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Centre-left
Centre-left politics or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, is an adherence to views leaning to the left-wing, but closer to the centre on the left–right political spectrum than other left-wing variants
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Green Politics
Green politics, or ecopolitics,[1] is a political ideology that aims to foster an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.[2] It began taking shape in the western world in the 1970s; since then Green parties
Green parties
have developed and established themselves in many countries around the globe and have achieved some electoral success. The political term "green" was used initially in relation to die Grünen (German for "the Greens"),[
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Luck Egalitarianism
Luck egalitarianism is a view about distributive justice espoused by a variety of egalitarian and other political philosophers. According to this view, justice demands that variations in how well off people are should be wholly determined by the responsible choices people make and not to differences in their unchosen circumstances. This expresses the intuition that it is a bad thing for some people to be worse off than others through no fault of their own.Contents1 Theory 2 Criticism of theory 3 Global luck egalitarianism 4 Advocates of theory 5 References 6 External linksTheory[edit] Luck egalitarians therefore distinguish between outcomes that are the result of brute luck (e.g. misfortunes in genetic makeup, or being struck by a bolt of lightning) and those that are the consequence of conscious options (such as career choice or fair gambles)
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Minority Government
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament. It is sworn into office, with or without the formal support of other parties, to enable a government to be formed. Under such a government, legislation can only be passed with the support of enough other members of the legislature to provide a majority, encouraging multi-partisanship
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National Unity Government
A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.Contents1 Afghanistan 2 Canada2.1 Newfoundland3 Croatia 4 Greece 5 Hungary 6 Israel 7 Italy 8 Kenya 9 Lebanon 10 Luxembourg 11 Nepal 12 Sri Lanka 13 United Kingdom13.1 Quasi-national governments14 United States 15 Zimbabwe 16 National parties 17 See also 18 ReferencesAfghanistan[edit] Following the disputed 2014 presidential elections, a National Unity Government (NUG) between both run-off candidates was formed.[1] Canada[edit] During World War I
World War I
the Conservative government of Sir Robert Borden invited the Liberal opposition to join the government as a means of dealing with the Conscription crisis of 1917
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Majority Government
A majority government is a government formed by a governing party that has an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or parliament in a parliamentary system. This is as opposed to a minority government, where the largest party in a legislature only has a plurality of seats. A majority government is usually assured of having its legislation passed and rarely, if ever, has to fear being defeated in parliament. In contrast, a minority government must constantly bargain for support from other parties in order to pass legislation and avoid being defeated on motions of no confidence. The term "majority government" may also be used for a stable coalition of two or more parties to form an absolute majority
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American English
American English
American English
(AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US[note 1]), sometimes called United States
United States
English or U.S. English,[5][6] is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.[7] American English
American English
is considered to be the world's most influential form of English.[8][9][10][11][12] English is the most widely spoken language in the United States
United States
and is the de facto common language used by the federal and state governments, to the extent that all laws and compulsory education presume English as the primary language
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Social Justice
Social justice
Social justice
is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society. This is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity and social privileges. In Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has often referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal roles and receive what was their due from society.[1][2][3] In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice.[4][5][6][7][8] Social justice
Social justice
assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation
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Equal Opportunity
Equal opportunity
Equal opportunity
is a state of fairness in which job applicants are treated similarly, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.[1] The intent is that the important jobs in an organization should go to the people who are most qualified – persons most likely to perform ably in a given task – and not go to persons for reasons deemed arbitrary or irrelevant, such as circumstances of birth, upbringing, having well-connected relatives or friends,[2] r
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Progressive Income Tax
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.[1][2][3][4][5] The term "progressive" refers to the way the tax rate progresses from low to high, with the result that a taxpayer's average tax rate is less than the person's marginal tax rate.[6][7] The term can be applied to individual taxes or to a tax system as a whole; a year, multi-year, or lifetime. Progressive taxes are imposed in an attempt to reduce the tax incidence of people with a lower ability to pay, as such taxes shift the incidence increasingly to those with a higher ability-to-pay. The opposite of a progressive tax is a regressive tax, where the relative tax rate or burden decreases as an individual's ability to pay increases.[5] The term is frequently applied in reference to personal income taxes, in which people with lower income pay a lower percentage of that income in tax than do those with higher income
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Hung Parliament
A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (commonly known as members or seats) in a parliament or other legislature. This situation is also known, albeit less commonly, as a balanced parliament,[1][2] or as a legislature under no overall control,[3][4][5] and can result in a minority government. The term is not relevant in multi-party systems where it is rare for a single party to hold a majority. In the Westminster System, in the circumstance of a hung parliament, no party or coalition has an automatic mandate to assume control of the executive – a status usually known in parliamentary systems as "forming (a) government"
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Child Labour
Child labour
Child labour
refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.[3] This practice is considered exploitative by many international organisations
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Minimum Wage
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers. Equivalently, it is the price floor below which workers may not sell their labor. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in many jurisdictions, differences of opinion exist about the benefits and drawbacks of a minimum wage. Supporters of the minimum wage say it increases the standard of living of workers, reduces poverty, reduces inequality, and boosts morale.[1] In contrast, opponents of the minimum wage say it increases poverty, increases unemployment (particularly among unskilled or inexperienced workers) and is damaging to businesses, because excessively high minimum wages require businesses to raise the prices of their product or service to accommodate the extra expense of paying a higher wage.[2][3][4] Simple supply demand models point to welfare and employment losses from minimum wages
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Equality Of Outcome
Equality of outcome, equality of condition, or equality of results is a political concept which is central to some political ideologies and is used regularly in political discourse, often in contrast to the term equality of opportunity.[2] It describes a state in which people have approximately the same material wealth and income, or in which the general economic conditions of their lives are alike. Achieving equal results generally entails reducing or eliminating material inequalities between individuals or households in a society and usually involves a transfer of income or wealth from wealthier to poorer individuals, or adopting other measures to promote equality of condition
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Europe
Europe
Europe
(Europa) is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, Asia
Asia
to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[7] Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Social Democracy
Social democracy
Social democracy
is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy
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