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Biofilm
Note 1: A biofilm is a system that can be adapted internally to environmental conditions by its inhabitants. Note 2: The self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances , which is also referred to as slime, is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular biopolymers in various structural forms. A BIOFILM is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA
DNA
, proteins , and polysaccharides . Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as "cities for microbes." Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque , where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease
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Biographical Film
A BIOGRAPHICAL FILM, or BIOPIC (/ˈbaɪoʊpɪk/ ; abbreviation for _biographical motion picture_), is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically -based person or people. Such films show the life of a historical person and the central character's real name is used. They differ from films "based on a true story " or "historical drama films " in that they attempt to comprehensively tell a single person's life story or at least the most historically important years of their lives. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public (or at least historically documented), biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses. Ben Kingsley , Johnny Depp , Jim Carrey , and Jamie Foxx all gained new-found respect as dramatic actors after starring in biopics: Ben Kingsley as Mahatma Gandhi in _Gandhi _ (1982), Depp as Ed Wood in _ Ed Wood _ (1994), Carrey as Andy Kaufman in _Man on the Moon _ (1999), and Foxx as Ray Charles in _Ray _ (2004)
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Staphylococcus Aureus
_STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS_ is a gram-positive , round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes , and is frequently found in the nose , respiratory tract , and on the skin . It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although _S. aureus_ is not always pathogenic , it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses , respiratory infections such as sinusitis , and food poisoning . Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins , and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies . The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of _S. aureus_ such as methicillin-resistant _S. aureus_ (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine . Despite much research and development there is no approved vaccine for _S. aureus_. _Staphylococcus_ was first identified in 1880 in Aberdeen , Scotland , by surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint. This name was later amended to _ Staphylococcus aureus_ by Friedrich Julius Rosenbach , who was credited by the official system of nomenclature at the time. An estimated 20% to 30% of the human population are long-term carriers of _S
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Catheter
In medicine , a CATHETER is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions. Catheters are medical devices that can be inserted in the body to treat diseases or perform a surgical procedure. By modifying the material or adjusting the way catheters are manufactured, it is possible to tailor catheters for cardiovascular, urological, gastrointestinal, neurovascular, and ophthalmic applications. Catheters can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. Functionally, they allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases, access by surgical instruments, and also perform a wide variety of other tasks depending on the type of catheter. The process of inserting a catheter is CATHETERIZATION. In most uses, a catheter is a thin, flexible tube ("soft" catheter) though catheters are available in varying levels of stiffness depending on the application. A catheter left inside the body, either temporarily or permanently, may be referred to as an INDWELLING CATHETER (for example, a peripherally inserted central catheter ). A permanently inserted catheter may be referred to as a PERMCATH (originally a trademark)
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IUPAC
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU). IUPAC is registered in Zürich , Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park , North Carolina , United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director, currently Lynn Soby. IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry . Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies , national academies of sciences , or other bodies representing chemists. There are fifty-four National Adhering Organizations and three Associate National Adhering Organizations. IUPAC's Inter-divisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols (IUPAC nomenclature ) is the recognized world authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and compounds . Since its creation, IUPAC has been run by many different committees with different responsibilities. These committees run different projects which include standardizing nomenclature , finding ways to bring chemistry to the world, and publishing works
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Extracellular Polymeric Substance
EXTRACELLULAR POLYMERIC SUBSTANCES (EPSS) are natural polymers of high molecular weight secreted by microorganisms into their environment. EPSs establish the functional and structural integrity of biofilms , and are considered the fundamental component that determines the physiochemical properties of a biofilm. EPSs are mostly composed of polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides ) and proteins, but include other macro-molecules such as DNA
DNA
, lipids and humic substances. EPSs are the construction material of bacterial settlements and either remain attached to the cell's outer surface, or are secreted into its growth medium. These compounds are important in biofilm formation and cells attachment to surfaces. EPSs constitute 50% to 90% of a biofilm's total organic matter. EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES (also sometimes abbreviated EPSS) are high-molecular-weight polymers that are composed of sugar residues and are secreted by a microorganism into the surrounding environment. Microorganisms synthesize a wide spectrum of multifunctional polysaccharides including intracellular polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides generally consist of monosaccharides and some non-carbohydrate substituents (such as acetate , pyruvate , succinate , and phosphate )
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Microorganism
A MICROORGANISM or MICROBE is a microscopic organism , which may be single-celled or multicellular . The study of microorganisms is called microbiology , a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek . Robert Hooke coined the term "cell" after viewing plant cells under his microscope. Later, in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation . In 1876 Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms cause diseases. Microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria , archaea and most protozoa . This group also contains some fungi , algae , and some micro-animals such as rotifers . Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages . Some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving. In July 2016, scientists identified a set of 355 genes from the last universal common ancestor of all life , including microorganisms, living on Earth
Earth
. Microorganisms live in every part of the biosphere , including soil , hot springs , inside rocks at least 19 km (12 mi) deep underground, the deepest parts of the ocean , and at least 64 km (40 mi) high in the atmosphere . Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have been observed to thrive in the vacuum of outer space
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Cell (biology)
The CELL (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room" ) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms . A cell is the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, and cells are often called the "building blocks of life". The study of cells is called cell biology . Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane , which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids . Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria ) or multicellular (including plants and animals ). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion (1012) cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope , with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres . The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named the biological units for their resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery
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Extracellular Matrix
In biology , the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells. Because multicellularity evolved independently in different multicellular lineages, the composition of ECM varies between multicellular structures; however, cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the ECM. The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane . Interstitial matrix is present between various animal cells (i.e., in the intercellular spaces). Gels of polysaccharides and fibrous proteins fill the interstitial space and act as a compression buffer against the stress placed on the ECM. Basement membranes are sheet-like depositions of ECM on which various epithelial cells rest. Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue ; reticular fibers and ground substance comprise the ECM of loose connective tissue ; and blood plasma is the ECM of blood . The plant ECM includes cell wall components, like cellulose, in addition to more complex signaling molecules. Some single-celled organisms adopt multicelluar biofilms in which the cells are embedded in an ECM composed primarily of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)
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Polymer
Substance composed of macromolecules . _Note_: Applicable to substance macromolecular in nature like cross-linked systems that can be considered as one macromolecule. A POLYMER (/ˈpɒlᵻmər/ ; Greek _poly-_, "many" + _-mer_, "parts") is a large molecule , or macromolecule , composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers . Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness , viscoelasticity , and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals . The term "polymer" derives from the ancient Greek word πολύς (_polus_, meaning "many, much") and μέρος (_meros_, meaning "parts"), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass
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DNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen ); DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses . DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids ; alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life . Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix . The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides . Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose , and a phosphate group . The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone . The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T, and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes
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Protein
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication , responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides . The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene , which is encoded in the genetic code . In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids; however, in certain organisms the genetic code can include selenocysteine and—in certain archaea —pyrrolysine
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Polysaccharide
POLYSACCHARIDES are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides . They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen , and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin . Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water. When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans. Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula (CH2O)n where n is three or more. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose , fructose , and glyceraldehyde . Polysaccharides, meanwhile, have a general formula of Cx(H2O)y where x is usually a large number between 200 and 2500. When the repeating units in the polymer backbone are six-carbon monosaccharides, as is often the case, the general formula simplifies to (C6H10O5)n, where typically 40≤n≤3000
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Physiology
PHYSIOLOGY (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/ ; from Ancient Greek φύσις _(physis)_, meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία _(-logia)_, meaning 'study of' ) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms , and their interactions, which works within a living system . A sub-discipline of biology , its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs , cells , and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans ), plant physiology , cellular physiology , microbial physiology (microbial metabolism ), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences . In medicine, a PHYSIOLOGIC state is one occurring from normal body function, rather than pathologically , which is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans
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Plankton
PLANKTON (singular PLANKTER) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in the water column of large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current. They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales . These organisms include bacteria , archaea , algae , protozoa and drifting or floating animals that inhabit, for example, the pelagic zone of oceans , seas , or bodies of fresh water . Essentially, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than any phylogenetic or taxonomic classification. Though many planktonic species are microscopic in size, _plankton_ includes organisms covering a wide range of sizes, including large organisms such as jellyfish . Technically the term does not include those organisms on the surface of the water which are called Pleuston or those which sw