the private quarters of the royal family and some storerooms. These palaces have yielded a wealth of artifacts and fragmentary frescoes.

Hungary

Károlyi Palace
Palace
of Parádsasvár , Hungary
Hungary

In Hungary
Hungary
distinction is made between urban and rural residencies. Only the urban residencies of the higher aristocracy were called palota (palace), rural stately homes were named kastély (mansion), or in case of smaller country houses kúria. Noble landowner families, like the House of Esterházy , often had several mansions in the countryside and palaces in towns. The office of the President of the Republic of Hungary
Hungary
, Sándor Palace
Palace
was the residence of the Sándor family in the 19th century. Royal residencies were also called palaces, for example the Early Renaissance summer palace of King Matthias Corvinus in Visegrád or Buda Castle
Buda Castle
which was called Királyi-palota (Royal Palace). In the second half of the 19th century splendid new townhouses of the bourgeoisie on Andrássy út
Andrássy út
and elsewhere in Budapest
Budapest
were named palaces. A typical example is the Art Nouveau Gresham Palace which was built by an insurance company. Grand public buildings and even blocks of flat of higher standard were regularly called palaces (the contemporary term of the latter were bérpalota meaning rent palace). For contemporary buildings the term is seldom used with the notable exemption of the Palace
Palace
of Arts .

Italy

Palazzo della Signoria in Florence
Florence

In Italy, any urban building built as a grand residence is a palazzo; these are often no larger than a Victorian townhouse . It was not necessary to be a nobleman to have your house considered a palazzo; the hundreds of palazzi in Venice
Venice
nearly all belonged to the patrician class of the city. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
these also functioned as warehouses and places of business, as well as homes. Each family's palazzo was a hive that contained all the family members, though it might not always show a grand architectural public front. In the 20th century, palazzo in Italian came to apply by extension to any large fine apartment building, as so many old palazzi were converted to this use.

Bishop's townhouses were always palazzi, and the seat of a localized regime would also be so called. Many former capitals display a Palazzo Ducale , the seat of the local duke or lord. In Florence
Florence
(just as for other strong communal governments ), the seat of government was known as Palazzo della Signoria (see Palazzo della Signoria ). When the Medici were made Grand Dukes of Tuscany, however, the centre of power shifted to their new residence in Palazzo Pitti , and the old centre of power began to be referred to as the Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
.

Shops on the ground floor and flats at the top of a modern palazzo are not at all incongruous: historically, the ground floors of even a great family's palazzo could be trade and domestic offices often open to servants, tradesmen, customers and the public, while the smartest and most prestigious floor (known as the piano nobile) was kept for the family along with the upper floors and apartments, all of which were considered cleaner and safer than those on the ground floor. There were (and are) often separate, sometimes external, stairs to the humblest attic rooms and roofs used by the staff.

The most important royal palazzi in Italy are those in Caserta , Naples , Palermo , Turin , as well as the Quirinale Palace in Rome
Rome
.

Malta

Grandmaster\'s Palace
Palace
in Valletta
Valletta

Until the sixteenth century, Malta
Malta
was part of the Kingdom of Sicily , and the capital Mdina
Mdina
housed many palaces for the nobility, such as Palazzo Falson and Palazzo Santa Sofia . After the arrival of the Order of Saint John in 1530, the knights settled in Birgu
Birgu
, where part of Fort St Angelo was used as a palace for the Grand Master . The knights themselves lived in auberges , but these were more large houses rather than palaces.

When the Order began to build a new capital Valletta
Valletta
in 1566, a new Grandmaster\'s Palace
Palace
and a series of new auberges were built. The auberges in Valletta
Valletta
are much larger than their counterparts in Birgu, and can be considered as palaces. The most important auberge still standing is Auberge de Castille , which currently houses the Office of the Prime Minister of Malta. Over the years, the Grand Masters also built a number of large residences in the countryside, such as Verdala Palace
Palace
and San Anton Palace
San Anton Palace
. Both of these now serve as official residences of the President of Malta
Malta
.

The Arhcbishop of Malta
Malta
has a palace in Mdina. The inquisitor also had a palace in Birgu
Birgu
and another in Girgenti until the abolition of the inquisition in 1798. The nobility, upper classes and individual knights of the Order built a number of private palaces, especially in Valletta, but also in the countryside. There are other palaces built by the nobility, such as, most notably Palazzo Parisio in Valletta
Valletta
and Palazzo Dragonara in St Julians.

Poland

Presidential Palace
Palace
in Warsaw
Warsaw
, Poland
Poland

The former Kingdom of Poland, known as the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , once spanned over 1,153,465 km², which allowed the nobles to construct their residences anywhere from modern day Poland to as far as southern Estonia
Estonia
. The Polish aristocracy (szlachta) greatly favoured Baroque and Rococo
Rococo
architecture of the period. Most notable architect specializing in those styles was Dutch -born Tylman van Gameren (also Tylman Gamerski), who designed several renowned palaces, for both kings and nobles, throughout the Commonwealth. Tylman also left behind a lifelong legacy of buildings that are regarded as gems of Polish Baroque architecture . His most famous works include Krasiński Palace and Łazienki Palace , both in Warsaw , and Branicki Palace
Palace
in Białystok
Białystok
. Other palatial architects in Poland
Poland
at the time were Chrystian Piotr Aigner , Szymon Bogumił Zug , Domenico Merlini and Johann Christian Schuch .

At present, Poland
Poland
possesses hundreds of varied-style palaces and residences designed by architects from all over the world. Some best examples are Wilanów Palace
Wilanów Palace
, Presidential Palace
Palace
, Oliwa Abbot\'s Palace
Palace
, Copper-Roof Palace , Palace
Palace
of the Ministry of Revenues and Treasury , Rogalin , Jabłonowski Palace , Zamoyski Palace
Palace
in Kozłówka , Lanckoroński Palace
Palace
in Kurozwęki , Nieborów Palace and the Palace in Otwock Wielki . There are also several palaces resembling castles or medieval Gothic residences, most notably Moszna Castle
Castle
, Książ Castle and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Royal Castle
Castle
.

Portugal

Pena Palace
Palace
in Sintra, Portugal is the oldest palace inspired by European Romanticism.

Due to its relatively small geography, most of Portugal
Portugal
's palaces are former royal residences. Some examples of Portuguese palaces are Mafra National Palace , Pena National Palace
Pena National Palace
, Belém Palace , Ajuda National Palace
Palace
, Palácio das Necessidades , Mateus Palace , Palace Hotel
Hotel
of Bussaco , Palácio da Regaleira , and Palácio da Brejoeira .

Romania

Palace
Palace
of the Parliament
Parliament
in Bucharest
Bucharest
, Romania
Romania

Palaces in Romania
Romania
, as elsewhere in Europe, were originally built for royalty, nobles and bishops. Three former royal palaces in Romania are the Cotroceni Palace (now the Presidential residence); the Royal Palace
Palace
in Bucharest
Bucharest
, which now houses the National Museum
Museum
of Art of Romania
Romania
; and the Elisabeta Palace . Although Romania
Romania
is no longer a monarchy, its former King Michael now resides at Elisabeta Palace.

Other palaces include the Crețulescu Palace in Bucharest, built for the Crețulescu family, Peles palace , built by King Carol I of Romania
Romania
and the Palace
Palace
of Culture from Iași
Iași
. The Palace
Palace
of the Parliament
Parliament
(Casa Poporului) from Bucharest
Bucharest
is a large government building. Despite containing the word "palace" in its name, the building was never intended to serve as a residence for royalty.

Russia

The Peterhof Palace
Peterhof Palace
(1709—1755) in Petergof

The first palaces in Russia were built about a thousand years ago for the Grand Dukes of Kiev. These are not preserved, having been destroyed by the Mongols. The first palaces in European style were built during the reign of Tsar Peter the Great and his immediate successors. Examples of Russian palaces include:

* the Palace of Facets
Palace of Facets
(1487–1491) in Moscow
Moscow
at the Kremlin
Kremlin
, * the Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich Palace
Palace
(1489) in Uglich
Uglich
, * the Kolomensky Wooden Palace
Palace
(1528—1532) in Kolomenskoye , * the Terem Palace (1635–1636) at the Kremlin, * the Menshikov Palace (1710—1727) in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, * the Oranienbaum Palace
Oranienbaum Palace
(1710) in Lomonosov , * the Peterhof Palace
Peterhof Palace
(1709—1755) in Petergof , and * Kikin Hall (1714) in Saint Petersburg. * Winter Palace
Winter Palace
(1732 - 1917), was the official residence of the Russian monarchs

Scandinavia

The Royal Palace, Oslo Amalienborg
Amalienborg
Palace
Palace
, Copenhagen Drottningholm Palace , near Stockholm The palaces where the Scandinavian monarchs reside.

The three Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden all have long monarchic histories, and possess several palaces. In Denmark Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen was built as a royal palace, but is now only used for royal receptions; Amalienborg
Amalienborg
Palace
Palace
has been the Danish royal residence since 1794. In Norway the Royal Palace
Palace
in Oslo has been used as the royal residence since 1849. In Sweden the large Stockholm Palace
Stockholm Palace
was built in 1760, and remains the official royal residence, but at the current time is only used for official purposes while the Swedish royal family resides in the more modest Drottningholm Palace .

Serbia

The two dynasties of post-Ottoman Serbia, Karađorđević and Obrenović built numerous residences throughout their domain. The most prominent and official palaces are the Stari Dvor and the Novi Dvor (Old and New Court, respectively) in the center of Belgrade and the Royal Compound
Royal Compound
which includes the Beli Dvor
Beli Dvor
and Kraljevski Dvor (Royal Palace) in the Belgrade suburb, Dedinje .

Spain

Royal Palace of Madrid

With over a thousand years of monarchic history, Spain has many palaces of its own that were built for different monarchs or nobles. Among these palaces are the Royal Palace of Madrid , also referred to as the Palacio Real. The palace is the largest palace in Europe
Europe
with over 2,800 rooms but at the current time is of use for only governmental business while the royal family resides in the smaller Palacio de la Zarzuela.

In addition to the Royal Palace
Palace
of Madrid, Alcázar of Seville (which mixes, with the delicate Moorish filigree, European Christian architectural styles), the Alhambra
Alhambra
, the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial
El Escorial
and the Royal Palace of Aranjuez , fine baroque palace is surrounded by gardens. Currently, the royal family and prime minister live in the more modest Palace of Zarzuela and Palace
Palace
of Moncloa respectively.

United Kingdom

Main article: List of British royal residences Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle

In the United Kingdom, by tacit agreement, there have been no "palaces" other than those used as official residences by royalty or bishops , regardless of whether located in town or country. However, not all palaces use the term in their name - see Holyrood Palace
Holyrood Palace
. Thus the Palace of Beaulieu gained its name precisely when Thomas Boleyn sold it to Henry VIII in 1517. Previously, it had been known as Walkfares, but like several other palaces, the name stuck even once the royal connection ended.

Blenheim Palace
Blenheim Palace
was built, on a different site, in the grounds of the disused royal Palace
Palace
of Woodstock , and the name was also part of the extraordinary honour when the house was given by a grateful nation to a great general, the Duke of Marlborough
Duke of Marlborough
. Along with several royal and episcopal palaces in the countryside, Blenheim does demonstrate that "palace" has no specific urban connotation in English. On the use of the term "palace" in the UK, it is notable that Buckingham Palace was known as Buckingham House before it was acquired by the monarchy.

Blenheim Palace
Blenheim Palace
(in England) and Hamilton Palace (in Scotland, demolished in 1927 ) are the only non-royal (and non-episcopal ) residences to have the word "palace" in their name, other than Dalkeith Palace in Scotland, which used to be the seat of the Dukes of Buccleuch (who descend from Charles II of England
Charles II of England
).

Turkey

Topkapı Palace

After the conquest of Istanbul by Mehmed the Conqueror at 1453, construction of the Topkapı Palace was started in the year 1460 and completed in 1478. The palace was built upon a 700,000 square meter area on an Eastern Roman Acropolis located on the Istanbul Peninsula between the Sea of Marmara, Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. Topkapı Palace
Palace
was the administrative, educational, and art center of the Empire
Empire
for nearly four hundred years from Mehmed the Conqueror until Sultan Abdulmecid who was the thirty-first Sultan. Although Topkapi Palace
Palace
was abandoned by the Ottoman Dynasty by moving to the Dolmabahçe Palace
Dolmabahçe Palace
in the middle of the 19th century, Topkapı Palace retained its importance.

After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, Topkapı Palace was transformed into a museum on April 3, 1924. It was also the first museum of the Republic of Turkey. Topkapı Palace Museum
Museum
covers approximately 400,000 square meters at the present day. Topkapı Palace
Palace
is separated from the city on the land-side by the Imperial Walls, which were constructed by Mehmed the Conqueror. It is separated from the city on the sea-side by the Byzantine Walls. Topkapı Palace is one of the largest palace-museums with its architectural structures, collections, and approximately 300,000 archive papers.

OTHER

In Continental Europe
Europe
royal and episcopal palaces were not merely residences; the clerks who administered the realm or the diocese laboured there as well. (To this day many bishops' palaces house both their family apartments and their official offices.) However, unlike the "Palais du Justice" which is often encountered in the French-speaking world, modern British public administration buildings are never called "palaces"; although the formal name for the "Houses of Parliament
Parliament
" is the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
, this reflects Westminster's former role as a royal residence and centre of administration.

In more recent years, the word has been used in a more informal sense for other large, impressive buildings, such as The Crystal Palace of 1851 (an immensely large, glazed hall erected for The Great Exhibition ) and modern arenas-convention centers like Alexandra Palace .

The largest in the world is the Palace
Palace
of the Parliament
Parliament
in Bucharest
Bucharest
, Romania
Romania
. Built during the socialist regime, no effort or expense was spared to raise this colossal neo-classic building.

The Palace
Palace
of the Olowo, ruler of the Yoruba Owo clan of Nigeria
Nigeria
, is acknowledged to be the largest palace in all of Africa. It consists of more than 100 courtyards, each with a unique traditional usage.

SEE ALSO

* Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
* List of palaces * Castle
Castle
* Official residence
Official residence
* Great house * Luxury real estate * Palas
Palas
* Kaiserpfalz (or Königspfalz ) * Imperial castle (Reichsburg)

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-08230-1 . * ^ A B C Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. 2000. ISBN 0-87779-017-5 . * ^ "Mexico-Tenochtitlan: Ancient City". * ^ "UNESCO World Heritage List: Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing
Beijing
and Shenyang". UNESCO. Retrieved 2007-05-04.

* ^ "Torogan: The Forgotten Heritage of Dayawan Marawi - HabagatCentral". HabagatCentral. Retrieved 17 March 2015. * ^ "Talipao, Sulu: Sleeping Like a Sultan at the Royal Palace Replica". 12 November 2014. * ^ http://nlpdl.nlp.gov.ph:81/CC01/NLP00VM052mcd/v2/v2.pdf * ^ Malathronas, John. " Palace
Palace
of the damned dictator: On the trail of Ceausescu in Bucharest". CNN. Retrieved 27 January 2017.

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