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Blister
A BLISTER is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph , serum , plasma , blood , or pus ) within the upper layers of the skin , typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction ), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid, either serum or plasma. However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as "blood blisters" ) or with pus (if they become infected). The word "blister" entered English in the 14th century. It came from the Middle Dutch"bluyster" and was a modification of the Old French "blostre", which meant a leprous nodule—a rise in the skin due to leprosy . In dermatology today, the words _vesicle_ and _bulla_ refer to blisters of smaller or greater size, respectively. To heal properly, a blister should not be popped unless medically necessary. Once popped, the excess skin should not be removed because the skin underneath needs that top layer to heal properly. CONTENTS* 1 Causes * 1.1 Friction
Friction
or rubbing * 1.2 Extreme temperature * 1.3 Chemical exposure * 1.4 Crushing/pinching * 1.5 Medical conditions * 2 Pathophysiology * 2.1 Friction
Friction
blisters * 3 Prevention * 3.1 Friction
Friction
blisters * 3.2 Other * 4 References * 5 External links CAUSESA blister may form when the skin has been damaged by friction or rubbing, heat, cold or chemical exposure
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Blister (other)
A BLISTER is a small pocket of fluid in the upper layer of the skin. BLISTER may also refer to: * Anti-torpedo bulge , also known as an anti-torpedo blister * Gun blister , a gun pod in "blister" * Blister
Blister
in Space Opera - semi-spherical extension of the hull * Blister
Blister
(TV series) * Blister
Blister
(band) , a Norwegian band * Blister
Blister
(Portuguese band) * Blister
Blister
pack , a type of packaging * Blistering , an online heavy metal and hard rock magazine * Blister
Blister
(song) * "Blisters", a song by War from the album Deliver the Word * An asymmetrical spinnaker * Another name for a mustard plaster This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title BLISTER. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blister_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Vesicular Texture
VESICULAR TEXTURE is a volcanic rock texture characterized by a rock being pitted with many cavities (known as vesicles) at its surface and inside. This texture is common in aphanitic , or glassy, igneous rocks that have come to the surface of the earth, a process known as extrusion . As magma rises to the surface the pressure on it decreases. When this happens gasses dissolved in the magma are able to come out of solution, forming gas bubbles (the cavities) inside it. When the magma finally reaches the surface as lava and cools, the rock solidifies around the gas bubbles and traps them inside, preserving them as holes filled with gas called vesicles. A related texture is amygdaloidal in which the volcanic rock, usually basalt or andesite , has cavities, or vesicles, that are filled with secondary minerals, such as zeolites , calcite , quartz , or chalcedony . Individual cavity fillings are termed amygdules (American usage) or amygdales (British usage). Sometimes these can be sources of semi-precious stones such as agate . Rock types that display a vesicular texture include pumice and scoria . NOTES * ^ See "Elmhurst College Powerpoint via google viewer" Archived October 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine ., retrieved May 8, 2011 * ^ D. Armstrong, F. Mugglestone, R. Richards and F. Stratton "OCR AS and A2 Geology". Pearson Education Limited, 2008, p. 76. This volcanology article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY (or SPECIALITY) in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST. CONTENTS * 1 History of medical specialization * 2 Classification of medical specialization * 3 Specialties that are common worldwide * 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area * 5 List of North American medical specialties and others * 6 Physician
Physician
compensation * 7 Specialties by country * 7.1 Australia and New Zealand * 7.2 Canada * 7.3 Germany * 7.4 India * 7.5 United States
United States
* 8 Other uses * 9 Training * 10 Satisfaction * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References HISTORY OF MEDICAL SPECIALIZATIONTo a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized. According to Galen
Galen
, specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialities evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialities varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary
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Dermatology
DERMATOLOGY (from ancient Greek δέρμα, _derma_ which means skin and λογία, _logia)_ is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin , nails , hair and its diseases . It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Training * 3.1 United States * 4 Fields * 4.1 Cosmetic dermatology * 4.2 Dermatopathology * 4.3 Immunodermatology * 4.4 Mohs surgery * 4.5 Pediatric dermatology * 4.6 Teledermatology * 4.7 Dermatoepidemiology * 5 Therapies * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYAttested in English in 1819, the word _dermatology_ derives from the Greek δέρματος (_dermatos_), genitive of δέρμα (_derma_), "skin" (itself from δέρω _dero_, "to flay" ) and -λογία _-logia_. HISTORY Main article: History of dermatology Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan's, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert\'s , 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time
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International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems
CLASSIFICATION is a general process related to categorization , the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood. A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM is an approach to accomplishing classification
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ICD-10
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases. The code set allows more than 14,400 different codes and permits the tracking of many new diagnoses . The codes can be expanded to over 16,000 codes by using optional sub-classifications. The WHO provides detailed information about ICD online, and makes available a set of materials online, such as an ICD-10 online browser, ICD-10 Training, ICD-10 online training, ICD-10 online training support, and study guide materials for download. The International version of ICD should not be confused with national modifications of ICD that frequently include much more detail, and sometimes have separate sections for procedures . The US ICD-10 Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), for instance, has some 93,000 codes. The US also has the ICD-10 Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS), a coding system that contains 76,000 procedure codes that is not used by other countries. Work on ICD-10 began in 1983 and was completed in 1992
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List Of ICD-9 Codes
The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
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Diseases Database
The DISEASES DATABASE is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms , and medications . The database is run by Medical Object Oriented Software Enterprises Ltd, a company based in London. The site's stated aim is "education, background reading and general interest" with an intended audience "physicians, other clinical healthcare workers and students of these professions". The editor of the site is stated as Malcolm H Duncan, a UK qualified medical doctor. ORGANIZATIONThe Diseases Database is based on a collection of about 8,500 concepts, called "items", related to human medicine including diseases, drugs, symptoms, physical signs and abnormal laboratory results. In order to link items to both each other and external information resources three sets of metadata are modelled within the database. * Items are assigned various relationships e.g. diabetes mellitus type 2 is labelled "a risk factor for" ischaemic heart disease . More formally the database employs an entity-attribute-value model with items populating both entity and value slots. Relationships may be read in either direction e.g. the assertion "myocardial infarction {may cause} chest pain" has the corollary "chest pain {may be caused by} myocardial infarction". Such relationships aggregate within the database and allow lists to be retrieved - e.g
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MedlinePlus
MEDLINEPLUS is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine
Medicine
. The service provides curated consumer health information in English and Spanish. The site street together information from the National Library of Medicine
Medicine
(NLM), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), other U.S. government agencies, and health-related organizations. There is also a site optimized for display on mobile devices, in both English and Spanish. In 2015, about 400 million people from around the world used MedlinePlus. The service is funded by the NLM and is free to users. MedlinePlus provides encyclopedic information on health and drug issues, and provides a directory of medical services. MedlinePlus Connect links patients or providers in electronic health record (EHR) systems to related MedlinePlus information on conditions or medications. PubMed Health is another NLM site that offers consumer health information, in addition to information for health professionals. HISTORYThe National Library of Medicine
Medicine
has long provided programs and services for professional medical scientists and health care providers , including MEDLINE and the various services that access it, such as PubMed and Entrez
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Patient UK
PATIENT is an online resource providing information on health , lifestyle , disease and other medical related topics. The website's aim is to provide members of the public with up-to-date information on health related topics in the form of comprehensive leaflets (which can be read online or printed), blogs, wellbeing advice and videos. Leaflets are compiled by qualified medical practitioners with several years of experience in the medical profession. In 2013, the site appeared in a "Top 50 websites" feature published in _ The Times _. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Patient Mobile * 4 Awards * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY'Patient UK' was first launched in 1996 as a directory of UK websites providing health related information, and was originally operated by Patient information Publications (PiP), a company established by two medical professionals Dr Tim Kenny and his wife, Dr Beverley Kenny. Further development occurred when Tim met Dr Gordon Brooks of Egton Medical Information Systems (EMIS) who had been working with various authors and suppliers, such as Oxford University Press, to create a comprehensive regularly updated electronic medical reference for General Practice called ‘Mentor’. Gordon invited the Kennys to add condition information leaflets to Mentor so these could be printed out for patients during GP consultations
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Medical Subject Headings
MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MESH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE / PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed . Originally in English, MeSH has been translated into numerous other languages and allows retrieval of documents from different languages. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Descriptor hierarchy * 1.2 Descriptions * 1.3 Qualifiers * 1.4 Supplements * 2 Use in Medline/ PubMed * 3 Use in ClinicalTrials.gov * 4 Categories * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREThe 2009 version of MeSH contains a total of 25,186 _subject headings_, also known as _descriptors_
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Body Fluid
BODY FLUID, BODILY FLUIDS or BIOFLUIDS are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living people . They include fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body, and body water that normally is not. The dominating content of body fluids is body water . In humans approximately 60-65% of body water is contained within the cells (in intracellular fluid ) with the other 35-40% of body water contained outside the cells (in extracellular fluid ). This fluid component outside the cells includes the fluid between the cells (interstitial fluid ), lymph and blood . There are approximately 6 to 10 liters of lymph in the body, compared to 3.5 to 5 liters of blood
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Lymph
LYMPH is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system . The lymph is formed when the interstitial fluid (the fluid which lies in the interstices of all body tissues ) is collected through lymph capillaries . It is then transported through larger lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes , where it is cleaned by lymphocytes , before emptying ultimately into the right or the left subclavian vein , where it mixes back with the blood . Since the lymph is derived from the interstitial fluid, its composition continually changes as the blood and the surrounding cells continually exchange substances with the interstitial fluid. It is generally similar to blood plasma , which is the fluid extracellular matrix (ECM) of whole blood. Lymph returns proteins and excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream . Lymph may pick up bacteria and bring them to lymph nodes, where they are destroyed. Metastatic cancer cells can also be transported via lymph. Lymph also transports fats from the digestive system (beginning in the lacteals ) to the blood via chylomicrons . The word _lymph_ is derived from the name of the ancient Roman deity of fresh water, Lympha
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Serum (blood)
In blood , the SERUM (/ˈsɪərəm/ or /ˈsɪrəm/ ) is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor ; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens . Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting (coagulation) and all the electrolytes , antibodies , antigens , hormones , and any exogenous substances (e.g., drugs and microorganisms ). The study of serum is serology , which may also include proteomics . Serum is used in numerous diagnostic tests , as well as blood typing . Measurements of serum concentrations has proved useful in many fields including clinical trials of therapeutic vs toxic response . Blood
Blood
is centrifuged to remove cellular components. Anti-coagulated blood yields plasma containing fibrinogen and clotting factors . Coagulated blood (clotted blood) yields serum without fibrinogen , although some clotting factors remain. Serum is an essential factor for the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells in combination with the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor . The serum of convalescent patients successfully recovering (or already recovered) from an infectious disease can be used as a biopharmaceutical in the treatment of other people with that disease, because the antibodies generated by the successful recovery are potent fighters of the pathogen . Such convalescent serum (antiserum ) is a form of immunotherapy
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Plasma (blood)
BLOOD PLASMA is a straw coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension ; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells. It makes up about 55% of the body's total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid (all body fluid outside cells). It is mostly water (up to 95% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins (6–8%) (i.e.—serum albumins , globulins , and fibrinogen ), glucose , clotting factors , electrolytes (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3−, Cl−, etc.), hormones , carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation) and oxygen . Plasma also serves as the protein reserve of the human body. It plays a vital role in an intravascular osmotic effect that keeps electrolytes in balanced form and protects the body from infection and other blood disorders. Blood
Blood
plasma is prepared by spinning a tube of fresh blood containing an anticoagulant in a centrifuge until the blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. The blood plasma is then poured or drawn off. Blood
Blood
plasma has a density of approximately 1025 kg/m3, or 1.025 g/ml. Blood serum
Blood serum
is blood plasma without clotting factors. Plasmapheresis is a medical therapy that involves blood plasma extraction, treatment, and reintegration
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