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Buyid Dynasty
The BUYID DYNASTY or the BUYIDS (Persian : آل بویه‎‎ Āl-e Buye), also known as BUWAIHIDS, BOWAYHIDS, BUYAHIDS, or BUYYIDS, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the ' Iranian Intermezzo ' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia , it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
. The Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
was founded by \' Ali
Ali
ibn Buya , who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz his capital, while his younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal in the late 930s, and by 943 managed to capture Ray , which he made his capital
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Circa
CIRCA (from Latin , meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated C., CA. or CA (also CIRC. or CCA.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date. Circa is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty. Circa should only be used for dates in the past. For example: * 1732–1799 or 1732–99: both years are known precisely. * c. 1732 – 1799: only the end year is known accurately; the start year is approximate. * 1732 – c. 1799: only the start year is known accurately; the end year is approximate. * c. 1732 – c. 1799: both years are approximate.SEE ALSO * Floruit REFERENCES * ^ "circa". Dictionary.com
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Kayanian Dynasty
The KAYANIANS, also KAYS, KAYANIDS or KAIANIDS, or KIANI, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids , and before the historical Achaemenids . Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta
Avesta
, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
, and of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
, Iran
Iran
's national epic. As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno , the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold. The Kiani Crown is a physical manifestation of that belief
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Emir
An EMIR (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: أمير‎‎ ʾAmīr ), sometimes transliterated AMIR, AMIER, or AMEER, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is EMIRA (أميرة ʾAmīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate " is analogous to a sovereign principality . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles * 3 Military ranks and titles * 4 Other uses * 5 Emirs in fiction * 6 See also * 7 Notes ORIGINS Emir
Emir
Dost Mohammad Khan , the first Emir
Emir
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, whose reign started in 1826, with his youngest son Emir
Emir
Sher Ali Khan
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Shah
SHAH (/ˈʃɑː/ ; Persian : شاه‎, translit. Šāh‎, pronounced , "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran
Iran
(historically also known as Persia). It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan (a historical Iranian region in Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
) namely the Shirvanshahs , the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(in that context spelled as Şah and Şeh), Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent , the Bengal Sultanate , as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran
Iran
(Persia and Greater Persia ) the title was continuously used; rather than King
King
in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Šāhanšāh ( King
King
of Kings) or Emperor
Emperor
of the Persian Empire
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Uqaylid Dynasty
The 'UQAILIDS or 'UQAYLID DYNASTY was a Shi\'a Arab
Arab
dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira , northern Syria
Syria
and Iraq
Iraq
in the late tenth and eleventh centuries. The main line, centered in Mosul
Mosul
, ruled from 990 to 1096. CONTENTS * 1 Rise * 2 \'Uqaylids of Mosul
Mosul
* 3 Other \'Uqailids * 4 See also * 5 References RISEThe 'Uqailids were descended from the Banu Uqayl and were Shi\'a . They first came to power in Diyar Bakr
Diyar Bakr
when they were granted land there by the Buwayhids , who hoped that they would serve as a buffer against the Kurd Badh . Soon afterwards the 'Uqailids forged an alliance with the Hamdanids , who had been expelled from Mosul
Mosul
by the Buwayhids in 979
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Prehistory Of Iran
The PREHISTORY OF IRAN could be divided to Paleolithic
Paleolithic
, Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
periods as follow: CONTENTS * 1 Paleolithic
Paleolithic
* 2 Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
* 3 Neolithic
Neolithic
* 4 Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading PALEOLITHICOne of the potential routes for early human migrations toward southern and eastern Asia is Iran, a country characterized by a wide range of geographic variation and resources, which could support early groups of hominins who wandered into the region
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Before Christ
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with AD counting years from the start of this epoch , and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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Persian Mythology
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture * Steppe cultures *
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United Arab Emirates
Coordinates : 24°N 54°E / 24°N 54°E / 24; 54 United Arab Emirates الإمارات العربية المتحدة ( Arabic
Arabic
) Dawlat-al-Imārāt al-'Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah Flag Emblem ANTHEM: عيشي بلادي "Īšiy Bilādī " "Long Live my Nation" Location of United Arab Emirates
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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish ) Flag ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Ista
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Kuwait
Coordinates : 29°30′N 45°45′E / 29.500°N 45.750°E / 29.500; 45.750 State of Kuwait * دولة الكويت ( Arabic
Arabic
) * Dawlat al-Kuwait Flag Emblem ANTHEM: * " Al-Nasheed Al-Watani " * "National Anthem" * Location of Kuwait
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Oman
Coordinates : 21°N 57°E / 21°N 57°E / 21; 57 Sultanate of Oman سلطنة عُمان ( Arabic
Arabic
) Salṭanat ʻUmān Flag National emblem ANTHEM: نشيد السلام السلطاني "as-Salām as-Sultānī " "Sultanic Salutation" Location of Oman
Oman
in the
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Hereditary Monarchy
A HEREDITARY MONARCHY is one in which the crown is passed down from one member of the royal family to another. It is historically the most common type of monarchy and remains the dominant form in extant monarchies. It has the advantages of continuity of the concentration of power and wealth and predictability of who controls the means of governance and patronage. Provided that the monarch is competent, not oppressive, and maintains an appropriate royal dignity, it might also offer the stabilizing factors of popular affection for and loyalty to the royal family. The adjudication of what is oppressive, dignified and popular tends to remain in the purvue or the monarch. The main disadvantage is the heir apparent may be physically or temperamentally unfitted to rule
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