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Buyid Dynasty
The Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
or the Buyids (Persian: آل بویه‎ Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty[3] of Daylamite origin.[4] Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire.[5] The Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
was founded by ' Ali
Ali
ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz
Shiraz
his capital, while his younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal
Jibal
in the late 930s, and by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital
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Persian Mythology
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Kuwait
Coordinates: 29°30′N 45°45′E / 29.500°N 45.750°E / 29.500; 45.750State of Kuwait دولة الكويت (Arabic) Dawlat al-KuwaitFlagEmblemAnthem: "Al-Nasheed Al-Watani" "National Anthem"Location of  Kuwait  (green)Capital and largest city Kuwait
Kuwait
City 29°22′N 47°58′E / 29.367°N 47.967°E / 29.367; 47.967Official languages ArabicEthnic groups60% Arab
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Before Christ
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Uqaylid Dynasty
The 'Uqailids or ' Uqaylid dynasty
Uqaylid dynasty
was a Shi'a
Shi'a
Arab
Arab
dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq
Iraq
in the late tenth and eleventh centuries. The main line, centered in Mosul, ruled from 990 to 1096.Contents1 Rise 2 'Uqaylids of Mosul 3 Other 'Uqailids 4 See also 5 ReferencesRise[edit] The 'Uqailids were descended from the Banu Uqayl and were Shi'a.[citation needed] They first came to power in Diyar Bakr
Diyar Bakr
when they were granted land there by the Buwayhids, who hoped that they would serve as a buffer against the Kurd Badh. Soon afterwards the 'Uqailids forged an alliance with the Hamdanids, who had been expelled from Mosul
Mosul
by the Buwayhids
Buwayhids
in 979
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Prehistory Of Iran
The prehistory of Iran could be divided to Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
periods as follow:Contents1 Paleolithic 2 Epipaleolithic 3 Neolithic 4 Chalcolithic 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingPaleolithic[edit] One of the potential routes for early human migrations toward southern and eastern Asia is Iran, a country characterized by a wide range of geographic variation and resources, which could support early groups of hominins who wandered into the region
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Kura–Araxes Culture
The Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC,[1] which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.[2] The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain; it spread northward in Caucasus
Caucasus
by 3000 BC (but never reaching Colchis[3]). Altogether, the early trans-Caucasian culture enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km,[4] and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus
Caucasus
(except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria.[5][6] The name of the culture is derived from the Kura and Araxes river valleys
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Oman
Coordinates: 21°N 57°E / 21°N 57°E / 21; 57Sultanate of Oman سلطنة عُمان (Arabic) Salṭanat ʻUmānFlagNational emblemAnthem: نشيد السلام السلطاني "as-Salām as-Sultānī" "Sultanic Salutation"Location of Oman
Oman
in the Arabian Peninsula
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Fars Province
Fars Province
Fars Province
(/fɑːrs/; Persian: Ostāne Fārs‎, Ostān-e Fārs, pronounced [ˈfɒː(ɾ)s]) also known as Pars (Persian: پارس) or Persia in the Greek sources[4] in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran
Iran
and known as the cultural capital of the country. It is in the south of the country, in Iran's Region 2,[5] and its administrative center is Shiraz. It has an area of 122,400 km²
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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United Arab Emirates
Coordinates: 24°N 54°E / 24°N 54°E / 24; 54United Arab Emirates الإمارات العربية المتحدة (Arabic) Dawlat-al-Imārāt al-'Arabīyah al-MuttaḥidahFlagEmblemAnthem: عيشي بلادي "Īšiy Bilādī" "Long Live my Nation"Location of  United Arab Emirates  (green) in the Arabian Peninsula  (white)Capital Abu Dhabi 24°28′N 54°22′E / 24.467°N 54.367°E / 24.467; 54.367Largest city Dubai 25°15′N 55°18′E / 25.250°N 55.300°E / 25.250; 55.300Official languages ArabicRecognised national languagesEnglish Hindi Persian Urdu[1]Ethnic groups40% Emirati 11.6% Indian 10.2% Pakistani 9.5% Bangladeshi 6.1% Filipino 15.1% othersReligion IslamDemonym Emirati[2]Government Federal constitutional monarchy• PresidentKhalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan• Prime Minist
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Kayanian Dynasty
The Kayanians, also Kays, Kayanids or Kaianids, or Kiani, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids, and before the historical Achaemenids. Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and of the Shahnameh, Iran's national epic. As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno, the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold
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Shah
Shah
Shah
(/ʃɑː/; Persian: شاه‎, translit. Šāh, pronounced [ʃɒːh], "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran
Iran
(historically also known as Persia). It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan
Shirvan
(a historical Iranian region in Transcaucasia) namely the Shirvanshahs, the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(in that context spelled as Şah and Şeh), Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate,[1] as well as in Afghanistan
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command"
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