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Luanda (), is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter, an upper-case letter in any type of writing * Capital city, the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the governm ...
and largest city in
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante"() , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Luanda , religion = , religion_year = 2015 , religion_ref = , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_la ...
. It is Angola's primary port, and its major industrial,
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.Tylor, Edward. (1871). ...
and
urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
centre. Located on Angola's northern
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{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from ot ...

Atlantic
coast, Luanda is Angola's administrative centre, its chief
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, and also the capital of the
Luanda Province Luanda is a province of Angola. It covers an area of 18,835 sq.km, and had a population of 6,945,386 at the Census of 16 May 2014. The latest official estimate (for 2019) is 8,247,688.Instituto Nacional de Estatístiica, República de Angola. The ...
. Luanda and its metropolitan area is the most populous
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
-speaking capital city in the world and the most populous
Lusophone A Lusophone speaking Portuguese, recorded in the United States. Lusophones ( pt, Lusófonos) are an ethnolinguistic group of peoples and nations that comprise an estimated 270 million people spread across 10 sovereign states and territories that re ...
city outside
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 millio ...
, with over 8.3 million inhabitants in 2020 (a third of Angola's population). Among the oldest colonial cities of Africa, it was founded in January 1576 as ''São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda'' by Portuguese explorer
Paulo Dias de Novais Paulo Dias de Novais (c. 1510 – 9 May 1589), a fidalgo of the Royal Household, was a Portuguese colonizer of Africa in the 16th century and the first Captain-Governor of Portuguese Angola. He was the grandson of the explorer Bartolomeu Dias. Nov ...
. The city served as the centre of the
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved person being made ...
to Brazil before its prohibition. At the start of the
Angolan Civil War The Angolan Civil War ( pt, Guerra Civil Angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. The war was a ...
in 1975, most of the white Portuguese left as refugees, principally for Portugal. Luanda's population increased greatly from refugees fleeing the war, but its infrastructure was inadequate to handle the increase. This also caused the exacerbation of slums, or
musseques Shacks on periphery of alt=Street with people and shanty town, right Squatting in Angola occurs when displaced peoples occupy informal settlements in coastal cities such as the capital Luanda. The Government of Angola has been criticized by human ...
, around Luanda. The city is undergoing a major reconstruction, with many large developments taking place that will alter its cityscape significantly. The industries present in the city include the processing of agricultural products, beverage production, textile, cement, newly car assembly plants, construction materials, plastics, metallurgy, cigarettes and shoes. The city is also notable as an economic centre for oil, and a refinery is located in the city. Luanda has been considered one of the most expensive cities in the world for expatriates. The inhabitants of Luanda are mostly members of the ethnic group of the
Ambundu The Ambundu or Mbundu (Mbundu: , singular: ) (distinct from the Ovimbundu) are a Bantu people living in Angola's North-West, North of the river Kwanza. The Ambundu speak Kimbundu, and mostly also the official language of the country, Portugue ...
, but in recent times there has been an increase of the number of the
Bakongo The Kongo people ( kg, Bisi Kongo, , singular: ; also , singular: ) are a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo (Kongo languages). They have lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, in a region that by the 15th ...
and the
Ovimbundu The Ovimbundu, also known as the Southern Mbundu, are a Bantu ethnic group who live on the Bié Plateau of central Angola and in the coastal strip west of these highlands. As the largest ethnic group in Angola, they make up almost 40 percent of ...
. There exists a European population, consisting mainly of Portuguese. Luanda was the main host city for the matches of the
2010 African Cup of Nations The 2010 Africa Cup of Nations, also known as the Orange Africa Cup of Nations for sponsorship reasons, was the 27th Africa Cup of Nations, the biennial football championship of Africa (CAF). It was held in Angola, where it began on 10 January 2010 ...
.


History


Portuguese colonization

Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
explorer
Paulo Dias de Novais Paulo Dias de Novais (c. 1510 – 9 May 1589), a fidalgo of the Royal Household, was a Portuguese colonizer of Africa in the 16th century and the first Captain-Governor of Portuguese Angola. He was the grandson of the explorer Bartolomeu Dias. Nov ...
founded Luanda on 25 January 1576 as "São Paulo da Assumpção de Loanda", with one hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. In 1618, the Portuguese built the fortress called ''Fortaleza São Pedro da Barra'', and they subsequently built two more:
Fortaleza de São Miguel Fortaleza (, locally , Portuguese for ''Fortress'') is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil. It belongs to the Metropolitan mesoregion of Fortaleza and microregion of Fortaleza. It is Brazil's 5th largest city and the tw ...
(1634) and Forte de São Francisco do Penedo (1765–66). Of these, the Fortaleza de São Miguel is the best preserved. Luanda was Portugal's bridgehead from 1627, except during the Dutch rule of Luanda, from 1640 to 1648, as Fort Aardenburgh. The city served as the centre of
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved person being made ...
to
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 millio ...
from circa 1550 to 1836. The slave trade was conducted mostly with the Portuguese colony of Brazil; Brazilian ships were the most numerous in the port of Luanda. This slave trade also involved local merchants and warriors who profited from the trade. During this period, no large scale territorial conquest was intended by the Portuguese; only a few minor settlements were established in the immediate hinterland of Luanda, some on the last stretch of the
Kwanza River The Cuanza River, also known as the Coanza, the Quanza, and the Kwanza, is one of the longest rivers in Angola. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean just south of the national capital Luanda. Geography The river is navigable for about from its mout ...

Kwanza River
. In the 17th century, the
Imbangala The Imbangala or Mbangala were 17th-century groups of Angolan warriors and marauders who founded the Kasanje Kingdom. Origins The Imbangala were people, possibly from Central Africa, who appeared in Angola during the early 17th century. Their orig ...
became the main rivals of the Mbundu in supplying slaves to the Luanda market. In the 1750s, between 5,000 and 10,000 slaves were annually sold. By this time, Angola, a Portuguese colony, was in fact like a colony of Brazil, paradoxically another Portuguese colony. A strong degree of Brazilian influence was noted in Luanda until the
Independence of Brazil The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire. It is ...
in 1822. In the 19th century, still under Portuguese rule, Luanda experienced a major economic revolution. The
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved person being made ...
was abolished in 1836, and in 1844, Angola's ports were opened to foreign shipping. By 1850, Luanda was one of the greatest and most developed Portuguese cities in the vast
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed ...
outside
Continental Portugal Continental Portugal ( pt, Portugal continental; ) or mainland Portugal comprises the bulk of the Portuguese Republic, namely that part on the Iberian Peninsula and so in Continental Europe, having approximately 95% of the total population and 96. ...
, full of trading companies, exporting (together with
Benguela Benguela (; Umbundu: Luombaka) is a city in western Angola, capital of Benguela Province. Benguela is one of Angola's most populous cities with a population of 555,124 in the city and 561,775 in the municipality, at the 2014 census. History Port ...
)
palm Palm most commonly refers to: * Palm of the hand, the central region of the front of the hand and a subdivision of the cubit * Palm trees, of family Arecaceae **List of Arecaceae genera * Several other plants known as Palm Palm or Palms may also re ...
and
peanut oil Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil usually has a mild or neutral flavor but, if made with roasted peanuts, has a stronger peanut flavor and aroma. It is often used in American, ...
, wax,
copal Copal is a name given to tree resin, particularly the aromatic resins from the copal tree ''Protium copal'' (Burseraceae) used by the cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica as ceremonially burned incense and for other purposes. More generally, the ...
, timber, ivory, cotton, coffee, and
cocoa CoCoA (Computations in Commutative Algebra) is a free computer algebra system developed by the University of Genova, Italy, used to compute with numbers and polynomials. The CoCoA Library (CoCoALib) is available under GNU General Public License. ...
, among many other products. Maize, tobacco,
dried meat Dried meat is a feature of many cuisines around the world. Examples include: *Kulen Slanina Pečenica *Aliya, sun-dried meat from Kenya * Bakkwa or rougan, Chinese salty-sweet dried meat sheets. * Biltong, a cured meat that originated in Southern ...
, and
cassava flour
cassava flour
are also produced locally. The Angolan bourgeoisie was born by this time. In 1889, Governor Brito Capelo opened the gates of an aqueduct which supplied the city with water, a formerly scarce resource, laying the foundation for major growth.


Estado Novo

Throughout Portugal's dictatorship, known as the Estado Novo, Luanda grew from a town of 61,208 with 14.6% of those inhabitants being white in 1940, to a wealthy cosmopolitan major city of 475,328 in 1970 with 124,814 Europeans (26.3%) and around 50,000 mixed race inhabitants (10.5%). Like most of
Portuguese Angola Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa. In the same context, it was known until 1951 as Portuguese West Africa (officially the State of West Africa). Init ...
, the
cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopolit ...
city of Luanda was not affected by the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974); economic growth and development in the entire region reached record highs during this period. In 1972, a report called Luanda the "Paris of Africa".


Independence

By the time of Angolan War of Independence, Angolan independence in 1975, Luanda was a modern city. The majority of its population was African, but it was dominated by a strong minority of white Portuguese origin. After the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon on April 25, 1974, with the advent of independence and the start of the
Angolan Civil War The Angolan Civil War ( pt, Guerra Civil Angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. The war was a ...
(1975–2002), most of the white Portuguese Luandans left as refugees,Flight from Angola
, The Economist (August 16, 1975).
principally for Portugal, with many travelling overland to South Africa. There was an immediate crisis, however, as the local African population lacked the skills and knowledge needed to run the city and maintain its well-developed infrastructure. The large numbers of skilled technicians among the force of Cuban soldiers sent in to support the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) government in the Angolan Civil War were able to make a valuable contribution to restoring and maintaining basic services in the city. In the following years, however, slums called ''
musseques Shacks on periphery of alt=Street with people and shanty town, right Squatting in Angola occurs when displaced peoples occupy informal settlements in coastal cities such as the capital Luanda. The Government of Angola has been criticized by human ...
'' — which had existed for decades — began to grow out of proportion and stretched several kilometres beyond Luanda's former city limits as a result of the decades-long civil war, and because of the rise of deep social inequalities due to large-scale migration of civil war refugees from other Angolan regions. For decades, Luanda's facilities were not adequately expanded to handle this huge increase in the city's population.


21st century

After 2002, with the end of the civil war and high economic growth rates fuelled by the wealth provided by the increasing oil and diamond production, major reconstruction started. Luanda has also become one of the world's most expensive cities. The central government supposedly allocates funds to all regions of the country, but the capital region receives the bulk of these funds. Since the end of the
Angolan Civil War The Angolan Civil War ( pt, Guerra Civil Angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. The war was a ...
(1975–2002), stability has been widespread in the country, and major reconstruction has been going on since 2002 in those parts of the country that were damaged during the civil war. Luanda has been of major concern because its population had multiplied and had far outgrown the capacity of the city, especially because much of its infrastructure (water, electricity, roads etc.) had become obsolete and degraded. Luanda has been undergoing major road reconstruction in the 21st century, and new highways are planned to improve connections to Cacuaco, Viana, Angola, Viana, Samba, Luanda, Samba, and the new airport. Major social housing is also being constructed to house those who reside in slums, which dominate the landscape of Luanda. A large Chinese firm has been given a contract to construct the majority of replacement housing in Luanda. The Angolan minister of health recently stated poverty in Angola will be overcome by an increase in jobs and the housing of every citizen.


Geography

File:Ilha de Luanda.JPG, Beach cabanas on Ilha de Luanda.


Human geography

Luanda is divided into two parts, the ''Baixa de Luanda'' (lower Luanda, the old city) and the ''Cidade Alta'' (upper city or the new part). The ''Baixa de Luanda'' is situated next to the port, and has narrow streets and old colonial buildings. However, new constructions have by now covered large areas beyond these traditional limits, and a number of previously independent nuclei — like Viana — were incorporated into the city.


Metropolitan Luanda

Until 2011, the former Luanda Province comprised what now forms five List of municipalities of Angola, municipalities. In 2011 the Province was enlarged by the addition of two additional municipalities transferred from Bengo Province, namely Icolo e Bengo, and Quiçama. Excluding these additions, the five municipalities comprise Greater Luanda: Two new municipalities have been created within Greater Luanda since 2017: Talatona and Kilamba-Kiaxi


Districts

The city of Luanda is divided in six urban districts: Ingombota, Angola Quiluanje, Maianga, Rangel, Samba and Sambizanga. In Samba and Sambizanga, more high-rise developments are to be built. The capital Luanda is growing constantly - and in addition, increasingly beyond the official city limits and even provincial boundaries. Luanda is the seat of a Catholic Church, Roman Catholic archbishop. It is also the location of most of Angola's educational institutions, including the private Catholic University of Angola and the public University of Agostinho Neto. It is also the home of the colonial Governor's Palace and the Estádio da Cidadela (the "Citadel Stadium"), Angola's main stadium, with a total seating capacity of 60,000.


Climate

Luanda has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: ''BSh''). The climate is warm to hot but surprisingly dry, owing to the cool Benguela Current, which prevents moisture from easily condensing into rain. Frequent fog prevents temperatures from falling at night even during the completely dry months from May to October. Luanda has an annual rainfall of , but the variability is among the highest in the world, with a co-efficient of variation above 40 percent. The climate is largely influenced by the offshore Benguela current. The current gives the city a surprisingly low humidity despite its low latitude, which makes the warmer months considerably more bearable than similar cities in Western/Central Africa. Observed records since 1858 range from in 1958 to in 1916. The short rainy season in March and April depends on a northerly counter current bringing moisture to the city: it has been shown clearly that weakness in the Benguela Current can increase rainfall about sixfold compared with years when that current is strong.


Demographics

The inhabitants of Luanda are primarily members of African ethnic groups, mainly Northern Mbundu people, Ambundu,
Ovimbundu The Ovimbundu, also known as the Southern Mbundu, are a Bantu ethnic group who live on the Bié Plateau of central Angola and in the coastal strip west of these highlands. As the largest ethnic group in Angola, they make up almost 40 percent of ...
, and
Bakongo The Kongo people ( kg, Bisi Kongo, , singular: ; also , singular: ) are a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo (Kongo languages). They have lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, in a region that by the 15th ...
. The official and the most widely used language is
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
, although several Bantu languages are also used, chiefly Kimbundu, Umbundu, and Kikongo. The population of Luanda has grown dramatically in recent years, due in large part to war-time migration to the city, which is safe compared to the rest of the country. Luanda, however, in 2006 saw an increase in violent crime, particularly in the shanty towns that surround the colonial urban core. There is a sizable minority population of European origin, especially Portuguese people, Portuguese (about 260,000), as well as Brazilian people, Brazilians. In recent years, mainly since the mid-2000s, immigration from Portugal has increased due to greater opportunities present in Angola's booming economy. There is a sprinkling of immigrants from other African countries as well, including a small expatriate South African community. A small number of people of Luanda are of mixed race — European/Portuguese and native African. Over the last decades, a significant Chinese people, Chinese community has formed, as has a much smaller Vietnamese people, Vietnamese community.


Places of worship

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christianity, Christian churches and temples: *Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Luanda (Catholic Church) *Evangelical Congregational Church in Angola (World Communion of Reformed Churches) *Evangelical Reformed Church in Angola (World Communion of Reformed Churches) *Baptist Convention of Angola (Baptist World Alliance) *Universal Church of the Kingdom of God *Assemblies of God.


Culture

As the economic and political center of Angola, Luanda is similarly the epicenter of Angolan culture. The city is home to numerous cultural institutions, including the Sindika Dokolo Foundation. The city hosts the annual Luanda International Jazz Festival, since 2009. The city is home to numerous museums, including: *Museu Nacional de Antropologia (Angola), National Museum of Anthropology *Museu Nacional de História Natural de Angola, National Museum of Natural History *Museum of the Armed Forces (Angola), Museum of the Armed Forces *National Museum of Slavery (Angola), National Museum of Slavery Other monuments in the city include: *Palácio de Ferro *Fortress of São Miguel *Fortress of São Francisco do Penedo *Church of Our Lady of Remedies, Luanda Cathedral *Igreja de Jesus (Luanda), Igreja de Jesus *Igreja da Nossa Senhora do Cabo *Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Luanda), Igreja da Nossa Senhora da Conceição *Nossa Senhora da Nazaré, Igreja da Nossa Senhora da Nazaré *Nossa Senhora do Carmo, Igreja da Nossa Senhora do Carmo *Arquivo Histórico Nacional (Angola), Arquivo Histórico Nacional


Economy

Around one-third of Angolans live in Luanda, 53% of whom live in poverty. Living conditions in Luanda are poor for most of the people, with essential services such as safe drinking water and electricity still in short supply, and severe shortcomings in traffic conditions. On the other hand, luxury constructions for the benefit of the wealthy minority are booming. Luanda is one of the world's List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees, most expensive cities for resident foreigners. New import tariffs imposed in March 2014 made Luanda even more expensive. As an example, a half-litre tub of vanilla ice-cream at the supermarket was reported to cost US$31. The higher import tariffs applied to hundreds of items, from garlic to cars. The stated aim was to try to diversify the heavily oil-dependent economy and nurture farming and industry, sectors which have remained weak. These tariffs have caused much hardship in a country where the average salary was US$260 per month in 2010, the latest year for which data was available. However, the average salary in the booming oil industry was over 20 times higher at US$5,400 per month. Manufacturing includes convenience food, processed foods, drink, beverages, textiles, cement and other building materials, plastic products, metalware, cigarettes, and shoes/clothes. Petroleum (found in nearby off-shore deposits) is refined in the city, although this facility was repeatedly damaged during the
Angolan Civil War The Angolan Civil War ( pt, Guerra Civil Angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. The war was a ...
of 1975–2002. Luanda has an excellent natural harbour; the chief exports are coffee, cotton, sugar, diamonds, iron, and salt. The city also has a thriving building industry, an effect of the nationwide economic boom experienced since 2002, when political stability returned with the end of the civil war. Economic growth is largely supported by oil extraction activities, although great diversification (finance), diversification is taking place. Large investment (domestic and international), along with strong economic growth, has dramatically increased construction of all economic sectors in the city of Luanda. In 2007, the first modern shopping mall in Angola was established in the city at Belas Shopping mall.


Transport


Railway

Luanda is the starting point of the Luanda railway that goes due east to Malanje. The Angolan Civil War, civil war left the railway non-functional, but the railway has been restored up to Dondo, Angola, Dondo and Malanje.


Airport

The main airport of Luanda is Quatro de Fevereiro Airport, which is the largest in the country. A new international airport, Angola International Airport is under construction southeast of the city, a few kilometres from Viana, Angola, Viana, which was expected to be opened in 2011. However, as the Angolan government did not continue to make the payments due to the Chinese enterprise in charge of the construction, the firm suspended its work in 2010.


Port

The Port of Luanda serves as the largest port of
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante"() , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Luanda , religion = , religion_year = 2015 , religion_ref = , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_la ...
and is one of the busiest ports in Africa. Major expansion of this port is also taking place. In 2014, a new port is being developed at Dande, about 30 km to the north.


Road transport

Luanda's roads are in a poor state of repair, but are undergoing an extensive reconstruction process by the government in order to relieve traffic congestion in the city. Major road repairs can be found taking place in nearly every neighbourhood, including a major 6-lane highway connected Luanda to Viana, Angola, Viana.


Public transport

Public transit is provided by the suburban services of the Luanda Railway, by the public company Transporte Colectivo Urbano de Luanda, TCUL, and by a large fleet of privately owned collective taxis as white-blue painted minibuses called ''Candongueiro''. Candongueiros are usually Toyota Hiace vans, that are built to carry 12 people, although the candongueiros usually carry at least 15 people. They charge from 100 to 200 kwanzas per trip. They are known to disobey traffic rules, for example not stopping at signs and driving over pavements and aisles. In 2019, the Luanda Light Rail network with an estimated cost of U.S. dollar, US $3 billion was announced to begin construction in 2020.


Education

International schools: * Escola Portuguesa de Luanda * Colégio Português de Luanda * Colégio São Francisco de Assis * Luanda International School * English School Community of Luanda


Higher education

Universities: * Agostinho Neto University * Lusíada University * Catholic University of Angola * Technical University of Angola * Methodist University of Angola * Private University of Angola * Jean Piaget University of Angola * Universidade Mandume ya Ndemufayo, Mandume ya Ndemufayo University * Universidade Indepedente de Angola


Sports

Luanda's Pavilhão Multiusos do Kilamba hosted games for Angola's national basketball team on many occasions. In 2013 Luanda together with Namibe, today's Moçâmedes, hosted the 2013 FIRS Men's Roller Hockey World Cup, the first time that a World Cup of roller hockey (quad), roller hockey was held in Africa. The city is home to the Desportivo do Bengo football club.


International relations


Twin towns – Sister cities

Luanda is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Houston, United States * São Paulo,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 millio ...
Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007
WikiSource
* Lisbon, Portugal * Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, Mexico * Praia, Cape Verde * Beira, Mozambique, Beira, Mozambique * Windhoek, Namibia * Bissau, Guinea-Bissau * Beijing, China * Macau, Macau * Maputo, Mozambique * Tahoua, Niger * São Tomé, São Tomé and Príncipe * Johannesburg, South Africa * Cairo, Egypt * Porto, Portugal * Huambo, Angola * Toulon, France * Asunción, Paraguay * Cape Town, South Africa


References


Bibliography


External links


Portal da Cidade de Luanda

www.cidadeluanda.com - Luanda, city map, History, Photos
{{Authority control Luanda, Capitals in Africa Municipalities of Angola Populated coastal places in Angola Populated places established in 1576 Populated places in Luanda Province Port cities and towns in Angola Provincial capitals in Angola 1576 establishments in the Portuguese Empire 1576 establishments in Africa