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Central Bank Of Angola
The National Bank of Angola (Portuguese: Banco Nacional de Angola) is the central bank of Angola. It is state-owned and the Government of Angola is the sole shareholder. The bank is based in Luanda, was created in 1926, but traces its ancestry back to 1865. The National Bank of Angola is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion.[2] In 1864, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino (BNU) was established in Lisbon, Portugal, as a bank of issue for all Portuguese overseas territories. The next year, it opened branches in several places, including Angola, which at the time was an overseas province of Portugal. In 1926, the Portuguese established a separate issue bank for Angola, creating the Bank of Angola (Banco de Angola)
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Luanda
Coordinates: 8°50′18″S 13°14′04″E / 8.83833°S 13.23444°E / -8.83833; 13.23444 Luanda (/luˈændə, -ˈɑːn-/),[4] is the capital and largest city in Angola. It is Angola's primary port, and its major industrial, cultural and urban centre. Located on Angola's northern Atlantic coast, Luanda is Angola's administrative centre, its chief seaport, and also the capital of the Luanda Province. Luanda and its metropolitan area is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city in the world, with over 8.3 million inhabitants in 2020 (a third of Angola's population). Among the oldest colonial cities of Africa, it was founded in January 1576 as São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda by Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais. The city served as the centre of the slave trade to Brazil before its prohibition
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Discount Window
The discount window is an instrument of monetary policy (usually controlled by central banks) that allows eligible institutions to borrow money from the central bank, usually on a short-term basis, to meet temporary shortages of liquidity caused by internal or external disruptions. The term originated with the practice of sending a bank representative to a reserve bank teller window when a bank needed to borrow money.[1] The interest rate charged on such loans by a central bank is called the discount rate, policy rate, base rate, or repo rate, and is separate and distinct from the prime rate. It is also not the same thing as the federal funds rate or its equivalents in other currencies, which determine the rate at which banks lend money to each other. In recent years, the discount rate has been approximately a percentage point above the federal funds rate (see Lombard credit)
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Bank For International Settlements
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution[2] owned by central banks that "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".[3] The BIS carries out its work through its meetings, programmes and through the Basel Process – hosting international groups pursuing global financial stability and facilitating their interaction. It also provides banking services, but only to central banks and other international organizations. It is based in Basel, Switzerland, with representative offices in Hong Kong and Mexico City. The BIS was established in 1930 by an intergovernmental agreement between Germany, Belgium, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, the United States, and Switzerland
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Contractionary Monetary Policy
Heterodox Monetary policy is policy adopted by the monetary authority of a nation to control either the interest rate payable for very short-term borrowing (borrowing by banks from each other to meet their short-term needs) or the money supply, often as an attempt to reduce inflation or the interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust of the value and stability of the nation's currency.[1][2][3] Unlike fiscal policy, which relies on taxation, government spending, and government borrowing,[4] as methods for a government to manage business cycle phenomena such as recessions, monetary policy is a modification of the supply of money, i.e
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Expansionary Monetary Policy
Heterodox Monetary policy is policy adopted by the monetary authority of a nation to control either the interest rate payable for very short-term borrowing (borrowing by banks from each other to meet their short-term needs) or the money supply, often as an attempt to reduce inflation or the interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust of the value and stability of the nation's currency.[1][2][3] Unlike fiscal policy, which relies on taxation, government spending, and government borrowing,[4] as methods for a government to manage business cycle phenomena such as recessions, monetary policy is a modification of the supply of money, i.e
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Basel II
Basel II is the second of the Basel Accords, (now extended and partially superseded[clarification needed] by Basel III), which are recommendations on banking laws and regulations issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. The Basel II Accord was published initially in June 2004 and was intended to amend international banking standards that controlled how much capital banks were required to hold to guard against the financial and operational risks banks face. These regulations aimed to ensure that the more significant the risk a bank is exposed to, the greater the amount of capital the bank needs to hold to safeguard its solvency and overall economic stability. Basel II attempted to accomplish this by establishing risk and capital management requirements to ensure that a bank has adequate capital for the risk the bank exposes itself to through its lending, investment and trading activities
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Basel III

Basel III (or the Third Basel Accord or Basel Standards) is a global, voluntary regulatory framework on bank capital adequacy, stress testing, and market liquidity risk. This third installment of the Basel Accords (see Basel I, Basel II) was developed in response to the deficiencies in financial regulation revealed by the financial crisis of 2007–08. It is intended to strengthen bank capital requirements by increasing bank liquidity and decreasing bank leverage.Basel III (or the Third Basel Accord or Basel Standards) is a global, voluntary regulatory framework on bank capital adequacy, stress testing, and market liquidity risk. This third installment of the Basel Accords (see Basel I, Basel II) was developed in response to the deficiencies in financial regulation revealed by the financial crisis of 2007–08
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Basel IV
The Basel IV standards are changes to global bank capital requirements that were agreed in 2017 and are due for implementation in January 2023. They amend the international banking standards known as the Basel Accords.[1] Regulators argue that these changes are simply completing the Basel III reforms, agreed in principle in 2010–11, although most of the Basel III reforms were agreed in detail at that time.[2] The Basel Committee (BCBS) itself calls them simply "finalised reforms"[3] and the UK Government has called them "Basel 3.1".[4] Critics of the reform, in particular those from the banking industry, argue that Basel IV require a significant increase in capital and should be treated as a distinct round of reforms.[5] Basel IV introduces changes that limit the reduction in capital that can result from banks' use of internal models under the Internal Ratings-Based approach
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