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Biofilm
Note 1: A biofilm is a system that can be adapted internally to environmental conditions by its inhabitants. Note 2: The self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance , which is also referred to as slime, is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular _biopolymers_ in various structural forms. A BIOFILM is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)
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Biographical Film
A BIOGRAPHICAL FILM, or BIOPIC (/ˈbaɪoʊpɪk/ ; abbreviation for _biographical motion picture_), is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically -based person or people. Such films show the life of a historical person and the central character's real name is used. They differ from films "based on a true story " or "historical drama films " in that they attempt to comprehensively tell a single person's life story or at least the most historically important years of their lives. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public (or at least historically documented), biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses
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Staphylococcus Aureus
_STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS_ is a gram-positive , round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes , and is frequently found in the nose , respiratory tract , and on the skin . It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although _S. aureus_ is not always pathogenic , it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses , respiratory infections such as sinusitis , and food poisoning . Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins , and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies . The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of _S. aureus_ such as methicillin-resistant _S. aureus_ (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine . Despite much research and development there is no approved vaccine for _S. aureus_
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Catheter
In medicine , a CATHETER is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions. Catheters are medical devices that can be inserted in the body to treat diseases or perform a surgical procedure. By modifying the material or adjusting the way catheters are manufactured, it is possible to tailor catheters for cardiovascular, urological, gastrointestinal, neurovascular, and ophthalmic applications. Catheters can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. Functionally, they allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases, access by surgical instruments, and also perform a wide variety of other tasks depending on the type of catheter. The process of inserting a catheter is CATHETERIZATION. In most uses, a catheter is a thin, flexible tube ("soft" catheter) though catheters are available in varying levels of stiffness depending on the application
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IUPAC
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU). IUPAC is registered in Zürich , Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park , North Carolina , United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director, currently Lynn Soby. IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry . Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies , national academies of sciences , or other bodies representing chemists
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Extracellular Polymeric Substance
EXTRACELLULAR POLYMERIC SUBSTANCES (EPSS) are natural polymers of high molecular weight secreted by microorganisms into their environment. EPSs establish the functional and structural integrity of biofilms , and are considered the fundamental component that determines the physiochemical properties of a biofilm. EPSs are mostly composed of polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides ) and proteins, but include other macro-molecules such as DNA
DNA
, lipids and humic substances. EPSs are the construction material of bacterial settlements and either remain attached to the cell's outer surface, or are secreted into its growth medium. These compounds are important in biofilm formation and cells attachment to surfaces. EPSs constitute 50% to 90% of a biofilm's total organic matter
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Microorganism
A MICROORGANISM or MICROBE is a microscopic organism , which may be single-celled or multicellular . The study of microorganisms is called microbiology , a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek . Robert Hooke coined the term "cell" after viewing plant cells under his microscope. Later, in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation . In 1876 Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms cause diseases. Microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria , archaea and most protozoa . This group also contains some fungi , algae , and some micro-animals such as rotifers . Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages . Some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving
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Cell (biology)
The CELL (from Latin
Latin
_cella_, meaning "small room" ) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms . A cell is the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, and cells are often called the "building blocks of life". The study of cells is called cell biology . Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane , which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids . Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria ) or multicellular (including plants and animals ). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion (1012) cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope , with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres
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Polymer
Substance composed of macromolecules . _Note_: Applicable to substance macromolecular in nature like cross-linked systems that can be considered as one macromolecule. A POLYMER (/ˈpɒlᵻmər/ ; Greek _poly-_, "many" + _-mer_, "parts") is a large molecule , or macromolecule , composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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DNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen ); DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses . DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids ; alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life . Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix . The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides . Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose , and a phosphate group
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Protein
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication , responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
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Polysaccharide
POLYSACCHARIDES are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides . They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen , and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin . Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water. When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a _homopolysaccharide_ or _homoglycan_, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called _heteropolysaccharides_ or _heteroglycans_
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Physiology
PHYSIOLOGY (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/ ; from Ancient Greek φύσις _(physis)_, meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία _(-logia)_, meaning 'study of' ) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms , and their interactions, which works within a living system . A sub-discipline of biology , its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs , cells , and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans ), plant physiology , cellular physiology , microbial physiology (microbial metabolism ), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells
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Plankton
PLANKTON (singular PLANKTER) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in the water column of large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current. They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales . These organisms include bacteria , archaea , algae , protozoa and drifting or floating animals that inhabit, for example, the pelagic zone of oceans , seas , or bodies of fresh water . Essentially, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than any phylogenetic or taxonomic classification. Though many planktonic species are microscopic in size, _plankton_ includes organisms covering a wide range of sizes, including large organisms such as jellyfish . Technically the term does not include those organisms on the surface of the water which are called Pleuston or those which swim actively in the water which are termed Nekton
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Teeth
A TOOTH (plural TEETH) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths ) of many vertebrates and used to break down food . Some animals, particularly carnivores , also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are covered by gums . Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness. The cellular tissues that ultimately become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm . The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position. The teeth of mammals have deep roots, and this pattern is also found in some fish, and in crocodilians . In most teleost fish, however, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side
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Dental Plaque
DENTAL PLAQUE is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth . It is a sticky colorless deposit at first, but when it forms tartar , it is often brown or pale yellow. It is commonly found between the teeth, on the front of teeth, behind teeth, on chewing surfaces, along the gumline , or below the gumline cervical margins . Dental plaque
Dental plaque
is also known as microbial plaque, oral biofilm, dental biofilm, dental plaque biofilm or bacterial plaque biofilm. Progression and build-up of dental plaque can give rise to tooth decay – the localised destruction of the tissues of the tooth by acid produced from the bacterial degradation of fermentable sugar – and periodontal problems such as gingivitis and periodontitis ; hence it is important to disrupt the mass of bacteria and remove it
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