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Cacique
A cacique (Spanish: [kaˈθike]; Portuguese: [kɐˈsikɨ, kaˈsiki]; feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. In the colonial era, Spaniards extended the word as a title for the leaders of practically all indigenous groups that they encountered in the Western Hemisphere
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Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
Mori (Spanish pronunciation: [porˈfiɾjo ði.as]; 15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of three and a half decades, from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911. A veteran of the War of the Reform (1858–60) and the French intervention in Mexico
Mexico
(1862–67), Díaz rose to the rank of General, leading republican troops against the French-imposed rule of Emperor Maximilian. Seizing power in a coup in 1876, Díaz and his allies, a group of technocrats known as "Científicos",[1] ruled Mexico
Mexico
for the next thirty-five years, a period known as the Porfiriato. Díaz has always been a controversial figure in Mexican history; while the Porfirian regime brought stability after decades of conflict, it grew unpopular due to civil repression and political stagnation
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Spain Under The Restoration
The Restoration (Spanish: Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic
First Spanish Republic
and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. After almost a whole century of political instability and many civil wars, the aim of the Restoration was to create a new political system, which ensured stability by the practice of turnismo. This was the deliberate rotation of the Liberal and Conservative parties in the government, so no sector of the bourgeoisie felt isolated, while all other parties were excluded from the system. This was achieved by electoral fraud
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Strongman (political)
A strongman is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime or totalitarian regime. The term is often used interchangeably with "dictator" in the western world, but differs from a "warlord" and commonly lacks the negative connotations especially in some Eastern European and Central Asian countries. A strongman is not necessarily always a formal head of state or head of government; sometimes journalists use the term to describe a military or political figure who exercises far more influence over the government than a local constitution allows. General Manuel Noriega, for example, was often dubbed the "Strongman of Panama" for the enormous amount of political power he exercised over Panama, although he was not the formal president or prime minister of the state
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Galicia (Spain)
Galicia (English: /ɡəˈlɪθiə/;[1] Galician: Galicia [ɡaˈliθja], Galiza [ɡaˈliθa];[2] Spanish: Galicia; Portuguese: Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain
Spain
and historic nationality under Spanish law.[3] Located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense
Ourense
and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal
Portugal
to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León
Castile and León
and Asturias
Asturias
to the east, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Cantabrian Sea
Cantabrian Sea
to the north. It had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016[4] and has a total area of 29,574 km2 (11,419 sq mi)
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Simón Bolívar
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad de Bolívar y Palacios[1] (Spanish: [siˈmon boˈliβar] ( listen);[2] 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
and also colloquially as El Libertador,[3] was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama
Panama
as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Creole family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain
Spain
when he was 16 and later moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which later motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America
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Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
Bahamonde[note 1] (/ˈfræŋkoʊ/;[2] Spanish: [fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko βa.aˈmonde];[note 2] 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain
Spain
as a military dictator[3] from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.[4] This period in Spanish history is commonly known as Francoist Spain. As a conservative and a monarchist, Franco opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic secular republic in 1931. With the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin, and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in attempting a failed coup that precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the other generals, Franco quickly became his faction's only leader
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Andes
The Andes
Andes
or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes
Andes
extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. Along their length, the Andes
Andes
are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes
Andes
are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz
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Ferrol, Galicia
Ferrol (In the neighbourhood of Strabo's Cape Nerium,[1] modern day Cape Prior[2][3][4][5]) (Galician pronunciation: [feˈrɔl]), is a city in the Province of A Coruña[6] in Galicia, located on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain. According to the 2014 census, the city has a population of 70,389, making it the 5th largest settlement in Galicia. With Eume to the south and Ortegal
Ortegal
the north, Ferrol forms the Ferrolterra conurbation, the third largest in Galicia which has a total population of over 203,444.The harbour, for depth, capacity and safety, is not equalled by many in Europe. The Entrance is very narrow[7], and commanded by forts, and which may even be shut by a steccado[8][9][10]The city has been a major naval shipbuilding centre for most of its history, being the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the North since the time of the early Bourbons[11]
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Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico
Mexico
through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Americas
in the 15th and 16th centuries.[1][2] It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas
Americas
along with Norte Chico (Caral-Supe) in present-day northern coastal Peru. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures
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Even The Rain
Even the Rain
Even the Rain
(Spanish: También la lluvia) is a 2010 Spanish drama film directed by Icíar Bollaín
Icíar Bollaín
about Mexican director Sebastián (Gael García Bernal) and Spanish executive producer Costa (Luis Tosar) who travel to Bolivia
Bolivia
to shoot a film depicting Christopher Columbus’ conquest. Sebastián and Costa unexpectedly land themselves in a moral crisis when they and their crew arrive at Cochabamba, Bolivia, during the intensifying Cochabamba
Cochabamba
Water War in 2000, which their key native actor Daniel (Juan Carlos Aduviri) persistently leads. The film received nominations and won awards internationally, including an Ariel Award for Best Ibero-American
Ibero-American
Film and three Goya Awards, one of which was Best Original Score for the work of Alberto Iglesias
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Yara, Cuba
Coordinates: 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000Republic of Cuba República de Cuba  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish) "Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"[1]Anthem: La Bayamesa Bayamo
Bayamo
Song [2]Location of  Cuba  (green)Capital and largest city Havana 23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383Official languages SpanishEthnic groups (2012[3])64.1% White 26.6% Mulatto, Mest
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Benedict Anderson
Benedict Richard O'Gorman Anderson (August 26, 1936 – December 13, 2015) was a political scientist and historian, best known for his 1983 book Imagined Communities, which explored the origins of nationalism. Anderson was the Aaron L. Binenkorb Professor Emeritus of International Studies, Government & Asian Studies at Cornell University. A polyglot with an interest in Southeast Asia, his work on the Cornell Paper
Cornell Paper
that debunked the official story of Indonesia's 30 September Movement and the subsequent anti-Communist purges of 1965–66 led to his expulsion from that country. He was the brother of historian Perry Anderson
Perry Anderson
(b
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Spanish–American War
American victoryTreaty of Paris of 1898Territorial changes Spain
Spain
relinquishes sovereignty over Cuba, cedes Puerto Rico, Guam
Guam
and the Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands
to the United States
United States
for $20 millionBelligerents United States Cuban revolutionaries[a] Filipino revolutionaries[a] Spain Cuba Spanish East Indies Puerto RicoCommanders and leaders William McKinley Nelson A. Miles Theodore Roosevelt William R. Shafter George Dewey William Sampson Wesley Merritt Joseph Wheeler Charles D
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Spanish America
Hispanic
Hispanic
America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica or América Hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.[1][2] These countries have significant commonalities with each other and with Spain, its former European metropole
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Murdo J. MacLeod
Murdo J. MacLeod is a Scottish historian of Latin America, publishing extensively on the history of colonial-era Central America, the Caribbean, and the Atlantic world. His monograph Spanish Central America: A Socioeconomic History is a major contribution to the field.[1][2]Contents1 Life and career 2 Works 3 Select list of publications 4 ReferencesLife and career[edit] Murdo J. MacLeod is son of Mary and Murdo MacLeod.[3] He attended the University of Glasgow, earning an M.A. (honors) in 1958. He moved to the U.S., entering the graduate program of University of Florida and completing his doctorate in 1962 with the dissertation entitled "Bolivia and its Social Literature Before and After the Chaco War: A Study of Social and Literary Revolution." He taught at University of Pittsburgh, University of Arizona, and University of Florida, where since 2005, he is Graduate Research Professor Emeritus
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