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Biofilm
Note 1: A biofilm is a system that can be adapted internally to environmental conditions by its inhabitants. Note 2: The self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, which is also referred to as slime, is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular biopolymers in various structural forms.[1].A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.[2][3] These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).[2][3] The cells within the biofilm produce the EPS components, which are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular polysaccharides, proteins and DNA.[2][3] Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, they have been metaphorically described as "cities for microbes".[4][5] Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent
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Biographical Film
A biographical film, or biopic (/ˈbaɪoʊpɪk/;[1] abbreviation for biographical motion picture), is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people
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Phenotype
A phenotype (from Greek phainein, meaning 'to show', and typos, meaning 'type') is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genetic code, its genotype, as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic
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Nutrient
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves
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Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Algae
Algae
Algae
(/ˈældʒi, ˈælɡi/; singular alga /ˈælɡə/) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae genera, such as Chlorella
Chlorella
and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, which are found in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra
Spirogyra
and the stoneworts. No definition of algae is generally accepted
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Protozoa
Protozoa
Protozoa
(also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotic organisms, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.[1][2] Historically, the protozoa were regarded as "one-celled animals," because they often possess animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation, and lack a cell wall, as found in plants and many algae.[3][4] Although the traditional practice of grouping of protozoa with animals is no longer considered valid, the term continues to be used in a loose way to identify single-celled organisms that can move independently and feed by heterotrophy. In some systems of biological classification, Protozoa
Protozoa
is a high-level taxonomic group
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Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case
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Aqueous
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
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Nitric Oxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide Dinitrogen trioxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrous oxide Nitroxyl (reduced form) Hydroxylamine (hydrogenated form)Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).N verify (what is YN ?)Infobox referencesNitric oxide (nitrogen oxide[3] or nitrogen monoxide), a chemical compound, is a colorless gas under standard conditions, and is one of several oxides of nitrogen. Nitric oxide is a free radical, i.e., its bonding structure includes an unpaired electron,[4] denoted by a dot in its chemical formula, ·NO
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Deoxyribonuclease
A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone, thus degrading DNA. Deoxyribonucleases are one type of nuclease, a generic term for enzymes capable of hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds that link nucleotides. A wide variety of deoxyribonucleases are known, which differ in their substrate specificities, chemical mechanisms, and biological functions.Contents1 Modes of action 2 Uses 3 Types 4 Assay 5 Notes and referencesModes of action[edit] Some DNases cut, or "cleave", only residues at the ends of DNA molecules (exodeoxyribonucleases, a type of exonuclease)
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Developmental Biology
Developmental biology
Developmental biology
is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop
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Photomicrograph
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography
Micrography
is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure
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Antibiotic Resistance
Antimicrobial
Antimicrobial
resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication previously used to treat them.[2][3][4] The term includes the more specific antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR), which applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics.[3] Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses, both of which may be more expensive or more toxic
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Cell Adhesion
Cell adhesion
Cell adhesion
is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface. This process can occur either through direct contact between cell surfaces or indirect interaction, where cells attach to surrounding extracellular matrix, a gel-like structure containing molecules released by cells into spaces between them.[1] Cells adhesion occurs from the interactions between cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs),[2] transmembrane proteins located on the cell surface
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Van Der Waals Force
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules. Unlike ionic or covalent bonds, these attractions are not a result of any chemical electronic bond, and they are comparatively weak and more susceptible to being perturbed. Van der Waals forces quickly vanish at longer distances between interacting molecules. Van der Waals forces play a fundamental role in fields as diverse as supramolecular chemistry, structural biology, polymer science, nanotechnology, surface science, and condensed matter physics. Van der Waals forces also define many properties of organic compounds and molecular solids, including their solubility in polar and non-polar media. If no other forces are present, the point at which the force becomes repulsive rather than attractive as two atoms near one another is called the van der Waals contact distance
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