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Boer
Boer
Boer
(/ˈboʊ.ər, bɔːr, bʊər/;[2] Afrikaans: [buːr]) is the Dutch and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
noun for "farmer", or, as a present tense verb, "to farm". In Afrikaans
Afrikaans
it still is the only unqualified, context-independent translation of "farmer".[3] In South African contexts, it also denotes the descendants of the then Dutch-speaking settlers of the eastern Cape frontier[4] in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
during the 18th and much of the 19th century
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Boyar
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century
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Paarl
Paarl
Paarl
(/ˈpɑːrl/; Afrikaans: [ˈpɑːrəl] or more commonly [ˈpæːrəl] ; derived from Parel, meaning Pearl in Dutch[2]) is a city with 191,013 inhabitants in the Western Cape
Western Cape
province of South Africa. It is the third oldest town and European settlement in the Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(after Cape Town
Cape Town
and Stellenbosch) and the largest town in the Cape Winelands. Due to the growth of the Mbekweni township, it is now a de facto urban unit with Wellington
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Table Bay
Table Bay
Table Bay
( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Tafelbaai) is a natural bay on the Atlantic Ocean overlooked by Cape Town
Cape Town
(founded 1652 by Van Riebeeck) and is at the northern end of the Cape Peninsula, which stretches south to the Cape of Good Hope. It was named because it is dominated by the flat-topped Table Mountain.Contents1 History 2 Image gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
was the first European to explore this region in 1486. The bay, although famous for centuries as a haven for ships, is actually a rather poor natural harbour and is badly exposed to gales from both the SE and NW
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Jan Van Riebeek
Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck[2] (21 April 1619 – 18 January 1677)[3] was a Dutch navigator and colonial administrator who founded Cape Town
Cape Town
in what then became the Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
of the Dutch East India Company[4][5].Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy in South Africa 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Van Riebeeck was born in Culemborg, as the son of a surgeon. He grew up in Schiedam, where he married 19-year-old Maria de la Quellerie on 28 March 1649. She died in Malacca, now part of Malaysia, on 2 November 1664, at the age of 35. The couple had eight or nine children, most of whom did not survive infancy
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Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(/ˈæmstərdæm/;[9][10][11] Dutch: [ɑmstərˈdɑm] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands,[12] although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague.[13] Amsterdam
Amsterdam
has a population of 851,373 within the city proper, 1,351,587 in the urban area,[14] and 2,410,960 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area.[8] The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million.[15] Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme,[16] indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel
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Huguenots
Huguenots
Huguenots
(/ˈhjuːɡənɒt, -noʊ/; French: Les huguenots [yɡ(ə)no]) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants
Protestants
who follow the Reformed
Reformed
tradition. The term was used frequently to describe members of the Reformed Church of France
France
from the early 1500s until around 1800. The term has its origin in France. Huguenots
Huguenots
were French Protestants mainly from northern France, who were inspired by the writings of theologians in the early 1500s, and who endorsed the Reformed tradition of Protestantism, contrary to the largely German Lutheran population of Alsace, Moselle, and Montbéliard
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Edict Of Nantes
The Edict of Nantes
Nantes
(French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants
Protestants
of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time. In the edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity.[a] The edict separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants
Protestants
for the first time as more than mere schismatics and heretics, and opened a path for secularism and tolerance. In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict offered many specific concessions to the Protestants, such as amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the state and to bring grievances directly to the king
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Drakenstein
The Drakenstein
Drakenstein
("Dragonstone") Mountains are part of the Cape Fold Belt and are in the Western Cape
Western Cape
province of South Africa; they were named in honour of Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede tot Drakenstein
Drakenstein
who visited the Cape as Commissioner-General in 1685;[1] Drakenstein (modern spelling usually Drakestein) was the name of his estate in the Netherlands.[2] They actually comprise two separate ranges, the Klein Drakenstein
Drakenstein
and Groot Drakenstein
Drakenstein
Mountains. The former located just to the east of Paarl
Paarl
being punctuated by the Huguenot Tunnel
Huguenot Tunnel
on the N1 highway and Du Toitskloof Pass (820 m (2,690 ft)) as the R101 route
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Franschhoek
Franschhoek
Franschhoek
([fransˈɦuk]; Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "French Corner", Dutch spelling before 1947 Fransche Hoek) is a small town in the Western Cape Province and one of the oldest towns of the Republic of South Africa. It is about 75 kilometres from Cape Town
Cape Town
and has a population of slightly over 15,000 people. Since 2000 it has been incorporated into Stellenbosch
Stellenbosch
Municipality. Franschhoek's original inhabitants were the Bushman who lived in this place long before the Khoi-Khoi. There is much debate about the origins of the Khoikhoi - some scholars have suggested that they originated from Asia, some from north Africa. The spread of the Khoikhoi herders into the Cape resulted in a conflict of interests with the San hunter-gatherer inhabitants of the area. A major source of conflict was competition for game, such as zebra, antelope, and wildebeest
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Charles Bell (surveyor)
Charles Davidson Bell FRSE (22 October 1813 – 7 April 1882) was the Surveyor-General in the Cape Colony, an artist, heraldist, and designer of Cape medals and stamps.Contents1 Life history 2 Family life 3 Notes and references 4 External linksLife history[edit] Born on 22 October 1813 at Newhall, Crail, Fife, Scotland, he was educated locally at St Andrews University.[1] Bell left Scotland and sailed to South Africa, landing at the Cape of Good Hope in 1830 and through his uncle Sir John Bell, Secretary to the Cape Government, was given a post in the civil service. He was appointed as expedition artist on Dr. Andrew Smith's two-year journey north as far as the Limpopo in 1834. He went from Acting Clerk of the Legislative Council in 1838, to Assistant Surveyor-General in 1843, to Surveyor-General in 1848. In 1851, he designed a silver gallantry medal for Cape governor Sir Harry Smith to present to troops during the 8th Frontier War
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Algoa Bay
Algoa may refer to:Algoa, Texas, an unincorporated community in Galveston County, Texas, United States Algoa Bay, a wide inlet along the South African east coast Algoa FM, a Commercial radio station 1394 Algoa, an asteroidThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Algoa. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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South African Wine
South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, with the first bottle produced in Cape Town by its founder Jan van Riebeeck. Access to international markets led to new investment in the South African wine market. Production is concentrated around Cape Town, with major vineyard and production centres at Constantia, Paarl, Stellenbosch and Worcester. There are about 60 appellations within the Wine of Origin (WO) system, which was implemented in 1973 with a hierarchy of designated production regions, districts and wards. WO wines must only contain grapes from the specific area of origin. "Single vineyard" wines must come from a defined area of less than 5 hectares. An "Estate Wine" can come from adjacent farms if they are farmed together and wine is produced on site
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Despotism
Despotism
Despotism
(Greek: Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. Normally, that entity is an individual, the despot, as in an autocracy, but societies which limit respect and power to specific groups have also been called despotic.[1] Colloquially, the word despot applies pejoratively to those who abuse their power and authority to oppress their populace, subjects, or subordinates. More specifically, the term often applies to a head of state or government
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Tyranny
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. Often described as a cruel character, a tyrant defends his position by oppressive means, tending to control almost everything in the state.[1][2] The original Greek term, however, merely meant an authoritarian sovereign without reference to character,[3] bearing no pejorative connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods
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