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Blister
A BLISTER is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph , serum , plasma , blood , or pus ) within the upper layers of the skin , typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction ), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid, either serum or plasma. However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as "blood blisters" ) or with pus (if they become infected). The word "blister" entered English in the 14th century. It came from the Middle Dutch "bluyster" and was a modification of the Old French "blostre", which meant a leprous nodule—a rise in the skin due to leprosy . In dermatology today, the words vesicle and bulla refer to blisters of smaller or greater size, respectively. To heal properly, a blister should not be popped unless medically necessary. Once popped, the excess skin should not be removed because the skin underneath needs that top layer to heal properly
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d\'oïl , contrasting with the langue d\'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region
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Epidermis (skin)
The EPIDERMIS is the outer (ἐπί epi in Greek meaning "over" or "upon") of the two layers that make up the skin (or cutis ; Greek δέρμα derma), the inner layer being the dermis . This skin layer provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The outermost part of the epidermis is composed of stratified layers of flattened cells , that overlies a basal layer (stratum basale ) composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly. The rows of cells develop from the stem cells in the basal layer. ENaCs are found to be expressed in all layers of the epidermis
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Middle Dutch
MIDDLE DUTCH is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch ) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500. Until the advent of Modern Dutch after 1500, there was no overarching standard language but the dialects were all mutually intelligible. During this period a rich Medieval Dutch literature developed, not yet present during the period of Old Dutch . The various literary works of that time are often very readable for modern Dutch speakers, since Dutch is a rather conservative language. By many non-linguists, Middle Dutch is often referred to as Diets
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Blood Vessel
The BLOOD VESSELS are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body . There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries , which carry the blood away from the heart ; the capillaries , which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues ; and the veins , which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin
Latin
vas, meaning vessel. A few structures (such as cartilage and the lens of the eye) do not contain blood vessels and are labeled
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Urushiol
URUSHIOL /ʊˈruːʃi.ɒl/ is an oily organic compound with allergic properties found in plants of the family Anacardiaceae
Anacardiaceae
, especially Toxicodendron spp. (e.g., poison oak , Lacquer Tree , poison ivy , poison sumac ) and also in parts of the mango tree. In most individuals, urushiol causes an allergic skin rash on contact, known as urushiol-induced contact dermatitis . The name urushiol is derived from the Japanese word for the lacquer tree, Toxicodendron vernicifluum (漆, urushi). The oxidation and polymerization of urushiol in the tree's sap in the presence of moisture allows it to form a hard lacquer , which is used to produce traditional Chinese , Korean and Japanese lacquerware
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Friction
FRICTION is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction: * DRY FRICTION is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction ") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces. With the exception of atomic or molecular friction, dry friction generally arises from the interaction of surface features, known as asperities * FLUID FRICTION describes the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other. * LUBRICATED FRICTION is a case of fluid friction where a lubricant fluid separates two solid surfaces
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Skin
SKIN is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates . Other animal coverings , such as the arthropod exoskeleton , have different developmental origin , structure and chemical composition . The adjective CUTANEOUS means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
cutis, skin). In mammals , the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue , and guards the underlying muscles , bones , ligaments and internal organs . Skin
Skin
of a different nature exists in amphibians , reptiles , and birds . All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals like whales , dolphins , and porpoises which appear to be hairless. The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors. For example, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss
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Poison Sumac
TOXICODENDRON VERNIX, commonly known as POISON SUMAC, is a woody shrub or small tree growing to 9 m (30 ft) tall. It was previously known as RHUS VERNIX. This plant is also known as THUNDERWOOD, particularly where it occurs in the southern United States. All parts of the plant contain a resin called urushiol that causes skin and mucous membrane irritation to humans. When the plant is burned, inhalation of the smoke may cause the rash to appear on the lining of the lungs, causing extreme pain and possibly fatal respiratory difficulty. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution * 3 Toxicity * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONPoison sumac is a shrub or small tree, growing up to nearly 30 ft (9 m) in height. Each pinnate leaf has 7–13 leaflets, each of which is 2–4 inches (5–10 cm) long
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Nickel Sulfate
NICKEL(II) SULFATE, or just NICKEL SULFATE, usually refers to the inorganic compound with the formula NiSO4(H2O)6. This highly soluble blue-coloured salt is a common source of the Ni2+ ion for electroplating . Approximately 40,000 tonnes were produced in 2005. It is mainly used for electroplating of nickel . In 2005–06, nickel sulfate was the top allergen in patch tests (19.0%). CONTENTS * 1 Structures * 2 Production, applications, and coordination chemistry * 3 Natural occurrence * 4 Safety * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTURESAt least seven sulfate salts of nickel(II) are known. These salts differ in terms of their hydration or crystal habit. The common tetragonal hexahydrate crystallizes from aqueous solution between 30.7 and 53.8 °C. Below these temperatures, a heptahydrate crystallises, and above these temperatures an orthorhombic hexahydrate forms
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Balsam Of Peru
BALSAM OF PERU, also known and marketed by many other names , is a balsam derived from a tree known as Myroxylon , which is grown in Central America
Central America
(primarily in El Salvador
El Salvador
) and South America
South America
. Balsam
Balsam
of Peru is used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance, and in medicine and pharmaceutical items for healing properties. It has a sweet scent. In some instances, Balsam
Balsam
of Peru is listed on the ingredient label of a product by one of its various names , but it may not be required to be listed by its name by mandatory labeling conventions. It can cause allergic reactions, with numerous large surveys identifying it as being in the "top five" allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions
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Poison Oak
See text TOXICODENDRON is a genus of flowering plants in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae . It contains woody trees , shrubs and vines , including poison ivy , poison oak , and the lacquer tree . All members of the genus produce the skin-irritating oil urushiol , which can cause a severe allergic reaction. The generic name is derived from the Greek words τοξικός (toxikos), meaning "poison," and δένδρον (dendron), meaning "tree". The best known members of the genus in North America
North America
are poison ivy (T. radicans), practically ubiquitous throughout most of eastern North America, and western poison oak (T. diversilobum ), similarly ubiquitous throughout much of the western part of the continent
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Peripheral Artery Disease
PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain . When narrowing occurs in the heart, it is called coronary artery disease , while, in the brain, it is called cerebrovascular disease . Peripheral artery disease most commonly affects the legs , but other arteries may also be involved. The classic symptom is leg pain when walking which resolves with rest, known as intermittent claudication . Other symptoms including skin ulcers , bluish skin , cold skin, or poor nail and hair growth may occur in the affected leg. Complications may include an infection or tissue death which may require amputation ; coronary artery disease , or stroke . Up to 50% of cases of PAD are without symptoms . The main risk factor is cigarette smoking . Other risk factors include diabetes , high blood pressure , and high blood cholesterol . The underlying mechanism is usually atherosclerosis . Other causes include artery spasm
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Neuropathy
PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves , which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy ), vitamin deficiency , medication (e.g., chemotherapy , or commonly prescribed antibiotics including Metronidazole and the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin, Avelox etc.), traumatic injury , including ischemia, radiation therapy , excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease , Coeliac disease
Coeliac disease
, or viral infection. It can also be genetic (present from birth) or idiopathic (no known cause). In conventional medical usage , the word neuropathy (neuro-, "nervous system" and -pathy, "disease of") without modifier usually means peripheral neuropathy
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Pus
PUS is an exudate , typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection . An accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space is known as an abscess , whereas a visible collection of pus within or beneath the epidermis is known as a pustule , pimple , or spot. Pus
Pus
consists of a thin, protein -rich fluid, known as liquor puris, and dead leukocytes from the body's immune response (mostly neutrophils ). During infection, macrophages release cytokines which trigger neutrophils to seek the site of infection by chemotaxis . There, the neutrophils release granules which destroy the bacteria. The bacteria resist the immune response by releasing toxins called leukocidins . As the neutrophils die off from toxins and old age, they are destroyed by macrophages, forming the viscous pus. Bacteria that cause pus are called pyogenic
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