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Biotechnology
BIOTECHNOLOGY is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering , biomedical engineering , biomanufacturing , molecular engineering , etc. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture , food production , and medicine . The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky . In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics , recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology , and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests
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Molecular Biology
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY /.əˈlɛkjʊlər/ concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell , including the interactions between DNA
DNA
, RNA
RNA
, and proteins and their biosynthesis , as well as the regulation of these interactions. Writing in Nature in 1961, William Astbury described molecular biology as: "...not so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan. It is concerned particularly with the forms of biological molecules and is predominantly three-dimensional and structural—which does not mean, however, that it is merely a refinement of morphology
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Diagnostic Tests
A MEDICAL TEST is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect , diagnose , or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is related to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics , and the procedures are typically performed in a medical laboratory . CONTENTS* 1 Types of tests * 1.1 By utilization * 1.1.1 Diagnostic * 1.1.2 Screening * 1.1.3 Monitoring * 1.2 By method * 1.3 By sample location * 2 Accuracy and precision
Accuracy and precision
* 3 Detection and quantification * 3.1 Positive or negative * 3.2 Continuous values * 4 Interpretation * 5 Risks * 6 Indications * 7 Standard for the reporting and assessment * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references TYPES OF TESTSBY UTILIZATIONMedical tests can be classified by what the test result will be used for, mainly including usage for diagnosis, screening or evaluation, as separately detailed below
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Microbiology
MICROBIOLOGY (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life "; and -λογία, -logia ) is the study of microscopic organisms , those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology
Microbiology
encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology , mycology , parasitology , and bacteriology . Eukaryotic micro-organisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists , whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include eubacteria and archaebacteria . Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on extraction or detection of nucleic acid , either DNA or RNA sequences
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Embryology
EMBRYOLOGY (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo "; and -λογία, -logia ) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization , and development of embryos and fetuses . Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology . CONTENTS* 1 Embryonic development of animals * 1.1 Bilateria
Bilateria
* 1.1.1 Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
(fruit fly) * 1.1.2 Humans * 2 History * 2.1 After 1827 and Before 1950 * 2.2 After 1950 * 3 Vertebrate and invertebrate embryology * 4 Modern embryology research * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMALSAfter cleavage , the dividing cells, or morula , becomes a hollow ball, or blastula , which develops a hole or pore at one end
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Domestication
DOMESTICATION is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group. Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors. He was also the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, and unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits. There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations. There is also such a difference between the domestication traits that researchers believe to have been essential at the early stages of domestication, and the improvement traits that have appeared since the split between wild and domestic populations
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Hybrid (biology)
In biology , a HYBRID, or crossbreed , is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction . Hybrids are not always intermediates between their parents (such as in blending inheritance ), but can show hybrid vigour , often growing larger or taller than either parent. The concept of a hybrid is interpreted differently in animal and plant breeding, where there is interest in the individual parentage. In genetics , attention is focused on the numbers of chromosomes . In taxonomy, a key question is how closely related the parent species are. Species
Species
are reproductively isolated by strong barriers to hybridisation, which include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, and physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo. Some act before fertilization and others after it
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Molecular Engineering
MOLECULAR ENGINEERING is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions. This approach, in which observable properties of a macroscopic system are influenced by direct alteration of a molecular structure, falls into the broader category of “bottom-up” design. Molecular engineering
Molecular engineering
deals with material development efforts in emerging technologies that require rigorous rational molecular design approaches towards systems of high complexity. Molecular engineering
Molecular engineering
is highly interdisciplinary by nature, encompassing aspects of chemical engineering , materials science , bioengineering , electrical engineering , physics , mechanical engineering , and chemistry
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Molecular Ecology
MOLECULAR ECOLOGY is a field of evolutionary biology that is concerned with applying molecular population genetics , molecular phylogenetics , and more recently genomics to traditional ecological questions (e.g., species diagnosis, conservation and assessment of biodiversity, species-area relationships, and many questions in behavioral ecology). It is virtually synonymous with the field of "Ecological Genetics" as pioneered by Theodosius Dobzhansky , E. B. Ford , Godfrey M. Hewitt and others. These fields are united in their attempt to study genetic-based questions "out in the field" as opposed to the laboratory. Molecular ecology is related to the field of Conservation genetics
Conservation genetics
. Methods frequently include using microsatellites to determine gene flow and hybridization between populations
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Laboratory
A LABORATORY (CommE /ləˈbɒrətri/ or /ləˈbɒrətəri/ , AmE /ˈlæbərətɔːri/ ; informally, LAB) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments , and measurement may be performed. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Techniques * 4 Equipment and supplies * 5 Specialized types * 6 Safety
Safety
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links OVERVIEWLaboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber , while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength . A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory , while a psychologist\'s laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior
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Living Organisms
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life . It is a synonym for "life form ". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals , plants , and fungi ; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists , bacteria , and archaea . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Tissue Culture
TISSUE CULTURE is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism. This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth medium , such as broth or agar. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, with the more specific term plant tissue culture being used for plants. The term "tissue culture" was coined by American pathologist Montrose Thomas Burrows . CONTENTS * 1 Historical use * 2 Modern usage * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORICAL USEIn 1885 Wilhelm Roux
Wilhelm Roux
removed a section of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days, establishing the basic principle of tissue culture. In 1907 the zoologist Ross Granville Harrison demonstrated the growth of frog embryonic cells that would give rise to nerve cells in a medium of clotted lymph . In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C
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Brewing
BREWING is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley ) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast . It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer , or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim . Brewing
Brewing
has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, and archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies. The basic ingredients of beer are water and a fermentable starch source such as malted barley . Most beer is fermented with a brewer\'s yeast and flavoured with hops . Less widely used starch sources include millet , sorghum and cassava
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Medicine
MEDICINE (British English /ˈmɛdsᵻn/ ( listen ); American English /ˈmɛdᵻsᵻn/ ( listen )) is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . The word "medicine" is derived from Latin
Latin
medicus, meaning "a physician". Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others
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Genetics
GENETICS is the study of genes , genetic variation , and heredity in living organisms . It is generally considered a field of biology , but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems . The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian
Augustinian
friar . Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene . Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes