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Afrikaans
Afrikaans
(/ˌæfrɪˈkɑːns, ˌɑːfri-, -ˈkɑːnz/)[5][6] is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia
Namibia
and, to a lesser extent, Botswana
Botswana
and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular[7][8] of South Holland
South Holland
(Hollandic dialect)[9][10] spoken by the mainly Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century.[11] Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" (a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" (a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
in its earlier days). However, it is also variously described as a creole or as a partially creolised language.[n 1] The term is ultimately derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". It is the first language of most of the Afrikaners
Afrikaners
and Coloureds
Coloureds
of Southern Africa. Although Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan
Khoisan
languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is of Dutch origin.[n 2] Therefore, differences with Dutch often lie in the more analytic morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, and a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch.[n 3] There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.[n 4] With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country.[12] It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, and is widely spoken and understood as a second or third language.[n 5] It is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape
Northern Cape
and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured
Coloured
South Africans (4.8 million people), 60.8% of White South Africans (2.7 million); 4.6% of Asian South Africans (58,000 people), and 1.5% of black South Africans (600,000 people).[13] In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages
Bantu languages
and English also speak Afrikaans
Afrikaans
as a second language. It is taught in schools, with about 10.3 million second-language students.[1] One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, and several translations of the Bible
Bible
have been published since the first one was completed in 1933.[1] In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is widely spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca,[n 6] while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households, mainly concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay, Swakopmund and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.[n 7] It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia
Namibia
until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek
Windhoek
spoke Afrikaans
Afrikaans
at home.[1] Both Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers range between 15 and 23 million.[n 8]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Origin 2.2 Development 2.3 Recognition

2.3.1 Monument

2.4 Standardisation 2.5 The Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Bible

3 Classification 4 Geographic distribution

4.1 Statistics 4.2 Sociolinguistics

5 Current status 6 Dialects

6.1 Kaapse Afrikaans 6.2 Oranjerivierafrikaans 6.3 Expatriate geolect

7 Influences on Afrikaans
Afrikaans
from other languages

7.1 Malay 7.2 Portuguese 7.3 Khoisan
Khoisan
languages 7.4 Bantu languages

8 Grammar 9 Phonology

9.1 Vowels 9.2 Consonants

10 Orthography

10.1 Initial apostrophes 10.2 Table of characters

11 Afrikaans
Afrikaans
phrases 12 Sample text 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 Further reading 18 External links

Etymology The term is ultimately derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". History Origin The Afrikaans language
Afrikaans language
arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century.[14][15] As early as the mid-18th century and as recently as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language" (Afrikaans: kombuistaal), lacking the prestige accorded, for example, even by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands ("Cape Dutch", i.e. Afrikaans) as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt, gebroken and onbeschaafd Hollands ("mutilated/broken/uncivilised Dutch"), as well as verkeerd Nederlands ("incorrect Dutch").[16][17] An estimated 90 to 95% of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
vocabulary is ultimately of Dutch origin,[18][19][20] and there are few lexical differences between the two languages.[21] Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has a considerably more regular morphology,[22] grammar, and spelling.[23] There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages,[22][24][25] particularly in written form.[23][26][27] Afrikaans
Afrikaans
acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan
Khoisan
languages, Portuguese,[28] and of the Bantu languages,[29] and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has also been significantly influenced by South African English.[30] Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
than the other way round.[27] Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans
Afrikaans
than for Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers to understand Dutch.[27] In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is better than between Dutch and Frisian[31] or between Danish and Swedish.[27] The South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between (Standard) Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation
Received Pronunciation
and Southern American English.[32] Development A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners
Afrikaners
were from the United Provinces (now Netherlands
Netherlands
and Flanders),[33] though up to one-sixth of the community was also of French Huguenot
Huguenot
origin, and a seventh from Germany.[34] African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans. The slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India, Madagascar, and the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia).[35] A number were also indigenous Khoisan
Khoisan
people, who were valued as interpreters, domestic servants, and labourers. Many free and enslaved women married, cohabited with, or were victims of sexual violence from the male Dutch settlers. M. F. Valkhoff argued that 75% of children born to female slaves in the Dutch Cape Colony between 1652 and 1672 had a Dutch father.[36] Some consider this the origin of the ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, who adopted various forms of speech utilising a Dutch vocabulary. Sarah Grey Thomason and Terrence Kaufman argue that Afrikaans' development as a separate language was "heavily conditioned by nonwhites who learned Dutch imperfectly as a second language."[37] Beginning in about 1815, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
started to replace Malay as the language of instruction in Muslim
Muslim
schools in South Africa, written with the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet: see Arabic
Arabic
Afrikaans. Later, Afrikaans, now written with the Latin
Latin
script, started to appear in newspapers and political and religious works in around 1850.[14] In 1875, a group of Afrikaans-speakers from the Cape formed the Genootskap vir Regte Afrikaanders ("Society for Real Afrikaners"),[14] and published a number of books in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
including grammars, dictionaries, religious materials and histories. In 1925, Afrikaans was recognised by the South African government as a real language, rather than simply a slang version of Dutch proper.[14] Recognition Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was considered a Dutch dialect in South Africa
South Africa
until the early 20th century, when it became recognised as a distinct language under South African law, alongside Standard Dutch, which it eventually replaced as an official language.[38] Before the Boer Wars (1880–81 and 1899–1902), "and indeed for some time afterwards, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was regarded as inappropriate for educated discourse. Rather, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was described derogatorily as ‘a kitchen language’ or as ‘a bastard jargon', suitable for communication mainly between the Boers and their servants."[39] 23 years after the Second Boer War ended in 1902, mostly due to the efforts of the Afrikans Language Movement[39] on 8 May 1925, the Official Languages of the Union Act No 8 of 1925 was passed at a joint sitting of the House of Assembly and the Senate,[40] in which 'Dutch' was "declared to include Afrikaans". The Constitution of 1961 reversed the position of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and Dutch, so that English and Afrikaans were the official languages and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was deemed to include Dutch. The Constitution of 1983 removed any mention of Dutch altogether. Monument

A slogan in front of the Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Language Monument, near Paarl, South Africa. Loosely translated, it reads "This we care about/This is important to us", or, literally, "This is our seriousness"[citation needed] or "This is our cause"[citation needed]

The Afrikaans Language Monument
Afrikaans Language Monument
(Afrikaanse Taalmonument) is located on a hill overlooking Paarl, Western Cape
Western Cape
Province, South Africa. Officially opened on 10 October 1975,[41] it commemorates the 50th anniversary of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
being declared an official language of South Africa in distinction to Dutch. It was erected in Paarl
Paarl
on the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners (Society of Real Afrikaners), an organisation which helped to strengthen Afrikaners' identity and pride in their language.[42] Standardisation

The side view of the Pretoria Art Museum
Pretoria Art Museum
in Arcadia, Pretoria, with an Afrikaans language
Afrikaans language
sign.

The linguist Paul Roberge suggested the earliest 'truly Afrikaans' texts are doggerel verse from 1795 and a dialogue transcribed by a Dutch traveller in 1825. Printed material among the Afrikaners
Afrikaners
at first used only standard European Dutch. By the mid-19th century, more and more were appearing in Afrikaans, which was very much still regarded as a set of regional dialects. In 1861, L.H. Meurant published his Zamenspraak tusschen Klaas Waarzegger en Jan Twyfelaar ("Conversation between Claus Truthsayer and John Doubter"), which is considered by some to be the first authoritative Afrikaans
Afrikaans
text.[citation needed] Abu Bakr Effendi
Abu Bakr Effendi
also compiled his Arabic Afrikaans
Arabic Afrikaans
Islamic
Islamic
instruction book between 1862 and 1869, although this was only published and printed in 1877. The first Afrikaans
Afrikaans
grammars and dictionaries were published in 1875 by the Genootskap vir Regte Afrikaners
Afrikaners
("Society for Real Afrikaners") in Cape Town.[citation needed] The main Afrikaans
Afrikaans
dictionary is the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (WAT) (Dictionary of the Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Language), which is as yet incomplete owing to the scale of the project, but the one-volume dictionary in household use is the Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (HAT). The official orthography of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is the Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls, compiled by Die Taalkommissie. The Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Bible Main article: Bible
Bible
translations into Afrikaans The Afrikaner
Afrikaner
religion had stemmed from the Protestant practices of the Reformed church of Holland during the 17th century, later on being influenced in South Africa
South Africa
by British ministries during the 1800s "Afrikaner". South African History Online. South African History Online (SAHO) [online]. Retrieved 20 October 2017. . A major landmark in the development of the language was the translation of the whole Bible
Bible
into Afrikaans. Before this, most Cape Dutch-Afrikaans speakers had to rely on the Dutch Statenbijbel. This Statenvertaling had its origins with the Synod of Dordrecht
Synod of Dordrecht
of 1618 and was thus in an archaic form of Dutch. This was hard for Dutch and Cape Dutch
Cape Dutch
speakers to understand, and increasingly unintelligible for Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers. C. P. Hoogehout, Arnoldus Pannevis, and Stephanus Jacobus du Toit
Stephanus Jacobus du Toit
were the first Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Bible
Bible
translators. Important landmarks in the translation of the Scriptures were in 1878 with C. P. Hoogehout's translation of the Evangelie volgens Markus (Gospel of Mark, lit. Gospel according to Mark); however, this translation was never published. The manuscript is to be found in the South African National Library, Cape Town. The first official translation of the entire Bible
Bible
into Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was in 1933 by J. D. du Toit, E. E. van Rooyen, J. D. Kestell, H. C. M. Fourie, and BB Keet.[43][44] This monumental work established Afrikaans
Afrikaans
as 'n suiwer en ordentlike taal, that is "a pure and proper language" for religious purposes, especially amongst the deeply Calvinist
Calvinist
Afrikaans
Afrikaans
religious community that previously had been sceptical of a Bible
Bible
translation that varied from the Dutch version that they were used to. In 1983, a fresh translation marked the 50th anniversary of the 1933 version and provided a much-needed revision. The final editing of this edition was done by E. P. Groenewald, A. H. van Zyl, P. A. Verhoef, J. L. Helberg and W. Kempen. Classification

The simplified relation between the West Germanic languages.

Indo-European languages

Germanic

West Germanic

Low Franconian

Dutch

Afrikaans, Dutch-based creoles

Afrikaans
Afrikaans
belongs to its own West Germanic sub-group, the Low Franconian languages. Its closest relative is the mutually-intelligible mother language, Dutch language. Other West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
related to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
are German, English and the Frisian languages
Frisian languages
and the unstandardised languages Low German
Low German
and Yiddish. Geographic distribution Statistics

The geographical distribution of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
in South Africa: proportion of the population that speaks Afrikaans
Afrikaans
at home.

  0–20%   20–40%   40–60%   60–80%   80–100%

Country Speakers Percentage Year Reference

 Australia 50,030 0.26% 2015 [45]

 Botswana 8,082 0.39% 2011 [45]

  England
England
and  Wales 11,247 0.021% 2011 [46]

 Mauritius 36 0.002% 2011 [45]

 Namibia 180,029 8.7% 2011 [45]

 New Zealand 21,123 0.52% 2006 [45]

 South Africa 6,855,082 13.4% 2011 [45]

Sociolinguistics Some state that instead of Afrikaners, which refers to an ethnic group, the terms Afrikaanses or Afrikaanssprekendes (lit. Afrikaans speakers) should be used for people of any ethnic origin who speak Afrikaans. Linguistic identity has not yet established which terms shall prevail, and all three are used in common parlance.[47] The white Afrikaans-speaking community started being referred to colloquially as "The Boere". The terms boerseun (farm boy) and boeremeisie (farm girl) became popular among young white Afrikaners for expressing national pride, regardless of whether or not they actually grew up on a farm.

The geographical distribution of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
in South Africa: density of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
home-language speakers.

  <1 /km2   1–3 /km2   3–10 /km2   10–30 /km2   30–100 /km2   100–300 /km2   300–1000 /km2   1000–3000 /km2   >3000 /km2

The geographical distribution of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
in Namibia.

Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is also widely spoken in Namibia. Before independence, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
had equal status with German as an official language. Since independence in 1990, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has had constitutional recognition as a national, but not official, language.[48][49] There is a much smaller number of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers among Zimbabwe's white minority, as most have left the country since 1980. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was also a medium of instruction for schools in Bophuthatswana, an Apartheid-era Bantustan.[50] Many South Africans living and working in Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, the UAE
UAE
and Kuwait
Kuwait
are also Afrikaans-speaking. They have access to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
websites, news sites such as Netwerk24.com and Sake24, and radio broadcasts over the web, such as those from Radio Sonder Grense, Bokradio and Radio Pretoria. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has been influential in the development of South African English. Many Afrikaans
Afrikaans
loanwords have found their way into South African English, such as bakkie ("pickup truck"), braai ("barbecue"), naartjie ("tangerine"), tekkies (American "sneakers", British "trainers", Canadian "runners"). A few words in standard English are derived from Afrikaans, such as aardvark (lit. "earth pig"), trek ("pioneering journey", in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
lit. "pull" but used also for "migrate"), spoor ("animal track"), veld ("Southern African grassland" in Afrikaans, lit. "field"), commando from Afrikaans
Afrikaans
kommando meaning small fighting unit, boomslang ("tree snake") and apartheid ("segregation"; more accurately "apartness" or "the state or condition of being apart"). In 1976, secondary-school pupils in Soweto
Soweto
began a rebellion in response to the government's decision that Afrikaans
Afrikaans
be used as the language of instruction for half the subjects taught in non-White schools (with English continuing for the other half). Although English is the mother tongue of only 8.2% of the population, it is the language most widely understood, and the second language of a majority of South Africans.[51] Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is more widely spoken than English in the Northern and Western Cape
Western Cape
provinces, several hundred kilometres from Soweto.[52] The Black community's opposition to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and preference for continuing English instruction was underlined when the government rescinded the policy one month after the uprising: 96% of Black schools chose English (over Afrikaans
Afrikaans
or native languages) as the language of instruction.[52] Also, due to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
being viewed as the language of the white oppressor by some, pressure has been increased to remove Afrikaans
Afrikaans
as a teaching language in South African universities, resulting in bloody student protests in 2015.[53][54][55] Under South Africa's Constitution of 1996, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
remains an official language, and has equal status to English and nine other languages. The new policy means that the use of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is now often reduced in favour of English, or to accommodate the other official languages. In 1996, for example, the South African Broadcasting Corporation reduced the amount of television airtime in Afrikaans, while South African Airways
South African Airways
dropped its Afrikaans
Afrikaans
name Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens from its livery. Similarly, South Africa's diplomatic missions overseas now only display the name of the country in English and their host country's language, and not in Afrikaans. In spite of these moves, the language has remained strong, and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
newspapers and magazines continue to have large circulation figures. Indeed, the Afrikaans-language general-interest family magazine Huisgenoot
Huisgenoot
has the largest readership of any magazine in the country.[56] In addition, a pay-TV channel in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
called KykNet was launched in 1999, and an Afrikaans
Afrikaans
music channel, MK (Musiek kanaal) (lit. 'Music Channel'), in 2005. A large number of Afrikaans books are still published every year, mainly by the publishers Human & Rousseau, Tafelberg Uitgewers, Struik, and Protea Boekhuis. The Afrikaans
Afrikaans
film trilogy Bakgat (first released in 2008) caused a reawakening of the Afrikaans
Afrikaans
film Industry (which has been dead since the mid to late 1990s) and Belgian-born singer Karen Zoid's debut single " Afrikaners
Afrikaners
is Plesierig" (released 2001) caused a resurgence in the Afrikaans
Afrikaans
music industry as well as gave rise to the Afrikaans Rock genre. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has two monuments erected in its honour. The first was erected in Burgersdorp, South Africa, in 1893, and the second, nowadays better-known Afrikaans Language Monument
Afrikaans Language Monument
(Afrikaanse Taalmonument), was built in Paarl, South Africa, in 1975. When the British design magazine Wallpaper described Afrikaans
Afrikaans
as "one of the world's ugliest languages" in its September 2005 article about the monument,[57] South African billionaire Johann Rupert
Johann Rupert
(chairman of the Richemont
Richemont
Group), responded by withdrawing advertising for brands such as Cartier, Van Cleef & Arpels, Montblanc and Alfred Dunhill from the magazine.[58] The author of the article, Bronwyn Davies, was an English-speaking South African. Modern Dutch and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
share over 90 percent of their vocabulary. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers are able to learn Dutch within a comparatively short time. Native Dutch speakers pick up written Afrikaans
Afrikaans
even more quickly, due to its simplified grammar,[citation needed] whereas understanding spoken Afrikaans
Afrikaans
might need more effort. Afrikaans speakers can learn Dutch pronunciation with little training. This has enabled Dutch and Belgian companies to outsource their call centre operations to South Africa.[59] Current status

Use of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
as a first language by province

Province 1996[60] 2001[60] 2011[60]

Western Cape 58.5% 55.3% 49.7%

Eastern Cape 9.8% 9.6% 10.6%

Northern Cape 57.2% 56.6% 53.8%

Free State 14.4% 11.9% 12.7%

KwaZulu-Natal 1.6% 1.5% 1.6%

North West 8.8% 8.8% 9.0%

Gauteng 15.6% 13.6% 12.4%

Mpumalanga 7.1% 5.5% 7.2%

Limpopo 2.6% 2.6% 2.6%

 South Africa 14.4%[61] 13.3%[62] 13.5%[12]

Post-apartheid South Africa
South Africa
has seen a loss of preferential treatment by the government for Afrikaans, in terms of education, social events, media (TV and radio), and general status throughout the country, given that it now shares its place as official language with ten other languages. Nevertheless, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
remains more prevalent in the media – radio, newspapers and television[63] – than any of the other official languages, except English. More than 300 book titles in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
are published annually.[64] South African census figures suggest a growing number of speakers in all nine provinces, a total of 6.85 million in 2011 compared to 5.98 million a decade earlier.[65] The South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) project that a growing majority will be Coloured
Coloured
Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers.[66] Afrikaans speakers experience higher employment rates than other South African language groups, though half a million remain unemployed.[65] Despite the challenges of demotion and emigration that it faces in South Africa, the Afrikaans
Afrikaans
vernacular remains competitive, being popular in DSTV pay channels and several internet sites, while generating high newspaper and music CD sales. A resurgence in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
popular music since the late 1990s has invigorated the language, especially among a younger generation of South Africans. A recent trend is the increased availability of pre-school educational CDs and DVDs. Such media also prove popular with the extensive Afrikaans-speaking expatriate communities who seek to retain language proficiency in a household context. After years of slumber, Afrikaans language
Afrikaans language
cinema is showing signs of new vigour. The 2007 film Ouma se slim kind, the first full-length Afrikaans
Afrikaans
movie since Paljas in 1998, is seen as the dawn of a new era in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
cinema. Several short films have been created and more feature-length movies, such as Poena is Koning and Bakgat (both in 2008) have been produced, besides the 2011 Afrikaans-language film Skoonheid, which was the first Afrikaans
Afrikaans
film to screen at the Cannes Film Festival. The film Platteland was also released in 2011.[67] The Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Film industry started gaining international recognition via the likes of big Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Hollywood film stars, like Charlize Theron (Monster) and Sharlto Copley
Sharlto Copley
(District 9) promoting their mother tongue. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
seems to be returning to the SABC. SABC3 announced early in 2009 that it would increase Afrikaans
Afrikaans
programming due to the "growing Afrikaans-language market and [their] need for working capital as Afrikaans
Afrikaans
advertising is the only advertising that sells in the current South African television market". In April 2009, SABC3 started screening several Afrikaans-language programmes.[68] Further latent support for the language derives from its de-politicised image in the eyes of younger-generation South Africans, who less and less often view it as "the language of the oppressor".[citation needed] Indeed, there is a groundswell movement within Afrikaans
Afrikaans
to be inclusive, and to promote itself along with the other indigenous official languages. In Namibia, the percentage of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers declined from 11.4% (2001 Census) to 10.4% (2011 Census). The major concentrations are in Hardap (41.0%), ǁKaras (36.1%), Erongo (20.5%), Khomas (18.5%), Omaheke (10.0%), Otjozondjupa (9.4%), Kunene (4.2%), and Oshikoto (2.3%).[69] Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is offered at many universities outside of South Africa including in the Netherlands, Belgium, German, Poland, Russia and America.[70] Dialects

A sign in Afrikaans: Gevaar Slagysters or "Warning (danger), Traps".

Following early dialectal studies of Afrikaans, it was theorised that three main historical dialects probably existed after the Great Trek in the 1830s. These dialects are the Northern Cape, Western Cape, and Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
dialects.[71] Northern Cape
Northern Cape
dialect may have resulted from contact between Dutch settlers and the Khoi-Khoi
Khoi-Khoi
people between the Great Karoo and the Kunene, and Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
dialect between the Dutch and the Xhosa. Remnants of these dialects still remain in present-day Afrikaans, although the standardising effect of Standard Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has contributed to a great levelling of differences in modern times.[72][citation needed] There is also a prison cant, known as soebela or sombela, which is based on Afrikaans, yet heavily influenced by Zulu. This language is used as a secret language in prison and is taught to initiates.[72] Kaapse Afrikaans The term Kaapse Afrikaans
Afrikaans
("Cape Afrikaans") is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the entire Western Cape
Western Cape
dialect; it is more commonly used for a particular sociolect spoken in the Cape Peninsula
Cape Peninsula
of South Africa. Kaapse Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was once spoken by all population groups. However, it became increasingly restricted to the Cape Coloured
Coloured
ethnic group in Cape Town
Cape Town
and environs. Kaapse Afrikaans
Afrikaans
preserves some features more similar to Dutch than to Afrikaans.[73]

The 1st person singular pronoun ik as in Dutch as opposed to Afrikaans ek The diminutive endings -tje, pronounced as in Dutch and not as /ki/ as in Afrikaans. The use of the form seg (compare Dutch zegt) as opposed to Afrikaans sê

Kaapse Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has some other features not typically found in Afrikaans.

The pronunciation of j, normally /j/ as in Dutch is often a /dz/. This is the strongest feature of Kaapse Afrikaans. The insertion of /j/ after /s/, /t/ and /k/ when followed by /e/, e.g. kjen as opposed to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
ken.

Kaapse Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is also characterised by much code-switching between English and Afrikaans, especially in the inner-city and lower socio-economic status areas of Cape Town. An example of characteristic Kaapse Afrikaans:

Dutch: En ik zeg (tegen) jullie: wat zoeken jullie hier bij mij? Ik zoek jullie niet! Nee, ga nu weg! Kaapse Afrikaans: En ik seg ve' djille, wat soek djille hie' by my? Ik soek'ie ve' djille nie! Nei, gaat nou weg! Afrikaans: En ek sê vir julle, wat soek julle hier by my? Ek soek julle nie! Nee, gaan nou weg! English (direct): And I say to you, what seek you here by me? I seek you not! No, go now away! English: And I'm telling you, what are you looking for here? I don't want you here! No, go away now!

Oranjerivierafrikaans The term Oranjerivierafrikaans (" Afrikaans
Afrikaans
of the Orange River") is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the Northern Cape
Northern Cape
dialect; it is more commonly used for the regional peculiarities of standard Afrikaans
Afrikaans
spoken in the Upington/Orange River wine district of South Africa. Some of the characteristics of Oranjerivierafrikaans are the plural form -goed (Ma-goed, meneergoed), variant pronunciation such as in kjerk ("Church") and gjeld ("money") and the ending -se, which indicates possession. Expatriate geolect Although Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is mainly spoken in South Africa
South Africa
and Namibia, smaller Afrikaans-speaking populations live in Argentina,[74] Australia, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Lesotho, Malawi, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Swaziland, the UAE, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, the USA, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.[1] Most Afrikaans-speaking people living outside Africa are emigrants and their descendants. Because of emigration and migrant labour, more than 100,000 Afrikaans speakers may live in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] Influences on Afrikaans
Afrikaans
from other languages Malay Due to the early settlement of a Cape Malay
Cape Malay
community in Cape Town, who are now known as Coloureds, numerous Malay words were brought into Afrikaans. Some of these words entered Dutch via the Indonesian language as part of the colonial heritage. Malay words in Afrikaans include:[75]

baie, which means 'very'/'much'/'many' (from banyak) is a very commonly used Afrikaans
Afrikaans
word, different from its Dutch equivalent veel or erg. baadjie, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for jacket, where Dutch would use jas or vest. The word baadje in Dutch is now considered archaic and only used in written, literary texts. piesang, which means banana. This is different from the common Dutch word banaan. The Indonesian word pisang is also used in Dutch, though usage is less common.

Portuguese Some words originally came from Portuguese such as sambreel ("umbrella") from the Portuguese sombreiro, kraal ("pen/cattle enclosure") from the Portuguese curral, and mielie ("corn", from milho). These words have become common in South Africa
South Africa
to an extent of being used in many other South African languages. Some of these words also exist in Dutch, like sambreel "parasol",[76] though usage is less common and meanings can slightly differ. Khoisan
Khoisan
languages

dagga, meaning cannabis[75] geitjie, meaning lizard, diminutive adapted from Khoekhoe
Khoekhoe
word[77] gogga, meaning insect, from the Khoisan
Khoisan
xo-xo karos blanket of animal hides kierie walking stick from Khoekhoe[77]

Some of these words also exist in Dutch, though with a more specific meaning: assegaai for example means "South-African tribal javelin"[citation needed] and karos means "South-African tribal blanket of animal hides".[78] Bantu languages Loanwords from Bantu languages
Bantu languages
in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
include the names of indigenous birds, such as mahem and sakaboela, and indigenous plants, such as maroela and tamboekie(gras).[79]

fundi, from the Zulu word umfundi meaning "scholar" or "student",[80] but used to mean someone who is a student/expert on a certain subject, i.e. He is a language fundi. lobola, meaning bride price, from (and referring to) lobolo of the Nguni languages[81] mahem, the grey crowned crane, known in Latin
Latin
as Balearica regulorum maroela, medium-sized dioecious tree known in Latin
Latin
as Sclerocarya birrea[82] tamboekiegras, species of thatching grass known as Hyparrhenia[83] tambotie, deciduous tree also known by its Latin
Latin
name, Spirostachys africana[84] tjaila / tjailatyd, an adaption of the word chaile, meaning "to go home" or "to knock off".[85]

Grammar Main article: Afrikaans
Afrikaans
grammar In Afrikaans
Afrikaans
grammar, there is no distinction between the infinitive and present forms of verbs, with the exception of the verbs 'to be' and 'to have':

infinitive form present indicative form Dutch English German

wees is zijn (wezen) be sein (gewesen)

hê het hebben have haben

In addition, verbs do not conjugate differently depending on the subject. For example,

Afrikaans Dutch English German

ek is ik ben I am ich bin

jy/u is jij/u bent you are (sing.) du bist/Sie sind

hy/sy/dit is hij/zij/het is he/she/it is er/sie/es ist

ons is wij zijn we are wir sind

julle is jullie zijn you are (plur.) ihr seid

hulle is zij zijn they are sie sind

Only a handful of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
verbs have a preterite, namely the auxiliary wees ("to be"), the modal verbs, and the verb dink ("to think"). The preterite of mag ("may") is rare in contemporary Afrikaans.

Afrikaans Dutch English German

present past present past present past present past

ek is ek was ik ben ik was I am I was ich bin ich war

ek kan ek kon ik kan ik kon I can I could ich kann ich konnte

ek moet ek moes ik moet ik moest I must I had to ich muss ich musste

ek wil ek wou ik wil ik wilde/wou I want I wanted ich will ich wollte

ek sal ek sou ik zal ik zou I will I would ich werde ich wurde

ek mag (ek mog) ik mag ik mocht I may I might ich mag ich mochte

ek dink ek dog ik denk ik dacht I think I thought ich denke ich dachte

All other verbs use the perfect tense (hê + past participle) for the past. Therefore, there is no distinction in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
between I drank and I have drunk. (Also in colloquial German, the past tense is often replaced with the perfect.)

Afrikaans Dutch English German

ek het gedrink ik dronk I drank ich trank

ek het gedrink ik heb gedronken I have drunk ich habe getrunken

When telling a longer story, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers usually avoid the perfect and simply use the present tense, or historical present tense instead (as is possible, but less common, in English as well). A particular feature of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is its use of the double negative; it is classified in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
as ontkennende vorm and is something that is absent from the other West Germanic standard languages. For example,

Afrikaans: Hy kan nie Afrikaans
Afrikaans
praat nie, lit. 'He can not Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speak not' Dutch: Hij spreekt geen Afrikaans. / Dutch: Hij kan geen Afrikaans praten. English: He speaks no Afrikaans. / He can not speak Afrikaans. / He can't speak Afrikaans. German: Er spricht kein Afrikaans. French: Il ne parle pas afrikaans.

Both French and San origins have been suggested for double negation in Afrikaans. While double negation is still found in Low Franconian dialects in West- Flanders
Flanders
and in some "isolated" villages in the centre of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(such as Garderen), it takes a different form, which is not found in Afrikaans. The following is an example:

Afrikaans: Ek wil dit nie doen nie.* (lit. I want this not do not.) Dutch: Ik wil dit niet doen. English: I do not want to do this. German: Ich will dies nicht tun.

* Compare with Ek wil nie dit doen nie, which changes the meaning to "I want not to do this." Whereas Ek wil nie dit doen nie emphasizes a lack of desire to act, Ek wil dit nie doen nie emphasizes the act itself. The -ne was the Middle Dutch way to negate but it has been suggested that since -ne became highly non-voiced, nie or niet was needed to complement the -ne. With time the -ne disappeared in most Dutch dialects. The double negative construction has been fully grammaticalised in standard Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and its proper use follows a set of fairly complex rules as the examples below show:

Afrikaans Dutch (literally translated) More correct Dutch English

Ek het nie geweet dat hy sou kom nie. Ik heb niet geweten dat hij zou komen. Ik wist niet dat hij zou komen. I did not know that he would come.

Ek het geweet dat hy nie sou kom nie. Ik heb geweten dat hij niet zou komen. Ik wist dat hij niet zou komen. I knew (did know) that he would not come.

Ek het nie geweet dat hy nie sou kom nie. Ik heb niet geweten dat hij niet zou komen. Ik wist niet dat hij niet zou komen. I did not know that he would not come.

Hy sal[86] nie kom nie, want hy is siek. Hij zal niet komen, want hij is ziek. Hij komt niet, want hij is ziek. He will not come, as he is sick.

Dis (Dit is) nie so moeilik om Afrikaans
Afrikaans
te leer nie. Het is niet zo moeilijk (om) Afrikaans
Afrikaans
te leren. It is not so difficult to learn Afrikaans.

A notable exception to this is the use of the negating grammar form that coincides with negating the English present participle. In this case there is only a single negation.

Afrikaans: Hy is in die hospitaal, maar hy eet nie. Dutch: Hij is in het ziekenhuis, maar hij eet niet. English: He is in [the] hospital, though he eats not. German: Er ist im Krankenhaus, aber er isst nicht.

Certain words in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
arise due to grammar. For example, moet nie, which literally means "must not", usually becomes moenie; although one does not have to write or say it like this, virtually all Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speakers will change the two words to moenie in the same way as do not shifts to don't in English. The Dutch word het ("it" in English) does not correspond to het in Afrikaans. The Dutch words corresponding to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
het are heb, hebt, heeft and hebben.

Afrikaans Dutch English German

het heb, hebt, heeft, hebben have, has habe, hast, hat, habt, haben

die de, het the die, der, das, den, dem

dit het it es

Phonology Main article: Afrikaans
Afrikaans
phonology

A voice recording of Die Stem van Suid-Afrika

Vowels

Monophthong phonemes[87][88]

Front Central Back

unrounded rounded unrounded

short long short long short long short long

Close i (iː) y

u (uː)

Mid ɛ ɛː œ (œː) ə (əː) ɔ (ɔː)

Near-open (æ) (æː)

Open a

ɑː

As phonemes, /iː/ and /uː/ occur only in the words spieël /spiːl/ 'mirror' and koeël /kuːl/ 'bullet', which used to be pronounced with sequences /i.ə/ and /u.ə/, respectively. In other cases, [iː] and [uː] occur as allophones of, respectively, /i/ and /u/ before /r/.[89] /y/ is phonetically long [yː] before /r/.[90] /əː/ is always stressed and occurs only in the word wîe 'wedges'.[91] The closest unrounded counterparts of /œ, œː/ are central /ə, əː/, rather than front /ɛ, ɛː/.[92] /œː, ɔː/ occur only in a few words.[93] As a phoneme, /æ/ occurs only in some loanwords from English, such as pêl /pæl/ 'pal', as well as in some words such as vertrek /fərˈtræk/ 'departure'. As an allophone of /ɛ/ before /k, χ, l, r/, [æ] occurs dialectally, most commonly in the former Transvaal and Free State provinces.[94] As a phoneme, /æː/ occurs only in some loanwords from English (such as grênd [græːnt] 'grand'), as well as before /k/ in some words. [æː] also occurs as an allophone of /ɛː/ before /r/ and the sequences /rs, rt, rd/.[94]

Diphthong
Diphthong
phonemes[95][96]

Starting point Ending point

Front Central Back

Mid unrounded ɪø, əi ɪə

rounded œi, ɔi ʊə œu

Open unrounded ai

/ɔi, ai/ occur mainly in loanwords.[97]

Consonants

Consonant phonemes

Labial Alveolar Dorsal Post- alveolar Glottal

Nasal m n ŋ

Plosive voiceless p t k t͡ʃ

voiced b d (ɡ) (d͡ʒ)

Fricative voiceless f s χ ʃ

voiced v (z)

ʒ ɦ

Approximant

l j

Rhotic

r

All obstruents at the ends of words are devoiced, so that e.g. a final /d/ is realized as [t].[98] /ɡ, dʒ, z/ occur only in loanwords. [ɡ] is also an allophone of /χ/ in some environments.[99] /χ/ is most often uvular [χ ~ ʀ̥].[100][101][102] Velar [x] occurs only in some speakers.[101] /r/ is usually an alveolar trill [r] or tap [ɾ].[103] In some parts of the former Cape Province, it is realized uvularly, either as a trill [ʀ] or a fricative [ʁ].[104]

Orthography There are many parallels to the Dutch orthography
Dutch orthography
conventions and those used for Afrikaans. There are 26 letters. In Afrikaans, many consonants are dropped from the earlier Dutch spelling. For example, slechts ('only') in Dutch becomes slegs in Afrikaans. Also, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and some Dutch dialects make no distinction between /s/ and /z/, having merged the latter into the former; while the word for "south" is written zuid in Dutch, it is spelled suid in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
(as well as dialectal Dutch writings) to represent this merger. Similarly, the Dutch digraph ij, normally pronounced as /əi/, is written as y, except where it replaces the Dutch suffix –lijk which is pronounced as /lœk/ or /lik/, as in waarschijnlijk > waarskynlik. Another difference is the indefinite article, 'n in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and een in Dutch. "A book" is 'n boek in Afrikaans, whereas it is either een boek or 'n boek in Dutch. This 'n is usually pronounced as just a weak vowel, [ə]. The diminutive suffix in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is -tjie, whereas in Dutch it is -tje, hence a "bit" is bietjie in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and beetje in Dutch. The letters c, q, x, and z occur almost exclusively in borrowings from French, English, Greek and Latin. This is usually because words that had c and ch in the original Dutch are spelled with k and g, respectively, in Afrikaans. Similarly original qu and x are spelt kw and ks, respectively. For example, ekwatoriaal instead of equatoriaal, and ekskuus instead of excuus. The vowels with diacritics in non-loanword Afrikaans
Afrikaans
are: á, é, è, ê, ë, í, î, ï, ó, ô, ú, û, ý. Diacritics are ignored when alphabetising, though they are still important, even when typing the diacritic forms may be difficult. For example, geëet instead of the 3 e's alongside each other: *geeet, which can never occur in Afrikaans, or sê, which translates to "say", whereas se is a possessive form. Initial apostrophes A few short words in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
take initial apostrophes. In modern Afrikaans, these words are always written in lower case (except if the entire line is uppercase), and if they occur at the beginning of a sentence, the next word is capitalised. Three examples of such apostrophed words are 'k, 't, 'n. The last (the indefinite article) is the only apostrophed word that is common in modern written Afrikaans, since the other examples are shortened versions of other words (ek and het, respectively) and are rarely found outside of a poetic context.[105] Here are a few examples:

Apostrophed version Usual version Translation Notes

'k 't Dit gesê Ek het dit gesê I said it Uncommon, more common: Ek't dit gesê

't Jy dit geëet? Het jy dit geëet? Did you eat it? Extremely uncommon

'n Man loop daar

A man walks there Standard Afrikaans
Afrikaans
pronounces 'n as a schwa vowel.

The apostrophe and the following letter are regarded as two separate characters, and are never written using a single glyph, although a single character variant of the indefinite article appears in Unicode, ʼn. Table of characters For more on the pronunciation of the letters below, see Help:IPA/Afrikaans.

Afrikaans
Afrikaans
letters and pronunciation

Grapheme IPA Examples and Notes

a /a/, /ɑː/ appel ('apple'; /a/), tale ('languages'; /ɑː/). Represents /a/ at word end and before double consonants and /ɑː/ before single consonant-vowel

aa /ɑː/ aap ('monkey', 'ape')

aai /ɑːi/ draai ('turn')

ai /ai/ baie ('many', 'much' or 'very'), ai (expression of frustration or resignation)

b /b/ boom ('tree').

c /s/, /k/ Found mainly in borrowed words or proper nouns; the former pronunciation occurs before 'e', 'i', or 'y'; featured in the plural form -ici, as in the plural of medikus ('medic'), medici

ch /ʃ/, /x/, /k/ chirurg ('surgeon'; /ʃ/; typically sj is used instead), chemie ('chemistry'; /x/), chitien ('chitin'; /k/). Found only in loanwords and proper nouns

d /d/ dag ('day'), deel ('part', 'divide', 'share')

dj /d͡ʒ/ djati ('teak'), djihad ('jihad'). Used to transcribe foreign words

e /ɛ/, /ɪə/, /ə/ bed ('bed'; /ɛ/), ete ('meal'; /ɪə/), se (/ə/; indicates possession, for example Johan se boom, meaning 'John's tree')

è /ɛ/ nè ('yes?', 'right?'), dè ('here, take this!' or '[this is] yours!')

ê /eː/, /ɛː/ sê ('to say'). Represents /ɛː/ word-finally

ë - Diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus ë, ëe and ëi are pronounced like 'e', 'ee' and 'ei', respectively

ee /ɪə/ weet ('to know'), een ('one')

eeu /iːu/ sneeu ('snow'), eeu ('century')

ei /ɛi/ lei ('to lead')

eu /ɪø/ seun ('son' or 'lad')

f /f/ fiets ('bicycle')

g /x/ goed ('good'), geel ('yellow')

gh /ɡ/ gholf ('golf'). Used for /ɡ/ when it is not an allophone of /x/; found only in borrowed words

h /ɦ/ hael ('hail'), hond ('dog')

i /i/, /ə/ kind ('child'; /ə/), ink ('ink'; /ə/), krisis ('crisis'; /i/ for first 'i' and /ə/ for second 'i'), elektrisiteit ('electricity'; /i/ for first and second 'i'; third 'i' is part of diphthong 'ei')

î /əː/ wîe (plural of wig; 'wedges' or 'quoins')

ï - Found in words such as beïnvloed ('to influence'). The diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus ï and ïe are pronounced like 'i' and 'ie' respectively

ie /i/ iets ('something')

j /j/ jonk ('young')

k /k/ kat ('cat'), kan ('can' (verb) or 'jug')

l /l/ lag ('laugh')

m /m/ man ('man')

n /n/ nael ('nail')

ng /ŋ/ sing ('to sing')

o /ɔ/, /ʊə/ op ('on' or 'up'; /ɔ/), bote ('boats'; /ʊə/)

ô /ɔː/ môre ('tomorrow')

ö - Found in words such as mikroörganisme ('micro-organism'). The diaeresis indicates the start of new syllable, thus ö is pronounced the same as 'o'

oe /u/ boek ('book'), koel ('cool')

oei /ui/ koei ('cow')

oo /ʊə/ oor ('ear' or 'over')

ooi /oːi/ mooi ('pretty', 'beautiful'), nooi ('saying for little girl' or 'invitation')

ou /ɵu/ oupa ('grandpa', 'grandfather'), koud ('cold'). Sometimes spelled ouw in loanwords and surnames, for example Louw.

p /p/ pot ('pot'), pers ('purple' — or 'press' indicating the news media)

q /k/ Found only in foreign words with original spelling maintained; typically k is used instead

r /r/ rooi ('red')

s /s/, /z/, /ʃ/ ses ('six'), stem ('voice' or 'vote'), posisie ('position', /z/ for first 's', /s/ for second 's'), rasioneel ('rational', /ʃ/)

sj /ʃ/ sjaal ('shawl'), sjokolade ('chocolate')

t /t/, /ʃ/ tafel ('table'), aktuaris ('actuary'; /ʃ/)

tj /tʃ/, /k/ tjank ('whine like a dog' or 'to cry incessantly'). The former pronunciation occurs at the beginning of a word and the latter in "-tjie"

u /œ/, /yː/ kus ('coast' or 'kiss'), skadu ('shade'). The latter pronunciation is rare and most commonly found as the word u (formal 'you')

û /œː/ brûe ('bridges')

ü - Found in words such as reünie ('reunion'). The diaeresis indicates the start of a new syllable, thus ü is pronounced the same u, except when found in proper nouns and surnames from German, like Müller.

ui /œj/ uit ('out')

uu /yː/ uur ('hour')

v /f/ vis ('fish'), vir ('for')

w /v/, /w/ water ('water'; /v/), kwart ('quarter'; /w/)

x /z/, /ks/ xifoïed ('xiphoid'; /z/), x-straal ('x-ray'; /ks/).

y /ɛi/ byt ('bite')

z /z/ Zoeloe ('Zulu'). Found only in onomatopoeia and loanwords

Afrikaans
Afrikaans
phrases

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Although there are many different dialects and accents, the transcription would be fairly standard.

Afrikaans IPA Dutch English German

Hallo! Hoe gaan dit? [ɦalœu ɦu χɑːn dət] Hallo! Hoe gaat het (met jou/je/u)? Also used: Hallo! Hoe is het? Hello! How goes it? (Hello! How are you?) Hallo! Wie geht's? (Hallo! Wie geht's dir/Ihnen?)

Baie goed, dankie. [baiə χut daŋki] Heel goed, dank je. Very well, thank you. Sehr gut, danke.

Praat jy Afrikaans? [prɑːt jəi afrikɑ̃ːs] Spreek/Praat jij/je Afrikaans? Do you speak Afrikaans? Sprichst du Afrikaans?

Praat jy Engels? [prɑːt jəi ɛŋəls] Spreek/Praat jij/je Engels? Do you speak English? Sprichst du Englisch?

Ja. [jɑː] Ja. Yes. Ja.

Nee. [nɪə] Nee. No. Nein. Also: Nee. (Colloquial)

'n Bietjie. [ə biki] Een beetje. A bit. Ein bisschen. Sometimes shortened in text: "'n bisschen"

Wat is jou naam? [vat əs jœu nɑːm] Hoe heet jij/je? / Wat is jouw naam? What is your name? Wie heißt du? / Wie ist dein Name?

Die kinders praat Afrikaans. [di kənərs prɑːt afrikɑ̃ˑns] De kinderen spreken/praten Afrikaans. The children speak Afrikaans. Die Kinder sprechen Afrikaans.

Ek is lief vir jou. Less common: Ek het jou lief. [æk əs lif fər jœu] Ik hou van jou/je. Common in Southern Dutch: Ik heb je/jou/u lief. I love you. Ich liebe dich. Also: Ich habe dich lieb. (Colloquial; virtually no romantic connotation)

In the Dutch language
Dutch language
the word Afrikaans
Afrikaans
means African, in the general sense. Consequently, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is commonly denoted as Zuid-Afrikaans. This ambiguity also exists in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
itself and is either resolved in the context of its usage, or by using Afrikaan for an African person, and Afrika- in the adjective sense. A handful of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
words are exactly the same as in English. The following Afrikaans
Afrikaans
sentences, for example, are exactly the same in the two languages, in terms of both their meaning and spelling; only their pronunciation differs.

My pen was in my hand. ([məi pɛn vas ən məi ɦant]) My hand is in warm water. ([məi ɦant əs ən varm vɑːtər])

Sample text Psalm 23
Psalm 23
1983 translation:[citation needed]

Die Here is my Herder, ek kom niks kort nie. Hy laat my in groen weivelde rus. Hy bring my by waters waar daar vrede is. Hy gee my nuwe krag. Hy lei my op die regte paaie tot eer van Sy naam. Selfs al gaan ek deur donker dieptes, sal ek nie bang wees nie, want U is by my. In U hande is ek veilig.

Psalm 23
Psalm 23
alternative translation:[citation needed]

Die Here is my Herder, niks sal my ontbreek nie. Hy laat my neerlê in groen weivelde; na waters waar rus is, lei Hy my heen. Hy verkwik my siel; Hy lei my in die spore van geregtigheid, om sy Naam ontwil. Al gaan ek ook in 'n dal van doodskaduwee, ek sal geen onheil vrees nie; want U is met my: u stok en u staf die vertroos my.

Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
New Living translation)[citation needed]

Ons Vader in die hemel, laat U Naam geheilig word. Laat U koningsheerskappy spoedig kom. Laat U wil hier op aarde uitgevoer word soos in die hemel. Gee ons die porsie brood wat ons vir vandag nodig het. En vergeef ons ons sondeskuld soos ons ook óns skuldenaars vergewe het. Bewaar ons sodat ons nie aan verleiding sal toegee nie; en bevry ons van die greep van die Bose. Want van U is die koninkryk, en die krag, en die heerlikheid, tot in ewigheid. Amen

Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
(Original translation):[citation needed]

Onse Vader wat in die hemel is, laat U Naam geheilig word; laat U koninkryk kom; laat U wil geskied op die aarde, net soos in die hemel. Gee ons vandag ons daaglikse brood; en vergeef ons ons skulde soos ons ons skuldenaars vergewe en laat ons nie in die versoeking nie maar verlos ons van die Bose Want aan U behoort die koninkryk en die krag en die heerlikheid tot in ewigheid. Amen

See also

Aardklop Arts Festival Afrikaans
Afrikaans
literature Afrikaans
Afrikaans
speaking population in South Africa Arabic
Arabic
Afrikaans Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal
Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal
( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Dictionary) Differences between Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and Dutch IPA/Afrikaans Klein Karoo Nasionale Kunstefees (Arts Festival) Languages of South Africa List of Afrikaans language
Afrikaans language
poets List of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
singers List of English words of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
origin South African Translators' Institute Tsotsitaal

Notes

^ Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is a daughter language of Dutch; see Booij 1999, p. 2, Jansen, Schreuder & Neijt 2007, p. 5, Mennen, Levelt & Gerrits 2006, p. 1, Booij 2003, p. 4, Hiskens, Auer & Kerswill 2005, p. 19, Heeringa & de Wet 2007, pp. 1, 3, 5. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was historically called Cape Dutch; see Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16, Conradie 2005, p. 208, Sebba 1997, p. 160, Langer & Davies 2005, p. 144, Deumert 2002, p. 3, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 130. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is rooted in seventeenth century dialects of Dutch; see Holm 1989, p. 338, Geerts & Clyne 1992, p. 71, Mesthrie 1995, p. 214, Niesler, Louw & Roux 2005, p. 459. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is variously described as a creole, a partially creolised language, or a deviant variety of Dutch; see Sebba 2007, p. 116. ^ Afrikaans
Afrikaans
borrowed from other languages such as Portuguese,German, Malay, Bantu and Khoisan
Khoisan
languages; see Sebba 1997, p. 160, Niesler, Louw & Roux 2005, p. 459. 90 to 95% of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
vocabulary is ultimately of Dutch origin; see Mesthrie 1995, p. 214, Mesthrie 2002, p. 205, Kamwangamalu 2004, p. 203, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 131, Brachin & Vincent 1985, p. 132. ^ For morphology; see Holm 1989, p. 338, Geerts & Clyne 1992, p. 72. For grammar and spelling; see Sebba 1997, p. 161. ^ Dutch and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
share mutual intelligibility; see Gooskens 2007, p. 453, Holm 1989, p. 338, Baker & Prys Jones 1997, p. 302, Egil Breivik & Håkon Jahr 1987, p. 232. For written mutual intelligibility; see Sebba 2007, p. 116, Sebba 1997, p. 161. ^ It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the official languages of South Africa; see Webb 2003, pp. 7, 8, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 131. It has by far the largest geographical distribution; see Alant 2004, p. 45. It is widely spoken and understood as a second or third language; see Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16, Kamwangamalu 2004, p. 207, Myers-Scotton 2006, p. 389, Simpson 2008, p. 324, Palmer 2001, p. 141, Webb 2002, p. 74, Herriman & Burnaby 1996, p. 18, Page & Sonnenburg 2003, p. 7, Brook Napier 2007, pp. 69, 71. An estimated 40% have at least a basic level of communication; see Webb 2003, p. 7 McLean & McCormick 1996, p. 333. ^ Some 85% of Namibians can understand Afrikaans; see Bromber & Smieja 2004, p. 73. There are 152,000 native speakers of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
in Namibia; see Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is a lingua franca of Namibia; see Deumert 2004, p. 1, Adegbija 1994, p. 26, Batibo 2005, p. 79, Donaldson 1993, p. xiii, Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16, Baker & Prys Jones 1997, p. 364, Domínguez & López 1995, p. 399, Page & Sonnenburg 2003, p. 8, CIA 2010. ^ Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is spoken in 11 percent of Namibian households; see Namibian Population Census 2001. In the Hardap Region
Hardap Region
it is spoken in 44% of households, in the ǁKaras Region
ǁKaras Region
by 40% of households, in the Khomas Region by 24% of households; see Census Indicators, 2001 and click through to "Regional indicators". ^ What follows are estimations. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has 16.3 million speakers; see de Swaan 2001, p. 216. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has a total of 16 million speakers; see Machan 2009, p. 174. About 9 million people speak Afrikaans
Afrikaans
as a second or third language; see Alant 2004, p. 45, Proost 2006, p. 402. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has over 5 million native speakers and 15 million second-language speakers; see Réguer 2004, p. 20. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
has about 6 million native and 16 million second language speakers; see Domínguez & López 1995, p. 340. In South Africa, over 23 million people speak Afrikaans, of which a third are first-language speakers; see Page & Sonnenburg 2003, p. 7. L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, with different degrees of fluency, by an estimated 15 million; see Stell 2008–2011, p. 1.

References

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Afrikaans
at Ethnologue
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3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman
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Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0  ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2  ^ K. Pithouse, C. Mitchell, R. Moletsane, Making Connections: Self-Study & Social Action, p.91 ^ J. A. Heese (1971). Die herkoms van die Afrikaner, 1657–1867 [The origin of the Afrikaner] (in Afrikaans). Cape Town: A. A. Balkema. OCLC 1821706. OL 5361614M.  ^ Herkomst en groei van het Afrikaans
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slur, Business Africa, 5 December 2005. ^ Afrikaans
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stars join row over 'ugly language' Cape Argus, 10 December 2005. ^ "SA holds its own in global call centre industry", eProp Commercial Property News in South Africa. ^ a b c "Languages — Afrikaans". World Data Atlas. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "2.8 Home language by province (percentages)". Statistics South Africa. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ "Table 2.6: Home language within provinces (percentages)" (PDF). Census 2001 - Census in brief. Statistics South Africa. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ Oranje FM, Radio Sonder Grense, Jacaranda FM, Radio Pretoria, Rapport, Beeld, Die Burger, Die Son, Afrikaans
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growing according to census)". Beeld. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ Prince, Llewellyn (23 March 2013). " Afrikaans
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se môre is bruin (Afrikaans' tomorrow is coloured)". Rapport. Archived from the original on 31 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ "Platteland Film". www.plattelanddiemovie.com.  ^ SABC3 "tests" Afrikaans
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programming, Screen Africa, 15 April 2009 ^ Namibia
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2011 Population & Housing Census Main Report Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.afrikaans.com/news-headlines/het-jy.../afrikaans-floreer-in-die-buiteland ^ They were named before the establishment of the current Western Cape, Eastern Cape, and Northern Cape
Northern Cape
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101". Retrieved 24 April 2010.  ^ "Lekker Stories". Kaapse Son - Die eerste Afrikaanse Poniekoerant (in Afrikaans). Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2017-12-21.  ^ "'Vertel my van SA, Afrikaans'" ['Tell me of SA, Afrikaans']. Beeld (in Afrikaans). 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ a b " Afrikaans
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history and development. The Unique Language of South Africa". Safariafrica.co.za. Retrieved 2015-04-02.  ^ "etymologiebank.nl". Etymologiebank.nl. Retrieved 2015-04-02.  ^ a b One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost, Peter Austin University of California Press, 2008, page 97 ^ "Karos II : Kros". Gtb.inl.nl. Retrieved 2015-04-02.  ^ Standard encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Volume 1, D.J.. Potgieter, NASOU, 1970, page 111 ^ A Zulu-Kafir Dictionary, Etymologically Explained ... Preceded by an Introduction on the Zulu-Kafir Language, Pike, 1857, page 87 ^ Samuel Doggie Ngcongwane (1985). The Languages We Speak. University of Zululand. p. 51.  ^ David Johnson; Sally Johnson (2002). Gardening with Indigenous Trees. Struik. p. 92. ISBN 9781868727759.  ^ Ben J. Strohbach1; H.J.A. (Wally) Walters (November 2015). "An overview of grass species used for thatching in the Zambezi, Kavango East and Kavango West Regions, Namibia". Dinteria. Windhoek, Namibia (35): 13–42.  ^ South African Journal of Ethnology. 22–24. Bureau for Scientific Publications of the Foundation for Education, Science and Technology. 1999. p. 157.  ^ Toward Freedom. 45–46. 1996. p. 47.  ^ kan would be best used in this case because kan nie means cannot and since he is sick he is unable to come, whereas sal is "will" in English and is thus not the best word choice. ^ Donaldson (1993), pp. 2–7. ^ Wissing (2016). ^ Donaldson (1993:4–6) ^ Donaldson (1993), pp. 5–6. ^ Donaldson (1993:4, 6–7) ^ Swanepoel (1927:38) ^ Donaldson (1993:7) ^ a b Donaldson (1993:3, 7) ^ Donaldson (1993:2, 8–10) ^ Lass (1987:117–119) ^ Donaldson (1993:10) ^ Donaldson (1993), pp. 13–15. ^ Donaldson (1993), pp. 13–14, 20–22. ^ Den Besten (2012) ^ a b "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular?". 5 December 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2015.  Only this source mentions the trilled realization. ^ Bowerman (2004:939) ^ Lass (1987), p. 117. ^ Donaldson (1993), p. 15. ^ "Retrieved 12 April 2010". 101languages.net. 26 August 2007. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 

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Further reading

Grieshaber, Nicky. 2011. Diacs and Quirks in a Nutshell – Afrikaans spelling explained. Pietermaritzburg. ISBN 978-0-620-51726-3; e-ISBN 978-0-620-51980-9. Roberge, P. T. (2002), " Afrikaans
Afrikaans
– considering origins", Language in South Africa, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-53383-X  Thomas, C. H. (1899), "Boer language", Origin of the Anglo-Boer War revealed, London: Hodder and Stoughton 

External links

Afrikaans
Afrikaans
edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Afrikaans.

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Afrikaans

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Afrikaans

afrikaans.com Afrikaans
Afrikaans
English Online Dictionary at Hablaa[permanent dead link] Afrikaans-English Online Dictionary at majstro.com Learn Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Online (Open Learning Environment) Federasie van Afrikaanse Kultuurvereniginge (FAK) – Federation of Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Cultural Associations Dutch Writers from South Africa: A Cultural-Historical Study, Part I from the World Digital Library Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Literature and Language Web dossier African Studies Centre, Leiden (2011)

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Namibian German Namibian Black German Brazilian German Unserdeutsch Barossa German Belgranodeutsch Parana Volga German

Yiddish

Eastern Western Litvish Poylish Ukrainish Galitzish Scots Yiddish Alsatian Yiddish Klezmer-loshn Ganovim Balagole Katsoves Lachoudisch

Yenish Rotwelsch

Lotegorisch

Central German

West Central German

Central Franconian

Ripuarian

Colognian

Moselle Franconian

Luxembourgish Transylvanian Saxon Hunsrückisch

Rhine Franconian

Lorraine Franconian Palatine

Volga German Pennsylvania German

Hessian

Amana

East Central German

Thuringian Upper Saxon Lusatian-Neumarkish

Berlinerisch

Silesian High Prussian Wymysorys Pragerisch

High Franconian

South Franconian East Franconian

Main Franconian Vogtlandian

Upper German

Alemannic

Low Alemannic

Alsatian Coloniero

High Alemannic

Swiss German

Highest Alemannic

Walser German

Swabian

Bavarian

Northern Bavarian Central Bavarian

Viennese German

Southern Bavarian

South Tyrolean Cimbrian Mòcheno Hutterite German

Langobardic

Standard German

German Standard German Austrian Standard German Swiss Standard German

North Germanic

West Scandinavian

Norwegian

Bokmål

Bergensk Kebabnorsk Sognamål Trøndersk Valdris Vestlandsk Vikværsk

Nynorsk

Elfdalian Insular Scandinavian

Faroese Icelandic Gronlandsk Norn

East Scandinavian

Swedish

Åland Estonian Finlandic Gotlandic Jamtlandic Kalix Kiruna Luleå Norrland Ostrobothnian Småländska South Swedish

Scanian

Stockholm Rinkeby Uppländska Västgötska Westrobothnian

Danish

Bornholmsk Gøtudanskt Insular Danish Jutlandic South Jutlandic Perkerdansk

Dalecarlian

East Germanic

Gothic

Crimean Gothic

Burgundian Vandalic

Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 3 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

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Languages of Botswana

Bantu

Birwa Gciriku Herero Ikalanga Kgalagadi Kuhane Mbukushu Nambya Northern Ndebele Tswana (official) Tswapong Yeyi Zezuru

Khoisan

ǁAni Gǁana Gǀwi ǂHõã Juǀʼhoan Khwe Kua ǂKxʼauǁʼein Nama Naro Shua Taʼa Tsoa

Indo-European

Afrikaans English (official)

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Languages of Namibia

Official language

English

Recognized regional

Oshiwambo

Kwanyama Ndonga

Afrikaans German

Other Bantu languages

Otjiherero Rukwangali Setswana Zemba Gciriku Fwe Kuhane Thimbukushu Shiyeyi

Khoisan

Nama/Damara Naro ǃXóõ Kung-Ekoka ǂKxʼauǁʼein Kxoe

Sign languages

Namibian Sign Language

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Languages of South Africa

Pan South African Language Board Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights Department of Arts and Culture

Official

West Germanic

Afrikaans English

Southern Bantu

Sotho-Tswana

Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa) Southern Sotho (Sesotho) Tswana (Setswana)

Nguni

Southern Ndebele (isiNdebele) Swazi (siSwati) Xhosa (isiXhosa) Zulu (isiZulu)

Tswa-Ronga

Tsonga (Xitsonga)

Venda

Venda (Tshivenḓa)

Recognised unofficial languages mentioned in the 1996 constitution

Indigenous

Bhaca Khoi Lala Lozi Nama Nhlangwini Northern Ndebele Phuthi San Tuu

Foreign

German Greek Gujarati Hindi Portuguese Malay (historical) Tamil Telugu Urdu

Religious

Arabic Hebrew Sanskrit

Other

LGBT slang

Gayle IsiNgqumo

Other

Tsotsitaal and Camtho Oorlams Creole Fanagalo Pretoria Sotho Scamto SA Sign Language

v t e

Languages of Swaziland

Official languages

English Swazi (Swati)

Non-official languages

Afrikaans Tsonga Zulu

Immigrant languages

Chewa (Nyanja) Shimaore Sotho (Sesotho)

Authority control

GND: 4000696-7 SUDOC: 02745

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