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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics
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Ordovician
The ORDOVICIAN ( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/ ) is a geologic period and system , the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era . The Ordovician
Ordovician
spans 41.2 million years from the end of the Cambrian Period 485.4 million years ago (Mya) to the start of the Silurian Period 443.8 Mya. The Ordovician, named after the Celtic tribe of the Ordovices , was defined by Charles Lapworth in 1879 to resolve a dispute between followers of Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
and Roderick Murchison , who were placing the same rock beds in northern Wales into the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Silurian systems, respectively. Lapworth recognized that the fossil fauna in the disputed strata were different from those of either the Cambrian or the Silurian
Silurian
systems, and placed them in a system of their own
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Silurian
The SILURIAN is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period, at 443.8 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Devonian
Devonian
Period, 419.2 Mya. As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian
Silurian
is set at a major Ordovician–Silurian extinction events when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian
Silurian
was the diversification of jawed and bony fish. Multi-cellular life also began to appear on land in the form of small, bryophyte -like and vascular plants that grew beside lakes, streams, and coastlines, and terrestrial arthropods are also first found on land during the Silurian
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Devonian
The DEVONIAN is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic , spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian
Silurian
, 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous , 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon
Devon
, England
England
, where rocks from this period were first studied. The first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land , forming extensive forests which covered the continents . By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods also became well-established
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Permian
The PERMIAN is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison , who named it after the city of Perm
Perm
. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals , turtles , lepidosaurs , and archosaurs
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest part of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian
Cambrian
, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Triassic
The TRIASSIC ( /traɪˈæsɪk/ ) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.902 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya . The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic Era . Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events . The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event , which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, called dinosaurs , first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic
Jurassic
Period
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Early Cretaceous
The EARLY CRETACEOUS/MIDDLE CRETACEOUS (geochronological name) or the LOWER CRETACEOUS (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
. It is usually considered to stretch from 146 Ma to 100 Ma. During this time many new types of dinosaurs appeared or came into prominence, including Psittacosaurus , spinosaurids , carcharodontosaurids and coelurosaurs , while survivors from the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
continued. Angiosperms (flowering plants) appear for the first time. SEE ALSO * Geology portal * Palaeontology portal * Time portal * Geologic Period REFERENCES * ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale * ^ Sun, G., Q. Ji, D.L. Dilcher, S. Zheng, K.C
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Paleogene
The PALEOGENE ( /ˈpæliːədʒiːn/ or /ˈpeɪliːədʒiːn/ ; also spelled PALAEOGENE or PALæOGENE; informally LOWER TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Neogene
Neogene
Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Paleogene is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from relatively small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
that ended the preceding Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Cambrian
The CAMBRIAN Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/ ) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya. Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux. The period was established (as “Cambrian series”) by Adam Sedgwick , who named it after Cambria , the Latinised form of Cymru, the Welsh name for Wales
Wales
, where Britain's Cambrian
Cambrian
rocks are best exposed
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Carboniferous
The CARBONIFEROUS is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian
Devonian
Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous
Carboniferous
means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō ("coal ") and ferō ("I bear, I carry"), and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern 'system' names to be employed, and reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time. The Carboniferous
Carboniferous
is often treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the later Pennsylvanian . Terrestrial life was well established by the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period
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Holocene
? Preboreal (10.3–9 ka ) Boreal (9–7.5 ka ) Atlantic (7.5 –5 ka ) Subboreal (5 –2.5 ka ) Subatlantic (2.5 ka –present) Holocene
Holocene
Epoch This box: * view * talk * edit ↑ Pleistocene HoloceneThe HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the current geological epoch . It began after the Pleistocene , approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period
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10th Edition Of Systema Naturae
The 10TH EDITION OF SYSTEMA NATURAE is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature . In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals , something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
. CONTENTS * 1 Starting point * 2 Revisions * 3 Animals * 3.1 Mammalia * 3.2 Aves * 3.3 Amphibia * 3.4 Pisces * 3.5 Insecta * 3.6 Vermes * 4 Plants * 5 References * 6 External links STARTING POINTBefore 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) (informally UPPER TERTIARY or LATE TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene
Pliocene
. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary . During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids , the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
Africa
near the end of the period
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